Pennsylvania Station (New York City)
Pennsylvania Station, also known as New York Penn Station or Penn Station, is the main intercity train station in New York City. Serving over 600,000 commuter rail and Amtrak passengers a day at a rate of up to one thousand passengers every 90 seconds, it is the busiest passenger transportation facility in the United States and in North America.
The station is located in Midtown Manhattan close to Herald Square, the Empire State Building, Koreatown, and the Macy's department store. The station is underground beneath Madison Square Garden, between Seventh Avenue and Eighth Avenue and between 31st and 34th Streets. Penn Station has 21 tracks fed by seven tunnels (the North River Tunnels, the East River Tunnels, and the Empire Connection tunnel).
Penn Station is at the center of the Northeast Corridor, a passenger rail line which connects New York City with Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. and intermediate points. Intercity trains are operated by Amtrak which owns the station, while commuter rail services are operated by the Long Island Rail Road and New Jersey Transit. Connections are available within the complex to the New York City Subway, and bus services.
The original Pennsylvania Station was inspired by the Gare d'Orsay in Paris (the world's first electrified rail terminal) and was constructed by the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1901 to 1910. After a decline in passenger usage during the 1950s the original station was demolished in 1963 and replaced in 1969 with the current station. Future plans for Pennsylvania Station include the possibility of relocating some trains into the adjacent Farley Post Office, a building designed by the same architects as the original 1910 Pennsylvania Station structure.
- 1 History
- 2 Services
- 3 Station layout
- 4 Gallery
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Pennsylvania Station is named for the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), its builder and original tenant, and shares its name with several stations in other cities. The current facility is the substantially remodeled underground remnant of a much grander station building designed by McKim, Mead, and White and completed in 1910. The original Pennsylvania Station was considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style, but was demolished in 1963. The station was moved underground, and the Pennsylvania Plaza complex, including the fourth and current Madison Square Garden, was completed in 1968.
Planning and construction (1901–1910)
Until the early 20th century, the PRR's rail network terminated on the western side of the Hudson River (once known locally as the North River) at Exchange Place in Jersey City, New Jersey. Manhattan-bound passengers boarded ferries to cross the Hudson River for the final stretch of their journey. The rival New York Central Railroad's line ran down Manhattan from the north under Park Avenue and terminated at Grand Central Terminal at 42nd St.
The Pennsylvania Railroad considered building a rail bridge across the Hudson, but the state[which?] required such a bridge to be a joint project with other New Jersey railroads, who were not interested. The alternative was to tunnel under the river, but steam locomotives could not use such a tunnel due to the accumulation of pollution in a closed space; in any case the New York State Legislature had prohibited steam locomotives in Manhattan after July 1, 1908. The development of the electric locomotive at the turn of the 20th century made a tunnel feasible. On December 12, 1901 PRR president Alexander Cassatt announced the railroad's plan to enter New York City by tunneling under the Hudson and building a grand station on the West Side of Manhattan south of 34th Street. The land for the station was bought up and razed from Manhattan's Tenderloin district, a historical red-light district known for its proliferation of corruption and prostitution.
Beginning in June 1903 the North River Tunnels, two single-track tunnels, were bored from the west under the Hudson River and four single-track tunnels were bored from the east under the East River. This second set of tunnels linked the new station to Queens and the Long Island Rail Road, which came under PRR control (see East River Tunnels), and Sunnyside Yard in Queens, where trains would be maintained and assembled. Electrification was initially 600 volts DC–third rail, later changed to 11,000 volts AC–overhead catenary, when electrification of PRR's mainline was eventually extended to Washington, D.C. in the early 1930s.
The tunnel technology was so innovative that in 1907 the PRR shipped an actual 23-foot (7.0 m) diameter section of the new East River Tunnels to the Jamestown Exposition in Norfolk, Virginia, to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the nearby founding of the colony at Jamestown. The same tube, with an inscription indicating that it had been displayed at the Exposition, was later installed under water and remains in use today. Construction was completed on the Hudson River tunnels on October 9, 1906, and on the East River tunnels March 18, 1908. Meanwhile, ground was broken for Pennsylvania Station on May 1, 1904. By the time of its completion and the inauguration of regular through train service on Sunday, November 27, 1910, the total project cost to the Pennsylvania Railroad for the station and associated tunnels was $114 million (approximately $2.7 billion in 2011 dollars), according to an Interstate Commerce Commission report.:156–7
Original structure (1910–1963)
During half a century of operation under Pennsylvania Railroad (1910–1963) scores of intercity passenger trains arrived and departed daily to Chicago and St. Louis on “Pennsy” rails and beyond on connecting railroads to Miami and the west. Along with Long Island Rail Road trains, Penn Station saw trains of the New Haven and the Lehigh Valley Railroads. A side effect of the tunneling project was to open the city up to the suburbs, and within 10 years of opening, two-thirds of the daily passengers coming through Penn Station were commuters. The station put the Pennsylvania Railroad at comparative advantage to its competitors offering service to the west and south. The Baltimore & Ohio, Central of New Jersey, Erie, and the Lackawanna railroads began their routes at terminals in Hoboken and Jersey City and Weehawken, requiring New York City travelers to use ferries or the interstate Hudson Tubes to traverse the Hudson River.
During World War I and the early 1920s, rival Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) passenger trains to Washington, Chicago, and St. Louis also used Penn Station, initially by order of the United States Railroad Administration, until the Pennsylvania Railroad terminated the B&O's access in 1926. By 1945, at its peak, more than 100 million passengers a year traveled through Penn Station. The station saw its heaviest use during World War II, but by the late 1950s intercity, rail passenger volumes had declined dramatically with the coming of the Jet Age and the Interstate Highway System. After a renovation covered some of the grand columns with plastic and blocked off the spacious central hallway with a new ticket office, author Lewis Mumford wrote critically in The New Yorker in 1958 that “nothing further that could be done to the station could damage it.”
The Pennsylvania Railroad optioned the air rights of Penn Station in the 1950s. The option called for the demolition of the head house and train shed, to be replaced by an office complex and a new sports complex. The tracks of the station, perhaps fifty feet below street level, would remain untouched. Plans for the new Penn Plaza and Madison Square Garden were announced in 1962. In exchange for the air rights to Penn Station, the Pennsylvania Railroad would get a brand-new, air-conditioned, smaller station completely below street level at no cost, and a 25 percent stake in the new Madison Square Garden Complex.
Demolition of the original structure
The cost of maintaining the old structure had become prohibitive, so it was considered easier to demolish the old Pennsylvania Station by 1963 and replace it with Penn Plaza and Madison Square Garden. As a New York Times editorial critical of the demolition noted at the time, a "city gets what it wants, is willing to pay for, and ultimately deserves." Modern architects rushed to save the ornate building, although it was contrary to their own styles. They called the station a treasure and chanted "Don't Amputate – Renovate" at rallies. Demolition of the above-ground station house began in October 1963. As most of the rail infrastructure was below street level, including the waiting room, concourses, and boarding platforms, rail service was maintained throughout demolition with only minor disruptions. Madison Square Garden, along with two office towers were built above the extensively renovated concourses and waiting area (the tracks and boarding platforms were not modified at this time). A 1968 advertisement depicted architect Charles Luckman's model of the final plan for the Madison Square Garden Center complex.
The demolition of the head house was very controversial and caused outrage internationally. The New York Times stated that "[u]ntil the first blow fell, no one was convinced that Penn Station really would be demolished, or that New York would permit this monumental act of vandalism against one of the largest and finest landmarks of its age of Roman elegance."
The controversy over the demolition of such a well-known landmark, and its deplored replacement, is often cited as a catalyst for the architectural preservation movement in the United States. New laws were passed to restrict such demolition. Within the decade, Grand Central Terminal was protected under the city's new landmarks preservation act, a protection upheld by the courts in 1978 after a challenge by Grand Central's owner, Penn Central.
Current structure (1968–present)
The current Penn Station is situated completely underground and is located underneath Madison Square Garden, 33rd Street, and Two Penn Plaza. The station spans three levels underground with the concourses located on the upper two levels with the train platforms located on the lowest level. The two levels of concourses, while original to the 1910 station, were extensively renovated during the construction of Madison Square Garden, and expanded in subsequent decades. The tracks and platforms are also largely original, except for some work connecting the station to the West Side Rail Yard and the Amtrak Empire Corridor serving Albany and Buffalo, New York.
In the 1990s, the current Pennsylvania Station was renovated by Amtrak, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and New Jersey Transit, to improve the appearance of the waiting and concession areas, sharpen the station information systems (audio and visual) and remove much of the grime. Recalling the erstwhile grandeur of the bygone Penn Station, an old four-sided clock from the original depot was installed at the 34th Street Long Island Rail Road entrance. The walkway from that entrance's escalator also has a mural depicting elements of the old Penn Station's architecture.
After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, passenger flow through the Penn Station complex was curtailed. The taxiway under Madison Square Garden, which ran from 31st Street north to 33rd Street half way between 7th and 8th Avenues, was closed off with concrete Jersey barriers. A covered walkway from the taxiway was constructed to guide arriving passengers to a new taxi-stand on 31st Street.
Despite the improvements, Penn Station continues to be criticized as a low-ceilinged "catacomb" lacking charm, especially when compared to New York's much larger and ornate Grand Central Terminal. The New York Times, in a November 2007 editorial supporting development of an enlarged railroad terminal, said that "Amtrak's beleaguered customers...now scurry through underground rooms bereft of light or character." Times transit reporter Michael M. Grynbaum later called Penn Station "the ugly stepchild of the city’s two great rail terminals."
Main site redevelopment plans
Resurgence of train ridership in the 21st century has pushed the current Pennsylvania Station structure to capacity, leading to several proposals to renovate or rebuild the station.
In May 2013, four architecture firms – SHoP Architects, SOM, H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture, and Diller Scofidio + Renfro – submitted proposals for a new Penn Station. SHoP Architects recommended moving Madison Square Garden to the Morgan Postal Facility a few blocks southwest, as well as removing 2 Penn Plaza and redeveloping other towers, and an extension of the High Line to Penn Station. Meanwhile, SOM proposed moving Madison Square Garden to the area just south of the James Farley Post Office, and redeveloping the area above Penn Station as a mixed-use development with commercial, residential, and recreational space. H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture wanted to move the arena to a new pier west of Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, four blocks west of the current station/arena. Then, according to H3's plan, four skyscrapers at each of the four corners of the new Penn Station superblock, with a roof garden on top of the station; the Farley Post Office would become an education center. Finally, Diller Scofidio + Renfro proposed a mixed-use development on the site, with spas, theaters, a cascading park, a pool, and restaurants; Madison Square Garden would be moved two blocks west, next to the post office. DS+F also proposed high-tech features in the station, such as train arrival and departure boards on the floor, and applications that can help waiting passengers peruse their time until they board their trains. Madison Square Garden rejected the allegations that it would be relocated, and called the plans "pie-in-the-sky".
In 2013, the Regional Plan Association and Municipal Art Society formed the Alliance for a New Penn Station. Citing overcrowding and the limited capacity of the current station under Madison Square Garden, the Alliance began to advocate for limiting the extension of Madison Square Garden's operating permit to 10 years.
In June 2013, the New York City Council Committee on Land Use voted unanimously to give the Garden a ten-year permit, at the end of which period the owners will either have to relocate, or go back through the permission process. On July 24, 2013, the New York City Council voted to give the Garden a ten year operating permit by a vote of 47 to 1. "This is the first step in finding a new home for Madison Square Garden and building a new Penn Station that is as great as New York and suitable for the 21st century," said City Council speaker Christine Quinn. "This is an opportunity to reimagine and redevelop Penn Station as a world-class transportation destination."
In October 2014, the Morgan facility was selected as the ideal area to which to move Madison Square Garden, following the 2014 MAS Summit in New York City. More plans for the station were discussed.
In the early 1990s, U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan began to champion a plan to rebuild the historic Penn Station, in which he had shined shoes during the Great Depression. He proposed building it in the James Farley Post Office building, which occupies the block across Eighth Avenue from the current Penn Station and was designed by the same McKim, Mead & White architectural firm as the original station. After Moynihan's death in 2003, New York Governor George Pataki and Senator Charles Schumer proposed naming the facility "Moynihan Station" in his honor. The 1912 post office was itself built over the tracks, allowing direct access to mail trains at special sidings beneath the building.
Initial design proposals were laid out by David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in 2001. Designs saw several iterations by multiple architectural firms, and Amtrak withdrew from the plan for a period of time. Support also grew for "Plan B," an expansion of the project's scope, under which Madison Square Garden would have been relocated to the west flank of the Farley Building, allowing Vornado Realty Trust to construct an office complex on the current Garden site. By 2009, the Garden's owner Cablevision had decided not to move Madison Square Garden, but to renovate its current location instead, and Amtrak had returned as a potential tenant.
$83.4 million of federal stimulus money was secured in February 2010, and the shovel-ready elements of the plan were broken off into "Phase 1," which, together with money from other sources, was fully funded at $267 million. This includes two new entrances to the existing Penn Stations platforms through the Farley Building on Eighth Avenue. Groundbreaking of Phase 1 was on October 18, 2010 and completion is expected in 2016. Phase 2 will consist of the new train hall in the fully renovated Farley Building. It is expected to cost up to $1.5 billion, the source of which has not yet been identified.
Amtrak owns the station and uses it for the following services:
- Acela Express to Boston, Providence, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington
- Adirondack to Montréal
- Cardinal to Philadelphia, Washington, Cincinnati, and Chicago
- Carolinian to Philadelphia, Washington, Richmond, Raleigh, and Charlotte
- Crescent to Philadelphia, Washington, Greensboro, Atlanta, and New Orleans
- Empire Service to Yonkers, Croton-Harmon, Poughkeepsie, Rhinecliff, Hudson, Albany, Schenectady, Amsterdam, Utica, Rome, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, and Niagara Falls
- Ethan Allen Express to Albany and Rutland
- Keystone Service to Philadelphia, Lancaster, and Harrisburg
- Lake Shore Limited to Albany, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, and Chicago
- Maple Leaf to Albany, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, and Toronto
- Pennsylvanian to Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and Pittsburgh
- Northeast Regional to Boston, Providence, New Haven, Trenton, Philadelphia, Wilmington, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Newport News, and Lynchburg
- Palmetto, Silver Meteor and Silver Star to Philadelphia, Washington, Columbia, Savannah, Jacksonville, Tampa, and Miami
- Vermonter to New Haven, Hartford, Springfield, and St. Albans
Amtrak normally uses tracks 5–16 alongside New Jersey Transit as well as the LIRR for 13–16.
Long Island Rail Road
- Babylon Branch to Babylon with connecting service to Montauk
- Belmont Park Branch seasonal service to Belmont Park
- City Terminal Zone with connecting service at Jamaica station
- Far Rockaway Branch to Far Rockaway, Queens in New York City
- Hempstead Branch to Hempstead
- Long Beach Branch to Long Beach
- Montauk Branch to Babylon and Montauk
- Oyster Bay Branch to Oyster Bay
- Port Jefferson Branch to Huntington and Port Jefferson
- Port Washington Branch to Great Neck and Port Washington
- Ronkonkoma Branch to Ronkonkoma and Long Island MacArthur Airport with connecting service to Greenport
- West Hempstead Branch to Hempstead
All branches connect at Jamaica station except the Port Washington Branch.
Normally, the LIRR uses tracks 17–21 exclusively and shares 13–16 with Amtrak and NJT.
New Jersey Transit
- Montclair-Boonton Line to Montclair, and points west to Hackettstown
- Morris and Essex Lines to Summit and Dover and points west to Hackettstown or the Gladstone branch.
- Northeast Corridor Line to Trenton
- North Jersey Coast Line to Long Branch, with connecting service to Bay Head
- Raritan Valley Line to Raritan and High Bridge
NJT normally has the exclusive use of tracks 1–4, and shares tracks 5–16 with Amtrak and tracks 13–16 with the LIRR as well.
New York City Subway
- From Penn Station:
- A C E trains at 34th Street – Penn Station (IND Eighth Avenue Line) station
- 1 2 3 trains at 34th Street – Penn Station (IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line) station
- From Herald Square, one block east at Sixth Avenue:
Bus and coach
New York City Bus
- M4 (Fifth and Madison Avenues/Broadway/Fort Washington Avenue): Northbound only to West 193rd Street – Fort Washington Avenue, Washington Heights (or the Cloisters Museum in Fort Tryon Park).
- M7 (Lenox, Columbus, Amsterdam, Sixth and Seventh Avenues): southbound to West 14th Street – Sixth Avenue, Greenwich Village, via Seventh Avenue; or northbound to West 147th Street – Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard, Harlem, via Sixth Avenue.
- M20 (Seventh and Eighth Avenues/Varick and Hudson Streets): Northbound to Lincoln Center via Eighth Avenue; or southbound to South Ferry via Seventh Avenue.
- M34 Select Bus Service (34th Street Crosstown): Westbound to Jacob K. Javits Convention Center; or eastbound to FDR Drive.
- M34A Select Bus Service (34th Street Crosstown): Westbound to Port Authority Bus Terminal; or eastbound to Waterside Plaza, Kips Bay.
- Q32 (Fifth and Madison Avenues): Northbound only, to 81st Street and Northern Boulevard in Jackson Heights, Queens.
BoltBus is a discount bus company owned and operated through a 50/50 partnership between Greyhound and Peter Pan bus lines. They operate intercity bus service from two stops at Pennsylvania Station (New York City).
Penn Station Bus Stop #1 (West 33rd Street and 7th Avenue)
- Service to Penn Station, Baltimore, Maryland
- Service to Greenbelt Metrorail Intermodal Station, Greenbelt, Maryland
- Service to Union Station, Washington, D.C.
- Service to 10th Street and H Street NW, Washington, D.C.
Penn Station Bus Stop #2 (West 34th Street and 8th Avenue)
- Service to South Station (Gate #9), Boston, Massachusetts
- Service to Cherry Hill Mall, Cherry Hill, New Jersey
- Service to 30th Street Station, 30th Street between Market & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Vamoose Bus is a privately owned company providing transportation from their stop one block from Penn Station to the Washington DC area.
Penn Station bus stop (West 30th Street and 7th Avenue)
- Service to Bethesda Station, Bethesda, MD
- Service to Rosslyn Station, Arlington, VA
- Service to Lorton VRE Station, Lorton, VA
|Above ground||Madison Square Garden/Two Penn Plaza|
|UC||Amtrak Concourse||Amtrak tickets, transfer to 34th Street – Penn Station (IND Eighth Avenue Line) station; exit to 33rd Street, connection to Exit and Connecting concourses|
|NJT Concourse||NJT tickets, exit to 31st Street, connect to LIRR and Hilton concourses|
|LC||West End Concourse||Amtrak/LIRR tickets, transfer to 34th Street – Penn Station (IND Eighth Avenue Line) station; exit to 33rd Street, connection to Exit and Connecting concourses|
|Exit Concourse||Exit to 31st Street, connection to Hilton, West End, and Connecting concourses|
|Hilton Corridor||Exit to Seventh Avenue, connection to Exit, LIRR, Central, and NJT concourses|
|Central Concourse||Tickets, connection to Connecting and Hilton concourses|
|Connecting Concourse||Transfer to 34th Street – Penn Station (IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line) station, connection to West End, LIRR, Central, and Exit concourses, to One Penn Plaza and 34th Street at north end|
|LIRR Concourse||LIRR tickets, connect to NJT and Hilton concourses|
|Track 21||→ LIRR →|
|Island platform (Platform K)|
|Track 20||→ LIRR →|
|Track 19||→ LIRR →|
|Island platform (Platform J)|
|Track 18||→ LIRR →|
|Island platform (Platform I); Track 17 only|
|Track 17||→ LIRR →|
|Track 16||← Amtrak/LIRR →|
|Island platform (Platform H)|
|Track 15||← Amtrak/LIRR →|
|Track 14||← Amtrak/LIRR →|
|Island platform (Platform G)|
|Track 13||← Amtrak/LIRR →|
|Track 12||← Amtrak/New Jersey Transit →|
|Island platform (Platform F)|
|Track 11||← Amtrak/New Jersey Transit →|
|Track 10||← Amtrak/New Jersey Transit →|
|Island platform (Platform E)|
|Track 9||← Amtrak/New Jersey Transit →|
|Track 8||← Amtrak via Empire Connection/New Jersey Transit →|
|Island platform (Platform D)|
|Track 7||← Amtrak via Empire Connection/New Jersey Transit →|
|Track 6||← Amtrak via Empire Connection/New Jersey Transit →|
|Island platform (Platform C)|
|Track 5||← Amtrak via Empire Connection/New Jersey Transit →|
|Track 4||← New Jersey Transit|
|Island platform (Platform B)|
|Track 3||← New Jersey Transit|
|Track 2||← New Jersey Transit|
|Island platform (Platform A)|
|Track 1||← New Jersey Transit|
Tracks and surrounding infrastructure
Tracks 1-4 end at bumper blocks at the eastern end of the platform.
Due to the narrowness of platform I, trains on Track 18 will usually not open their doors on that platform. Trains on track 18 open their doors on Platform J, which is the station's widest platform.
Normally, the LIRR uses tracks 17–21 exclusively and shares 13–16 with Amtrak and NJT. NJT normally has the exclusive use of tracks 1–4, and shares tracks 5–16 with Amtrak and tracks 13–16 with the LIRR. Amtrak normally uses tracks 5–16 alongside New Jersey Transit, as well as 13–16 shared with the LIRR. Empire Connection trains along the Empire Corridor can only use tracks 5–8 due to the track layout.
The North River Tunnels cannot access tracks 20 and 21, but can access tracks 1–19. The Empire Connection can only access tracks 1–9, though the Empire Connection, which hosts through services, can operationally load and unload on tracks 5–8. The LIRR's West Side Yard can only access tracks 10–21. The East River Tunnels' lines 1 and 2 can only access tracks 5–17 and are mostly used by Amtrak and NJ Transit, while the East River Tunnels' lines 3 and 4 can only access tracks 14–21 and are mostly used by LIRR.
Due to the lack of proper ventilation in the tunnels and station, only electric locomotives and dual-mode locomotives may enter Penn Station; no diesel-only locomotives are allowed. Diesel-only NJT trains must terminate at Hoboken Terminal or Newark Penn Station, and diesel-only LIRR trains must terminate at Long Island City.
Unlike most train stations, Penn Station does not have a unified design or floor plan but rather is divided into separate Amtrak, Long Island Rail Road and New Jersey Transit concourses with each concourse maintained and styled differently by its respective operator. Amtrak and NJ Transit concourses are located on the first level below the street-level while the Long Island Rail Road concourse is two levels below street-level. The NJ Transit concourse near Seventh Avenue is the newest and opened in 2002 out of existing retail and Amtrak backoffice space. A new entrance to this concourse from West 31st Street opened in September 2009. Previously, NJ Transit shared space with the Amtrak concourse. The main LIRR concourse runs below West 33rd Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues. Significant renovations were made to this concourse over a three-year period ending in 1994, including the addition of a new entry pavilion on 34th Street. The LIRR's West End Concourse, west of Eighth Avenue, opened in 1986. The Amtrak concourse, the largest in the station and originally built for the Pennsylvania Railroad maintain the original 1960s styling and have not been renovated since the new Penn Station was built.
Tracks 1–4 are used by NJ Transit, and tracks 5–12 are used by Amtrak and NJ Transit trains. The LIRR has the exclusive use of tracks 17–21 on the north side of the station and shares tracks 13–16 with Amtrak and NJ Transit.
As of April 3, 2011 the public timetables show 212 weekday LIRR departures, 164 weekday NJ Transit departures, 51 Amtrak departures west to New Jersey and beyond (plus the triweekly Cardinal), 13 Amtrak departures north up the Hudson, and 21 Amtrak departures eastward.
Although most Amtrak passengers board via the escalators in the main Amtrak boarding area, multiple entrances exist for each platform.
Platforms and tracks
|LIRR (21–13)||■Port Washington Branch||toward Port Washington (Woodside)
toward Great Neck (rush-hour local) (Woodside)
|■Main Line||toward Long Island (Woodside)|
|Amtrak westbound (16–9)||■Cardinal||toward Chicago (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Carolinian||toward Charlotte (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Crescent||toward New Orleans (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Keystone Service||toward Harrisburg (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Pennsylvanian||toward Pittsburgh (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Palmetto||toward Savannah (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Silver Meteor and Silver Star||toward Miami (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Acela Express||toward Washington, D.C. (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Vermonter||toward Washington, D.C. (Newark Penn Station)|
|■Northeast Regional||toward Norfolk, Newport News or Lynchburg (Newark Penn Station)|
|Amtrak eastbound (16–9)||■Acela Express||toward Boston South Station (Stamford)|
|■Vermonter||toward St. Albans (Stamford)|
|■Northeast Regional||toward Boston South Station or Springfield, Massachusetts (New Rochelle)|
|Amtrak via Empire Connection (8–5)||■Adirondack||toward Montreal (Yonkers)|
|■Empire Service||toward Niagara Falls, New York (Yonkers)|
|■Ethan Allen Express||toward Rutland (Yonkers)|
|■Maple Leaf||toward Toronto (Yonkers)|
|■Lake Shore Limited||toward Chicago (Croton–Harmon)|
|NJ Transit (16–1)||■Northeast Corridor Line||toward Trenton (Secaucus Junction)|
|■North Jersey Coast Line||toward Bay Head (Secaucus Junction)|
|■Montclair-Boonton Line||toward Hackettstown (Secaucus Junction)|
|■Morristown Line||toward Hackettstown (Secaucus Junction)|
|■Gladstone Branch||toward Gladstone (Secaucus Junction)|
|■Raritan Valley Line||toward High Bridge (Secaucus Junction)|
ClubAcela is a private lounge located on the Amtrak concourse (8th Avenue side of the station). Prior to December 2000 it was known as the Metropolitan Lounge. Guests are provided with comfortable seating, complimentary non-alcoholic beverages, newspapers, television sets and a conference room. Access to ClubAcela is restricted to the following passenger types:
- Amtrak Guest Rewards members with a valid Select Plus or Select Executive member card.
- Amtrak passengers with a same-day ticket (departing) or ticket receipt (arriving) in First class or sleeping car accommodations.
- Complimentary ClubAcela Single-Day Pass holders.
- United Airlines United Club Members with a valid card or passengers with a same-day travel ticket on United GlobalFirst or United BusinessFirst.
- Private rail car owners/lessees. The PNR number must be given to a Club representative upon entry.
Enclosed Waiting Area
Amtrak also offers an enclosed waiting area for ticketed passengers with seats, outlets and WiFi.
New Jersey Transit ALP-45DP locomotive at the platform
Looking west from Ninth Avenue. Counting from the left, the fourth track leads to the Empire Connection tunnel that turns northward, 6 to 11 converge into the North River Tunnels, and 12 to 15 carry LIRR trains to West Side Yard. This is the only portion of the Penn Station track layout that is open to the sky.
- "QUARTERLY RIDERSHIP TRENDS ANALYSIS". New Jersey Transit. Archived from the original on December 27, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Amtrak Fact Sheet, FY2014, State of New York" (PDF). Amtrak. November 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Average weekday, 2010 LIRR Annual Ridership and Marketing Report
- Eleanor Randolph (March 28, 2013. New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved on April 2, 2014.
- Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. Encyclopedia of New York City, pp. 498 and 891.
- " a transit hub that handles 650,000 people a day — twice as busy as America’s most-used airport in Atlanta and busier than Newark, LaGuardia and JFK airports combined." How to squeeze 1,200 trains a day into America's busiest transit hub, nj.com, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2013/11/how_to_squeeze_1200_trains_a_day_into_americas_busiest_transit_hub.html
- Empire State Development. "About Moynihan Station." Accessed March 7, 2011.
- Betts, Mary Beth (1995). "Pennsylvania Station". In Kenneth T. Jackson. The Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven, CT & London & New York: Yale University Press & The New-York Historical Society. pp. 890–891.
- Grynbaum, Micheal M. (October 18, 2010). "The Joys and Woes of Penn Station at 100". New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Frassinelli, Mike (November 24, 2013). "How to squeeze 1,200 trains a day into America's busiest transit hub". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Laura Kusisto; Eliot Brown (March 2, 2014). "New York State Pushes for Penn Station Plan". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.).
- Donovan, Frank P. Jr. (1949). Railroads of America. Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing.
- * Keys, C. M. (July 1910). "Cassatt and His Vision: Half a Billion Dollars Spent in Ten Years to Improve a Single Railroad – The End of a Forty-Year Effort to Cross the Hudson". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XX: 13187–13204. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
- Klein, Aaron E (January 1988). History of the New York Central. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books. p. 128. ISBN 0-517-46085-8.
- The Rise and Fall of Penn Station. American Masters. Directed and written by Randall MacLowery. PBS. 18 Feb. 2014.
- Droege, John A. (1916). Passenger Terminals and Trains. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Harwood, Herbert H. Jr. (1990). Royal Blue Line. Sykesville, Md.: Greenberg Publishing. ISBN 0-89778-155-4.
- The Railway and Engineering Review article says at their highest the station tracks were nine feet below sea level.
- "Farewell to Penn Station". The New York Times. October 30, 1963. Retrieved 2010-07-13. (The editorial goes on to say that “we will probably be judged not by the monuments we build but by those we have destroyed”).
- Gray, Christopher (May 20, 2001). "'The Destruction of Penn Station'; A 1960's Protest That Tried to Save a Piece of the Past". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
- "New York - Penn Station, NY (NYP)", Great American Stations Project. 2013 Amtrak. Accessed 5 October 2013
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- Different Diagrams of Penn Station
- NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 1-4 (The Stub Platforms)
- NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 5-8 (The Empire Platforms)
- NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 9-14 (The Long Platforms)
- NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 15-16 (The Utility Platform)
- NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 17-19 (The Narrow & Wide Platforms)
- NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 20-21 (The Rapid Transit Platform)
- The History of Platform J
- The Mail Platform
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- Lautenberg, Saundra and Baumann, Lynne M. (2000). "New Jersey Transit's East End Concourse."
- Fahim, Kareem (November 6, 2006). "New Penn Station Entrance Is Planned by N.J. Transit". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
- Schaer, Sidney C. (October 23, 1994). "As LIRR Renovation Ends, Who's Laughing Now?". Newsday.
- Washington, Ruby (December 12, 1986). "New Concourse Opens at Pennsylvania Station". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
- "How to always get a seat at NYC Penn Station on Amtrak and NJ Transit".
- Amtrak ClubAcela access eligibility and rules Retrieved 11 April 22:45 GMT
- "Amtrak - Stations - New York, NY - Penn Station (NYP)".
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pennsylvania Station (New York City).|
- NJT rail station information page for Pennsylvania Station (New York City)
- DepartureVision real time train information for Pennsylvania Station (New York City)
- Diagram of New York Penn Station
- "New Penn Station" – Municipal Art Society of New York
- Photos and commentary documenting the demolition, by Norman McGrath
- Remnants of the old Penn Station
- Penn Station Eagles (TrainsAreFun.com)
- Pages related to Pennsylvania Station (The LIRR Today)
- American Society of Civil Engineers paper 1157: The New York tunnel extension of the Pennsylvania Railroad describes
- A short featuring 3D model of old New York Penn Station.
- Seventh Avenue and 32nd Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
- Eighth Avenue and 31st Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
- Eighth Avenue and 33rd Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
- Promotional booklet about the original Penn Station from 1910