Pendleton, Greater Manchester
The parish church of St Thomas, Pendleton
Pendleton shown within Greater Manchester
|OS grid reference|
|Metropolitan county||Greater Manchester|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||North West England|
|UK Parliament||Salford and Eccles|
Pendleton is a densely populated area of Salford which has several high-rise blocks of flats (tower blocks) – typically between seventeen and twenty seven floors high – some of the tallest buildings in Salford and Greater Manchester. The area also has two colleges; Pendleton College and a Salford College campus, Salford's largest shopping precinct, Salford Shopping City and Pendleton Police Station.
The township has been variously recorded as Penelton in 1199, Pennelton in 1212, Penilton in 1236, Penhulton in 1331, Penulton in 1356 and Pendleton from about 1600.
Until 1780 the village was rural, a group of cottages around a village green with a maypole. The Industrial Revolution brought about rapid expansion in the population and large cotton-mills and premises for dyeing, printing, and bleaching were built providing employment. Pendleton Colliery was developed from the early 19th century.
Pendleton emerged as a township and chapelry in the ecclesiastical parish of Eccles in the hundred of Salford in the historic county of Lancashire. After 1837 Pendleton was part of the Salford Poor Law Union which took responsibility for the administration of the Poor Law and provided a workhouse.
Pendleton is 2½ miles north west of Manchester city centre by the River Irwell and at the junction roads to Liverpool, Preston, Bolton and Manchester. The Manchester, Bolton & Bury Canal, the Liverpool and Manchester and Manchester and Bolton railways pass through the area.
Pendleton sits on the coal measures of the Manchester Coalfield, part of Lancashire Coalfield. In the early days of coal mining in the area the seams lying on or close to the surface were exploited, but as time went on it became necessary to dig progressively deeper; by the beginning of the 20th century Pendleton Colliery had the deepest shafts in Great Britain, at 3,474 feet (1,059 m).
The area gives its name to the geological feature known as the Pendleton Fault, one of four large faults running under the Manchester area. The faults are geologically active, and cause earthquake tremors that have been recorded for centuries, most recently in August 2007, when Manchester experienced six minor earthquakes.
Pendleton railway station closed in 1998, having been severely damaged in an arson attack. Salford Crescent railway station now links the district and the adjacent University of Salford, with central Manchester (Piccadilly, Oxford Road and Victoria) and many towns in North West England and Scotland from as far south as Buxton to as far north as Windermere and Glasgow.
The parish church, dedicated to St Thomas, is a Commissioners' Church and replaced the original chapel. It was built in 1829–31 to the design of Francis Goodwin and Richard Lane in a Perpendicular gothic revival style with a west tower and three galleries.
The 19th century industrialist and Liberal politician Sir Elkanah Armitage lived at Hope Hall in Pendleton from 1853 until his death in 1876. Pat Kirkwood, who became one of Britain's most prominent stars of musical theatre, was born in Pendleton, whilst the actor Albert Finney was born in the Charlestown area and baptised at St George's Church, Charlestown. James Agate the theatre critic was born here, as was Tommy White, the Everton and England footballer. The actor Christopher Eccleston, best known for his role in the TV series Doctor Who, was brought up in Langworthy. The cartographer, printer and publisher George Bradshaw was also born in Pendleton in 1801.
- Farrer, William; Brownbill, J, eds. (1907), "Pendleton", A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (British History Online): 392–396, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Lewis, Samuel (1848), "Pendleton", A Topographical Dictionary of England (British History Online): 545–549, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Salford Council backs £430m Pendleton regeneration", BBC News, 16 August 2012
- Greater Manchester Gazetteer, Greater Manchester County Record Office, archived from the original on 18 July 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Mullineux 1973, pp. 47–48
- Malvern, Jack (31 August 2007), "The Earth Moves for Manchester", The Times, retrieved 27 February 2010
- Regulator allows closure of Pendleton station, Office of Rail Regulation, 15 December 1998, retrieved 27 March 2008
- Pevsner, N. (1969) Lancashire, vol. 1. Penguin Books
- BBC NEWS Entertainment Obituary: Pat Kirkwood, BBC News Online, retrieved 2014-02-28
- Brown, Ivor; Brodie, Marc (rev.) (2004), "Agate, James Evershed (1877–1947)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.), Oxford University Press, retrieved 27 February 2010, (subscription required ())
- Joyce, Michael (2004). Football League Players' Records 1888 to 1939. Nottingham: Tony Brown. p. 255. ISBN 1-899468-67-6.
- Kelly, Laura (21 June 2010). "Christopher Eccleston". The Big Issue. Retrieved 22 November 2010.