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Pengerang is a small custom cum immigration post in southeast Johor, Malaysia, to the south of Desaru and adjacent to Singapore.[1] It has a road leading to Sungai Rengit - the larger town where food and lodging can be found. Pengerang is full of natural resources, sea life and unique landform, so it is a very well known place for many Singapore tourist as a destination for seafood and cycling. There are many religious landmarks such as temples.[2] Pengerang coastal batteries (a fort where weapons such as guns and cannons are stored), located nearby Tanjong Pengelih, are a heritage trail of World War II. The battery was constructed at the mouth of Sungai Santi, overlooking the sea towards Singapore and was abandoned after the war.[3]

The Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC) was announced in 2011 to be sited in Pengerang will house oil refineries, naphtha crackers, petrochemical plants as well as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and a regasification plant.[4] The PIPC project involves more than 10 traditional villages that have been in existence for more than 100 years. A total of 28,050 villagers will be affected by the project.[5] Pengerang residents have turned up to protest the massive project that will cause thousands of villagers losing their jobs, homes and livelihoods.[6] The project claims its spin-off activities will create thousands of jobs during the peak of its implementation. Most of the residents in Pengerang are farmers and fishermen. Therefore, the argument of job creation is rebutted as well because the nature of work in the refinery industry is very specialised and niche.[7] The state government will be closing six Chinese cemeteries in Pengerang and relocating about thousands of graves to make way for the PIPC project.[8][9] The descendants are up in arms over the impending relocation of the cemeteries to protect the heritage.[10] National oil company, Petronas, will also invest about RM60 billion in the Refinery and Petrochemical Integrated Development (RAPID) project, which is the second mega-project within PIPC.[11] The project is also likely to displace mosque, temples, schools and Muslim graveyards.[12] The RAPID project site preparation is in progress and is expected to be commissioned by 2016.


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Coordinates: 1°22′N 104°07′E / 1.367°N 104.117°E / 1.367; 104.117