Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Penitrem A (tremortin) is a fungal neurotoxin found on ryegrass. It is produced by certain species of Aspergillus, Claviceps, and Penicillium. It inhibits potassium channels in smooth muscles. The maxi-channels targeted have their highest density in the cerebellar Purkinje cells.
It causes a stagger in horses and cattle.
Stages of toxicity
- Walter SL (2002). "Acute penitrem A and roquefortine poisoning in a dog". Can. Vet. J. 43 (5): 372–4. PMC 339273. PMID 12001505.