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Medical reasons for penectomy 
Cancer, for example, sometimes necessitates removal of part or all of the penis. The amount of penis removed depends on the severity of the cancer. Some men have only the tip of their penis removed. For others with more advanced cancer, the entire penis must be removed.
Followup support 
Because of the rarity of cancers which require the partial or total removal of the penis, support from people who have had the penis removed can be difficult to find locally. Website support networks are available. For instance, the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivors Network website provides information for finding support networks.
Sexual support 
Sexual support therapists and specialists are available nationally and can be accessed through the specialist cancer services. Many surgeons or hospitals will also provide this information post operatively. Local government health services departments may be able to provide advice, names, and contact numbers.
Personal reasons 
Genital surgical procedures for trans women undergoing sex reassignment surgery do not usually involve the complete removal of the penis. Instead, part or all of the glans is usually kept and reshaped as a clitoris, while the skin of the penile shaft may also be inverted to form the vagina (some more recently-developed procedures, such as that used by Dr. Suporn Watanyusakul use the scrotum to form the vaginal walls, and the skin of the penile shaft to form the labia majora). When procedures such as this are not possible, other procedures such as colovaginoplasty are used which may involve the removal of the penis.
Issues related to the removal of the penis appear in psychology, for example in the condition known as castration anxiety, which happens as a result of a man having anxiety as to whether he may at some point become castrated.
Some men have undergone penectomies as a voluntary body modification, but professional opinion is divided as to whether or not the desire for penile amputation is a pathology, thus including it as part of a body dysmorphic disorder. Usually fantasy, as in castration, but at other times gender confusion or hatred, or even psychosis can result in penectomy. A eunuch adds:
"Removal of the penis is desired by some gay males, usually those already made eunuchs. Some eunuchs later desire penis removal only after having been eunuchs for several years. Removal of the penis is involved and requires significantly greater skill than removal of the testes. Use of elastrator bands is recommended to prevent loss of blood. Advanced techniques of nullification include severing the suspensory ligaments to drop the penis before amputating it, to produce a urinary outlet lower down for convenience. A new urinary opening may be made between the root of the penis and the anus, but this involves advanced incision and suturing skills. Such an opening reduces the need to remove more of the penis itself to lower the urinary opening for convenience. Preservation of the penis in formalin results in a leathery gray rod and retention of the thickness and volume of the original organ is usually not satisfactory as a display keepsake. Few accounts exist on the eating of the amputated penis and no reliable data exists as to its texture or taste." 
See also 
- Korets, Ruslan; Koppie, Theresa M.; Snyder, Mark E.; Russo (2007). "Partial Penectomy for Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Experience". Annals of Surgical Oncology 14 (12): 3614–3619. doi:10.1245/s10434-007-9563-9. ISSN 1068-9265. PMID 17896151.
- Kennard, Jerry (2006-07-22). "Penectomy: Partial and Total Removal of the Penis". About.com. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
- "Cancer Survivors Network". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
- Penectomy. "BMEzine Encyclopedia". http://wiki.bmezine.com/index.php/Penectomy