Penistone

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This article is about the town. For the breed of sheep, see Whitefaced Woodland.
Not to be confused with Peniston.

Coordinates: 53°31′30″N 1°37′44″W / 53.525°N 1.629°W / 53.525; -1.629

Penistone
Penistone - Market Street - geograph.org.uk - 513144.jpg
Market Street, Penistone
Penistone is located in South Yorkshire
Penistone
Penistone
 Penistone shown within South Yorkshire
Population 10,101 (2001)
OS grid reference SE245033
    - London 155 mi (249 km)  SSE
Civil parish Penistone
Metropolitan borough Barnsley
Metropolitan county South Yorkshire
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town SHEFFIELD
Postcode district S36
Dialling code 01226
Police South Yorkshire
Fire South Yorkshire
Ambulance Yorkshire
EU Parliament Yorkshire and the Humber
UK Parliament Penistone and Stocksbridge
List of places
UK
England
Yorkshire

Penistone (/ˈpɛnɨstən/ PEN-is-tən) is a market town and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, in South Yorkshire, England. It had a population of 10,101 at the 2001 census.[1] Historically within the West Riding of Yorkshire, it lies 8 miles (13 km) west of the town of Barnsley and 17 miles (27 km) north-east of Glossop, in the foothills of the Pennines. The highest point in the surrounding area is at Hartcliffe Tower at 1,194 ft (364 m) above sea level, which has views over the Woodhead bypass and the Dark Peak. The surrounding countryside is predominantly rural with farming on rich well-watered soil on mainly gentle slopes rising to the bleak moorland to the west of the town centre. Dry stone walls, small hamlets and farms surrounded by fields and livestock are synonymous with the area. The area is known for its rugged breed of sheep, the Whitefaced Woodland.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Penistone derives from penn the Primitive Welsh which means head, end, top, height or hill, and the Old English ing, a place-name forming suffix and tun, an enclosure, farmstead, village or estate. It most likely means a farm or village at or called Penning.[2] It has frequently been noted on lists of unusual place names.[3][4]

Medieval history[edit]

In 1066 the township was owned by Ailric. After the Norman Conquest it was razed to the ground in 1069 in the Harrying of the North; the Domesday Book described the settlement in 1086 as "waste".

Sir Gyles Penyston (fl. 13th century), whose family seat was in Cornwall (perhaps at Truro) before his time, and who is an ancestor of the Penyston Baronets, was styled of Penyston, denoting that he resided in Penistone.[5]

Sheep[edit]

Sheep sales have been held in the town since before 1699, when the market received a royal charter, and the area produced the now rare Penistone sheep.[6]

Buildings[edit]

The town remained small until the coming of the railway in 1845, although several pre-19th century buildings survive. The oldest still standing is 'Penistone Church'. This is the Grade I listed mediaeval parish church, St. John the Baptist Church. The White Hart pub in the town dates from 1377. Penistone had a market for a long time before its royal charter was granted in 1699, although its historic livestock market was closed recently to make way for town centre re-development. A new landmark building has been built in Penistone for the Market Place. This is an oaken 'Cruck Barn' and was built by Carpenter Oak of Totnes, Devon.

Railway[edit]

A map of Penistone from 1954 that shows the railway

The Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway via Penistone, Dunford Bridge and the three-mile Woodhead Tunnel opened on 15 July 1845. Construction conditions were difficult and 32 men died during the tunnel's construction and 28 died of cholera. In 1849, Penistone's 29-arch viaduct was built by Messrs Ingham and Bower. Stone was obtained from Walk Mill Bank, Oxspring, and conveyed by a tramway on the side of the River Don. The Penistone to Huddersfield Railway Line opened on 1 July 1850. The second and third arches of Penistone Viaduct collapsed on 2 February 1916 when heavy rain weakened the foundations. The driver and fireman of a stationary goods locomotive were able to jump clear and survive the collapse. Cracks in the parapet had been observed some days earlier. The viaduct was repaired and in service in August of the same year.

Penistone became a railway junction with a depot for engineering trains. Penistone station had frequent trains to Manchester, Sheffield and Huddersfield but after the Beeching cuts, passenger trains on the Woodhead Line to Manchester finished. Goods trains continued until the line closed and much of the railway infrastructure was removed. The town's station is served by Huddersfield-Sheffield trains on the "Penistone Line".

The town was served by the Woodhead Line between Manchester (Piccadilly) and Sheffield (Victoria) via the Woodhead Tunnel. Penistone railway station was served by express passenger trains. Following major investment (started in 1935 but delayed by the Second World War), the electrification of the railway was completed in 1954 and the line's power control centre was built adjacent to Penistone railway station. The building stands and has been converted to commercial use. The Woodhead Line was the first main line railway in the UK to be electrified, but its once-pioneering 1500 V dc system became non-standard. Penistone railway station lost its Woodhead Line passenger trains on 5 January 1970, but goods trains (mainly coal) continued for a further 11 years. The line was controversially closed in 1981 and the track lifted several years later. The route of the track is now used as part of the Trans-Pennine Trail.

Plans to re-open parts of the Woodhead line as the Don Valley Railway between Sheffield to Deepcar/Stocksbridge could reduce travel time to Sheffield.

Governance[edit]

Penistone was a parish in the wapentake of Staincross in the West Riding of Yorkshire and after 1837 was a member of the Wortley Poor law union.[7]

Penistone was in the Barnsley West and Penistone constituency until the 2010 general election when it became part of the newly created Penistone and Stocksbridge constituency.

Penistone Town Hall houses Barnsley Council's Barnsley Connects service. Barnsley Metropolitan Borough Council is responsible for local government issues and Penistone Town Council is responsible for local issues.

Geography[edit]

Penistone is situated on the south bank of the River Don. The parish which included Gunthwaite, Hunshelf, Ingbirchworth, Langsett, Oxspring, and Thurlestone covered 21,338 acres mostly arable land and pasture and 2,000 acres of moorland. The underlying geology is the coal measures of the South Yorkshire Coalfield from which some coal was mined in the 19th century and sandstone flags were quarried.[7]

Economy[edit]

Penistone has a thriving market, although smaller since the building of a Tesco supermarket in 2011 which reduced the market footprint. The cattle market which was the centre of the farming livestock trade has long since gone although live animal trading takes place in the Fur n Feathers market which is held weekly. At 747 ft Penistone is the highest market town in England.

The Market Cruck Barn was officially opened on 21 July 2011. Penistone Farmers' Market is a monthly farmers' market on the second Saturday of every month held in the market place.

Religion[edit]

Radio station[edit]

The cinema in Penistone, Penistone Paramount
Main article: Penistone FM

Penistone has its own radio station. Formed in 2005 Penistone FM operated a trial broadcast in September 2006 and successfully applied for a full-time licence. Penistone FM was renamed Penistone Community Radio/Penistone AM as the Community Radio Licence was initially awarded on the Medium Wave band; however, Ofcom cleared an FM frequency for the station. Penistone FM started test transmissions on 95.7 MHz FM on Saturday 9 May 2009 and officially launched on Saturday 6 June 2009, with its licence running for five years.

Sport and recreation[edit]

  • The local football team is Penistone Church F.C., who play home matches at the Memorial Ground in Church View Road.[8]
  • Penistone Cricket and Sports Club has a ground in Sheffield Road.[8]
  • Penistone Paramount Cinema
  • Penistone Footpath Runners and Athletics Club
  • Penistone Bowling Club, Back Lane.

Education[edit]

Grammar school[edit]

Penistone Grammar School was founded in 1392. Notable former pupils include mathematician Nicholas Saunderson, and Anne Campbell, who served as MP for Cambridge until May 2005. In 2011 most of the old school was demolished, a new school was built and opened in 2011. Although the official and legal name is still Penistone Grammar School, the new school is generally being referred to as Penistone Grammar Advanced Learning Centre (Penistone Grammar ALC). Other local schools include St. Johns Primary School and Spring Vale Primary School.

Events[edit]

Penistone Show is an annual agricultural show which draws in crowds from across the county. It is thought to be the biggest one-day show in Yorkshire and is held on the second Saturday in September. As well as ordinary agricultural categories for sheep, cows, goats, and chickens entries are received in horticulture, handicraft, show jumping, pigeons, dogs, photography and many more categories.

The annual 'Parade Weekend' has become established as an important time on Penistone's June calendar. The Saturday has two music events on the showground: a concert of light music in the afternoon and an evening rock concert. On the Sunday, a major parade and gala takes place. The parade goes through the middle of Penistone and the gala takes place on the showground.

The first Penistone Folk Festival occurred in June 2011 in the then new Market Barn. It was one of the first public ventures to happen in the new building. This is now set to be an annual charity event and occurs at around the same date as the earlier 'Penistone Sing', on the festival of St John.

On Yorkshire Day, 1 August 2006, Penistone played host to the now annual gathering of lord mayors, mayors and other civic heads from Yorkshire. The day was marked with a service at Penistone Parish Church, a parade around the town and a meal for invited guests at Penistone Grammar School. Other events included free films and an evening of music at the Paramount Cinema, an exhibition at St John's Community Centre and Hartcliff Tower was open to the public again. There were Morris dancers, a farmers' market, a shop window competition and an historic organ concert at St. Andrew's Church. The day was taken seriously by its organisers and some of the roads on the procession route were resurfaced for the event.

Notable people[edit]

  • Kate Rusby, folk singer born in Cawthorne.
  • Rolo Tomassi, Experimental Rock Band.
  • Rachael McShane, cellist from Bellowhead, folk band
  • John Stones, footballer for Everton. Former Barnsley academy graduate.
  • Chris Morgan, footballer, defender. Former Barnsley captain. Current 2011 Sheffield United club captain.

Fairtrade Town[edit]

On 26 February 2007 the town was officially declared a Fairtrade Town.[9]

Twin towns[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census 2001
  2. ^ "Key to English Place-Names, Penistone". kepn.nottingham.ac.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  3. ^ Lyall, Sarah (22 January 2009). "No Snickering: That Road Sign Means Something Else". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  4. ^ "13 Town Names We Can't Stop Laughing Over". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  5. ^ Barns-Graham, Peter (22 May 2009). "Pennyston1". Families Database. Stirnet(subscription required). Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  6. ^ Oklahome State University website - page about Penistone sheep accessed 21 May 2008
  7. ^ a b Lewis, Samuel (1848). "Penistone (St. John the Baptist)". A Topographical Dictionary of England (British History Online). pp. 545–549. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "CASC Registered Clubs". HM Revenue & Customs. 3 July 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  9. ^ http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/get_involved/campaigns/fairtrade_towns/towns_list.aspx
  10. ^ "UK Twin Towns". Dorset Twinning Association. Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2007. 

External links[edit]