Pennsylvania Station (New York City)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the inter-city and commuter rail station. For the IND Eighth Avenue Line subway station, see 34th Street – Penn Station (IND Eighth Avenue Line). For the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line subway station, see 34th Street – Penn Station (IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line). For the original Pennsylvania Station (1910–1963), see Pennsylvania Station (1910–1963).
New York Pennsylvania Station
Amtrak station
MTA Long Island Rail Road commuter rail terminal
New Jersey Transit commuter rail terminal
MTA New York City Subway station (via transfer)
MTA New York City Bus terminal
Intercity bus terminal
Penn Station NYC main entrance.jpg
Entrance on Seventh Avenue, with Madison Square Garden and Penn Plaza in the background.
Station statistics
Address 7th & 8th Avenues, between 31st & 33rd Streets
New York, NY 10001
Coordinates 40°45′02″N 73°59′38″W / 40.750638°N 73.993899°W / 40.750638; -73.993899Coordinates: 40°45′02″N 73°59′38″W / 40.750638°N 73.993899°W / 40.750638; -73.993899
Line(s) Amtrak: Long Island Rail Road: New Jersey Transit:
Connections
MTA New York City Subway:
NYCS 1 NYCS 2 NYCS 3 at 34th Street – Penn Station (Seventh Avenue)
NYCS A NYCS C NYCS E at 34th Street – Penn Station (Eighth Avenue)
Local Transit MTA New York City Bus: M4, M7, M20, M34/M34A SBS, Q32
Intercity Bus Academy Bus: X23, X24
Shuttle Bus Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach: service to airports via New York Airport Service
Shuttle Bus Eastern Shuttle
Intercity Bus Greyhound Lines: BoltBus and NeOn
Intercity Bus Megabus: M21, M22, M23, M24, M27
Intercity Bus Vamoose Bus
Platforms 11
Tracks 21
Baggage check Available for Cardinal, Carolinian, Crescent, Lake Shore Limited, Northeast Regional 66 and 67, Palmetto, Silver Meteor and Silver Star trains
Other information
Opened 1910
Rebuilt 1964
Accessible Handicapped/disabled access
Station code Amtrak: NYP
IATA: ZYP
Owned by Amtrak
Fare zone City Terminal Zone (LIRR)
Zone 1 (New Jersey Transit)
Traffic
Passengers (2012) 79,616 Average weekday[1] (NJT)
Passengers (2013) 9.556 million Annually[2] Increase 0.7% (Amtrak)
Passengers (2014) 231,140 Average weekday[3] (LIRR)
Services
Preceding station   BSicon LOGO Amtrak2.svg Amtrak   Following station
Acela Express
Vermonter
toward St. Albans
Northeast Regional
toward Chicago
Cardinal Terminus
toward Charlotte
Carolinian
toward New Orleans
Crescent
toward Harrisburg
Keystone Service
toward Pittsburgh
Pennsylvanian
toward Savannah
Palmetto
toward Miami
Silver Meteor
Silver Star
toward Montreal
Adirondack
Empire Service
toward Rutland
Ethan Allen Express
toward Toronto
Maple Leaf
toward Chicago
Lake Shore Limited
MTA NYC logo.svg LIRR
Terminus Main Line
(City Terminal Zone)
toward Long Island
Port Washington Branch
Port Washington Branch
Rush-hour local
toward Great Neck
Belmont Park Branch
toward Belmont Park
NJT logo.svg NJ Transit Rail
toward Trenton
Northeast Corridor Line Terminus
toward Bay Head
North Jersey Coast Line
toward Hackettstown
Montclair-Boonton Line
Morristown Line
toward High Bridge
Raritan Valley Line
toward Gladstone
Gladstone Branch
  Former services  
Pennsylvania Railroad
toward Chicago
Main Line Terminus
New York and Long Branch Railroad

Pennsylvania Station, also known as New York Penn Station or Penn Station, is the main inter-city train station in New York City. Serving over 600,000 commuter rail and Amtrak passengers a day[4] at a rate of up to one thousand passengers every 90 seconds,[5] it is the busiest passenger transportation facility in the United States[6][7] and in North America.[8][9]

The station is located in Midtown Manhattan close to Herald Square, the Empire State Building, Koreatown, and the Macy's department store. The station is underground beneath Madison Square Garden, between Seventh Avenue and Eighth Avenue and between 31st and 34th Streets. Penn Station has 21 tracks fed by seven tunnels (the North River Tunnels, the East River Tunnels, and the Empire Connection tunnel).[10]

Penn Station is at the center of the Northeast Corridor, a passenger rail line which connects New York City with Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. and intermediate points. Most inter-city trains are operated by Amtrak which owns the station, while commuter rail services are operated by the Long Island Rail Road and New Jersey Transit. Connections are available within the complex to the New York City Subway, and bus services.

The original Pennsylvania Station was inspired by the Gare d'Orsay in Paris (the world's first electrified rail terminal) and was constructed by the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1901 to 1910. After a decline in passenger usage during the 1950s the original station was demolished in 1963 and replaced in 1969 with the current station. Future plans for Pennsylvania Station include the possibility of relocating some trains into the adjacent Farley Post Office, a building designed by the same architects as the original 1910 Pennsylvania Station structure.[11]

History[edit]

Pennsylvania Station is named for the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), its builder and original tenant, and shares its name with several stations in other cities. The current facility is the substantially remodeled underground remnant of a much grander station building designed by McKim, Mead, and White and completed in 1910. The original Pennsylvania Station was considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style, but was demolished in 1963. The station was moved underground, and the Pennsylvania Plaza complex, including the fourth and current Madison Square Garden, was completed in 1968.

Planning and construction (1901–1910)[edit]

Penn Station, 1911.

Until the early 20th century, the PRR's rail network terminated on the western side of the Hudson River (once known locally as the North River) at Exchange Place in Jersey City, New Jersey. Manhattan-bound passengers boarded ferries to cross the Hudson River for the final stretch of their journey. The rival New York Central Railroad's line ran down Manhattan from the north under Park Avenue and terminated at Grand Central Terminal at 42nd St.

The Pennsylvania Railroad considered building a rail bridge across the Hudson, but the state[which?] required such a bridge to be a joint project with other New Jersey railroads, who were not interested.[12][13] The alternative was to tunnel under the river, but steam locomotives could not use such a tunnel due to the accumulation of pollution in a closed space; in any case the New York State Legislature had prohibited steam locomotives in Manhattan after July 1, 1908.[14] The development of the electric locomotive at the turn of the 20th century made a tunnel feasible. On December 12, 1901 PRR president Alexander Cassatt announced the railroad's plan to enter New York City by tunneling under the Hudson and building a grand station on the West Side of Manhattan south of 34th Street. The land for the station was bought up and razed from Manhattan's Tenderloin district, a historical red-light district known for its proliferation of corruption and prostitution.[15]

Penn Station main waiting room, 1911

Beginning in June 1903 the North River Tunnels, two single-track tunnels, were bored from the west under the Hudson River and four single-track tunnels were bored from the east under the East River. This second set of tunnels linked the new station to Queens and the Long Island Rail Road, which came under PRR control (see East River Tunnels), and Sunnyside Yard in Queens, where trains would be maintained and assembled. Electrification was initially 600 volts DC–third rail, later changed to 11,000 volts AC–overhead catenary, when electrification of PRR's mainline was eventually extended to Washington, D.C. in the early 1930s.[12]

The tunnel technology was so innovative that in 1907 the PRR shipped an actual 23-foot (7.0 m) diameter section of the new East River Tunnels to the Jamestown Exposition in Norfolk, Virginia, to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the nearby founding of the colony at Jamestown. The same tube, with an inscription indicating that it had been displayed at the Exposition, was later installed under water and remains in use today. Construction was completed on the Hudson River tunnels on October 9, 1906, and on the East River tunnels March 18, 1908. Meanwhile, ground was broken for Pennsylvania Station on May 1, 1904. By the time of its completion and the inauguration of regular through train service on Sunday, November 27, 1910, the total project cost to the Pennsylvania Railroad for the station and associated tunnels was $114 million (approximately $2.7 billion in 2011 dollars), according to an Interstate Commerce Commission report.[16]:156–7

Original structure (1910–1963)[edit]

Penn Station, Interior, 1935-1938

Cassatt envisioned a grand terminal that would welcome passengers to New York at the new terminus of the Pennsylvania line. He enlisted the architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White to design a massive station inspired by the grand train stations of Europe. The resulting structure was in the Beaux-Arts style and widely heralded as an architectural achievement. This station would stand for hardly more than fifty years, however; under financial pressure from declining train ridership by the 1950s, the Pennsylvania Railroad sold the air rights above the property, and demolition of the original station began in 1963.

Though assorted protests took place, there was little organized resistance to the demolition of Pennsylvania Station. The destruction was a catalyzing factor in the development of the modern historic preservation movement. The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission was created in 1965, and is credited with preventing a similar fate for Grand Central Terminal.

Current structure (1968–present day)[edit]

The Long Island Rail Road's concourse

The option of the air rights over the property in the 1950s called for the demolition of the head-house and train shed, to be replaced by an office complex and a new sports complex. The tracks of the station, perhaps fifty feet below street level, would remain untouched.[17] Plans for the new Penn Plaza and Madison Square Garden were announced in 1962. In exchange for the air-rights to Penn Station, the Pennsylvania Railroad would get a brand-new, air-conditioned, smaller station completely below street level at no cost, and a 25% stake in the new Madison Square Garden Complex.

The current Penn Station is situated completely underground and is located underneath Madison Square Garden, 33rd Street, and Two Penn Plaza. The station spans three levels underground with the concourses located on the upper two levels with the train platforms located on the lowest level. The two levels of concourses, while original to the 1910 station, were extensively renovated during the construction of Madison Square Garden, and expanded in subsequent decades. The tracks and platforms are also largely original, except for some work connecting the station to the West Side Rail Yard and the Amtrak Empire Corridor serving Albany and Buffalo, New York.[18][19]

Amtrak's concourse

In the 1990s, the current Pennsylvania Station was renovated by Amtrak, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and New Jersey Transit, to improve the appearance of the waiting and concession areas, sharpen the station information systems (audio and visual) and remove much of the grime. Recalling the erstwhile grandeur of the bygone Penn Station, an old four-sided clock from the original depot was installed at the 34th Street Long Island Rail Road entrance. The walkway from that entrance's escalator also has a mural depicting elements of the old Penn Station's architecture.

After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, passenger flow through the Penn Station complex was curtailed. The taxiway under Madison Square Garden, which ran from 31st Street north to 33rd Street half way between 7th and 8th Avenues, was closed off with concrete Jersey barriers. A covered walkway from the taxiway was constructed to guide arriving passengers to a new taxi-stand on 31st Street.

Despite the improvements, Penn Station continues to be criticized as a low-ceilinged "catacomb" lacking charm, especially when compared to New York's much larger and ornate Grand Central Terminal.[20] The New York Times, in a November 2007 editorial supporting development of an enlarged railroad terminal, said that "Amtrak's beleaguered customers...now scurry through underground rooms bereft of light or character."[21] Times transit reporter Michael M. Grynbaum later called Penn Station "the ugly stepchild of the city’s two great rail terminals."[22]

Services[edit]

Inter-city rail[edit]

Amtrak[edit]

Main article: Amtrak

Amtrak owns the station and uses it for the following services:

  • Acela Express to Boston, Providence, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington
  • Adirondack to Montréal
  • Cardinal to Philadelphia, Washington, Cincinnati, and Chicago
  • Carolinian to Philadelphia, Washington, Richmond, Raleigh, and Charlotte
  • Crescent to Philadelphia, Washington, Greensboro, Atlanta, and New Orleans
  • Empire Service to Yonkers, Croton-Harmon, Poughkeepsie, Rhinecliff, Hudson, Albany, Schenectady, Amsterdam, Utica, Rome, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, and Niagara Falls
  • Ethan Allen Express to Albany and Rutland
  • Keystone Service to Philadelphia, Lancaster, and Harrisburg
  • Lake Shore Limited to Albany, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, and Chicago
  • Maple Leaf to Albany, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, and Toronto
  • Pennsylvanian to Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and Pittsburgh
  • Northeast Regional to Boston, Providence, New Haven, Trenton, Philadelphia, Wilmington, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, and Newport News
  • Palmetto, Silver Meteor and Silver Star to Philadelphia, Washington, Columbia, Savannah, Jacksonville, Tampa, and Miami
  • Vermonter to New Haven, Hartford, Springfield, and St. Albans

Despite its status as the busiest train station for Amtrak, Pennsylvania Station does not have adequate clearance for its Superliner railcars.

Amtrak normally uses tracks 5–16 alongside New Jersey Transit as well as the LIRR for 13–16.

Commuter rail[edit]

Long Island Rail Road[edit]

Main article: Long Island Rail Road

All branches connect at Jamaica station except the Port Washington Branch.

Normally, the LIRR uses tracks 17–21 exclusively and shares 13–16 with Amtrak and NJT.

New Jersey Transit[edit]

Passengers can transfer at Secaucus Junction to Main Line, Bergen County Line, Port Jervis Line, and Pascack Valley Line trains, as well as Meadowlands Rail Line event service.

The first Dual-Powered(Diesel & Electric) train arrived on March 8, 2013 from the Montclair-Boonton Line because of electrical work happening on the line.

NJT normally has the exclusive use of tracks 1–4, and shares tracks 5–16 with Amtrak and tracks 13–16 with the LIRR as well.

Rapid transit[edit]

New York City Subway[edit]

Further information: New York City Subway

PATH[edit]

Further information: Port Authority Trans-Hudson

Bus and coach[edit]

New York City Bus[edit]

Further information: MTA Regional Bus Operations

BoltBus[edit]

BoltBus is a discount bus company owned and operated through a 50/50 partnership between Greyhound and Peter Pan bus lines. They operate intercity bus service from two stops at Pennsylvania Station (New York City).

Penn Station Bus Stop #1 (West 33rd Street and 7th Avenue)

  • Service to Penn Station, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Service to Greenbelt Metrorail Intermodal Station, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • Service to Union Station, Washington, D.C.
  • Service to 10th Street and H Street NW, Washington, D.C.

Penn Station Bus Stop #2 (West 34th Street and 8th Avenue)

  • Service to South Station (Gate #9), Boston, Massachusetts
  • Service to Cherry Hill Mall, Cherry Hill, New Jersey
  • Service to 30th Street Station, 30th Street between Market & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Vamoose Bus[edit]

Vamoose Bus is a privately owned company providing transportation from their stop one block from Penn Station to the Washington DC area.

Penn Station bus stop (West 30th Street and 7th Avenue)

United Airlines[edit]

Penn Station includes a United Airlines ticketing office, located at the ticket lobby.[23] This was previously a Continental Airlines ticketing office.[24]

Station layout[edit]


Tracks and surrounding infrastructure[edit]

Tracks 1-4 end at bumper blocks at the eastern end of the platform.

Due to the narrowness of platform I, trains on Track 18 will usually not open their doors on that platform. Trains on track 18 open their doors on Platform J, which is the station's widest platform.

Normally, the LIRR uses tracks 17–21 exclusively and shares 13–16 with Amtrak and NJT. NJT normally has the exclusive use of tracks 1–4, and shares tracks 5–16 with Amtrak and tracks 13–16 with the LIRR. Amtrak normally uses tracks 5–16 alongside New Jersey Transit, as well as 13–16 shared with the LIRR. Empire Connection trains along the Empire Corridor can only use tracks 5–8 due to the track layout.

Tracks 1–17 are powered by 12kV overhead wire. Tracks 5–21 are powered by 750V DC third rail. Tracks 5–17 are powered by both overhead wire and third rail.

The North River Tunnels cannot access tracks 20 and 21, but can access tracks 1–19. The Empire Connection can only access tracks 1–9, though the Empire Connection, which hosts through services, can operationally load and unload on tracks 5–8. The LIRR's West Side Yard can only access tracks 10–21. The East River Tunnels' lines 1 and 2 can only access tracks 5–17 and are mostly used by Amtrak and NJ Transit, while the East River Tunnels' lines 3 and 4 can only access tracks 14–21 and are mostly used by LIRR.[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]

Description[edit]

Unlike most train stations, Penn Station does not have a unified design or floor plan but rather is divided into separate Amtrak, Long Island Rail Road and New Jersey Transit concourses with each concourse maintained and styled differently by its respective operator. Amtrak and NJ Transit concourses are located on the first level below the street-level while the Long Island Rail Road concourse is two levels below street-level. The NJ Transit concourse near Seventh Avenue is the newest and opened in 2002 out of existing retail and Amtrak backoffice space.[35][36] A new entrance to this concourse from West 31st Street opened in September 2009.[37] Previously, NJ Transit shared space with the Amtrak concourse. The main LIRR concourse runs below West 33rd Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues. Significant renovations were made to this concourse over a three-year period ending in 1994, including the addition of a new entry pavilion on 34th street.[38] The LIRR's West End Concourse, west of Eighth Avenue, opened in 1986.[39] The Amtrak concourse, the largest in the station and originally built for the Pennsylvania Railroad maintain the original 1960s styling and have not been renovated since the new Penn Station was built.

Tracks 1–4 are used by NJ Transit, and tracks 5–12 are used by Amtrak and NJ Transit trains. The LIRR has the exclusive use of tracks 17–21 on the north side of the station and shares tracks 13–16 with Amtrak and NJ Transit.

As of April 3, 2011 the public timetables show 212 weekday LIRR departures, 164 weekday NJ Transit departures, 51 Amtrak departures west to New Jersey and beyond (plus the triweekly Cardinal), 13 Amtrak departures north up the Hudson, and 21 Amtrak departures eastward.

Platform Access[edit]

Although most Amtrak passengers board via the escalators in the main Amtrak boarding area, multiple entrances exist for each platform.[40]

Platforms and tracks[edit]

LIRR (21–13) Port Washington Branch toward Port Washington (Woodside)
toward Great Neck (rush-hour local) (Woodside)
Main Line toward Long Island (Woodside)
Amtrak westbound (16–9) Cardinal toward Chicago (Newark Penn Station)
Carolinian toward Charlotte (Newark Penn Station)
Crescent toward New Orleans (Newark Penn Station)
Keystone Service toward Harrisburg (Newark Penn Station)
Pennsylvanian toward Pittsburgh (Newark Penn Station)
Palmetto toward Savannah (Newark Penn Station)
Silver Meteor and Silver Star toward Miami (Newark Penn Station)
Acela Express toward Washington, D.C. (Newark Penn Station)
Vermonter toward Washington, D.C. (Newark Penn Station)
Northeast Regional toward Norfolk, Newport News or Lynchburg (Newark Penn Station)
Amtrak eastbound (16–9) Acela Express toward Boston South Station (Stamford)
Vermonter toward St. Albans (Stamford)
Northeast Regional toward Boston South Station or Springfield, Massachusetts (New Rochelle)
Amtrak via Empire Connection (8–5) Adirondack toward Montreal (Yonkers)
Empire Service toward Niagara Falls, New York (Yonkers)
Ethan Allen Express toward Rutland (Yonkers)
Maple Leaf toward Toronto (Yonkers)
Lake Shore Limited toward Chicago (Croton–Harmon)
NJ Transit (16–1) Northeast Corridor Line toward Trenton (Secaucus Junction)
North Jersey Coast Line toward Bay Head (Secaucus Junction)
Montclair-Boonton Line toward Hackettstown (Secaucus Junction)
Morristown Line toward Hackettstown (Secaucus Junction)
Gladstone Branch toward Gladstone (Secaucus Junction)
Raritan Valley Line toward High Bridge (Secaucus Junction)

ClubAcela Lounge[edit]

ClubAcela is a private lounge located on the Amtrak concourse (8th Avenue side of the station). Prior to December 2000 it was known as the Metropolitan Lounge. Guests are provided with comfortable seating, complimentary non-alcoholic beverages, newspapers, television sets and a conference room. Access to ClubAcela is restricted to the following passenger types:[41]

  • Amtrak Guest Rewards members with a valid Select Plus or Select Executive member card.
  • Amtrak passengers with a same-day ticket (departing) or ticket receipt (arriving) in First class or sleeping car accommodations.
  • Complimentary ClubAcela Single-Day Pass holders.
  • United Airlines United Club Members with a valid card or passengers with a same-day travel ticket on United GlobalFirst or United BusinessFirst.
  • Private rail car owners/lessees. The PNR number must be given to a Club representative upon entry.

Enclosed Waiting Area[edit]

Amtrak also offers an enclosed waiting area for ticketed passengers with seats, outlets and WIFI.[42]

Future[edit]

Resurgence of train ridership in the 21st century has pushed the current Pennsylvania Station structure to capacity, leading to several proposals to renovate or rebuild the station.

Moynihan Station[edit]

In the early 1990s, U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan began to champion a plan to rebuild the historic Penn Station, in which he had shined shoes during the Great Depression.[43] He proposed building it in the James Farley Post Office building, which occupies the block across Eighth Avenue from the current Penn Station and was designed by the same McKim, Mead & White architectural firm as the original station. After Moynihan's death in 2003, New York Governor George Pataki and Senator Charles Schumer proposed naming the facility "Moynihan Station" in his honor.[44][45] The 1912 post office was itself built over the tracks, allowing direct access to mail trains at special sidings beneath the building.

Proposed designs throughout the development process, from 1999 (left), 2005 (middle), and 2007 (right)

Initial design proposals were laid out by David Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in 2001.[46] Designs saw several iterations by multiple architectural firms, and Amtrak withdrew from the plan for a period of time.[47][48][49][50][51] Support also grew for "Plan B," an expansion of the project's scope, under which Madison Square Garden would have been relocated to the west flank of the Farley Building, allowing Vornado Realty Trust to construct an office complex on the current Garden site.[52] By 2009, the Garden's owner Cablevision had decided not to move Madison Square Garden, but to renovate its current location instead,[53] and Amtrak had returned as a potential tenant.[54]

$83.4 million of federal stimulus money was secured in February 2010, and the shovel-ready elements of the plan were broken off into "Phase 1," which, together with money from other sources, was fully funded at $267 million. This includes two new entrances to the existing Penn Stations platforms through the Farley Building on Eighth Avenue.[55] Groundbreaking of Phase 1 was on October 18, 2010 and completion is expected in 2016.[56][57] Phase 2 will consist of the new train hall in the fully renovated Farley Building. It is expected to cost up to $1.5 billion, the source of which has not yet been identified.[58]

Alliance for a New Penn Station[edit]

In 2013, the Regional Plan Association and Municipal Art Society formed the Alliance for a New Penn Station. Citing overcrowding and the limited capacity of the current station under Madison Square Garden, the Alliance began to advocate for limiting the extension of Madison Square Garden's operating permit to 10 years.

In June 2013, the New York City Council Committee on Land Use voted unanimously to give the Garden a ten year permit, at the end of which period the owners will either have to relocate, or go back through the permission process.[59] On July 24, 2013, the New York City Council voted to give the Garden a ten year operating permit by a vote of 47 to 1. "This is the first step in finding a new home for Madison Square Garden and building a new Penn Station that is as great as New York and suitable for the 21st century," said City Council speaker Christine Quinn. "This is an opportunity to reimagine and redevelop Penn Station as a world-class transportation destination."[60]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Diehl, Lorraine B. (1985). The Late, Great Pennsylvania Station. Lexington, MA: Stephen Greene Press. ISBN 0-8289-0603-3. 
  • Johnston, Bob (January 2010). "Penn Station: How do they do it?". Trains 70 (1): 22–29.  Includes track diagram.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "QUARTERLY RIDERSHIP TRENDS ANALYSIS". New Jersey Transit. Archived from the original on December 27, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Amtrak Fact Sheet, FY2013, State of New York" (PDF). Amtrak. November 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013. 
  3. ^ Average weekday, 2010 LIRR Annual Ridership and Marketing Report
  4. ^ Eleanor Randolph (March 28, 2013. New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved on April 2, 2014.
  5. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. Encyclopedia of New York City, pp. 498 and 891.
  6. ^ " a transit hub that handles 650,000 people a day — twice as busy as America’s most-used airport in Atlanta and busier than Newark, LaGuardia and JFK airports combined." How to squeeze 1,200 trains a day into America's busiest transit hub, nj.com, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2013/11/how_to_squeeze_1200_trains_a_day_into_americas_busiest_transit_hub.html
  7. ^ Empire State Development. "About Moynihan Station." Accessed March 7, 2011.
  8. ^ Betts, Mary Beth (1995). "Pennsylvania Station". In Kenneth T. Jackson. The Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven, CT & London & New York: Yale University Press & The New-York Historical Society. pp. 890–891. 
  9. ^ Grynbaum, Micheal M. (October 18, 2010). "The Joys and Woes of Penn Station at 100". New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  10. ^ Frassinelli, Mike (November 24, 2013). "How to squeeze 1,200 trains a day into America's busiest transit hub". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  11. ^ Laura Kusisto; Eliot Brown (March 2, 2014). "New York State Pushes for Penn Station Plan". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). 
  12. ^ a b Donovan, Frank P. Jr. (1949). Railroads of America. Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing. 
  13. ^ * Keys, C. M. (July 1910). "Cassatt and His Vision: Half a Billion Dollars Spent in Ten Years to Improve a Single Railroad – The End of a Forty-Year Effort to Cross the Hudson". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XX: 13187–13204. Retrieved July 10, 2009. 
  14. ^ Klein, Aaron E (January 1988). History of the New York Central. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books. p. 128. ISBN 0-517-46085-8. 
  15. ^ The Rise and Fall of Penn Station. American Masters. Directed and written by Randall MacLowery. PBS. 18 Feb. 2014.
  16. ^ Droege, John A. (1916). Passenger Terminals and Trains. New York: McGraw-Hill. 
  17. ^ The Railway and Engineering Review article says at their highest the station tracks were nine feet below sea level.
  18. ^ Doherty, Matthew (November 7, 2004). "Far West Side Story". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Travel Advisory; Grand Central Trains Rerouted To Penn Station". The New York Times. April 7, 1991. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  20. ^ Rasmussen, Frederick N. (April 21, 2007). "From the Gilded Age, a monument to transit". The Baltimore Sun. 
  21. ^ "A Station Worthy of New York". The New York Times. November 2, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007. 
  22. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (October 18, 2010). "The Joys and Woes of Penn Station at 100". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 
  23. ^ "U.S. and Canada Reservations Contact Information". United Airlines. Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  24. ^ "U.S. & Canada Reservations Contact Information". Continental Airlines. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i http://www.mta.info/lirr/AlternateRoute/PennStation.htm
  26. ^ Different Diagrams of Penn Station
  27. ^ NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 1-4 (The Stub Platforms)
  28. ^ NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 5-8 (The Empire Platforms)
  29. ^ NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 9-14 (The Long Platforms)
  30. ^ NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 15-16 (The Utility Platform)
  31. ^ NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 17-19 (The Narrow & Wide Platforms)
  32. ^ NY Penn, Track by Track: Tracks 20-21 (The Rapid Transit Platform)
  33. ^ The History of Platform J
  34. ^ The Mail Platform
  35. ^ "Commissioner Fox Unveils New 7th Avenue Concourse at Penn Station N.Y." (Press release). NJ Transit. September 18, 2002. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  36. ^ Lautenberg, Saundra and Baumann, Lynne M. (2000). "New Jersey Transit's East End Concourse."
  37. ^ Fahim, Kareem (November 6, 2006). "New Penn Station Entrance Is Planned by N.J. Transit". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2009. 
  38. ^ Schaer, Sidney C. (October 23, 1994). "As LIRR Renovation Ends, Who's Laughing Now?". Newsday. 
  39. ^ Washington, Ruby (December 12, 1986). "New Concourse Opens at Pennsylvania Station". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2009. 
  40. ^ "How to always get a seat at NYC Penn Station on Amtrak and NJ Transit". 
  41. ^ Amtrak ClubAcela access eligibility and rules Retrieved 11 April 22:45 GMT
  42. ^ "Amtrak - Stations - New York, NY - Penn Station (NYP)". 
  43. ^ Friends of Moynihan Station. Moynihanstation.org (July 1, 2006). Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
  44. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (July 18, 2005). "Team Chosen for Project to Develop Transit Hub". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  45. ^ The New Penn Station: When Will It Arrive?, accessed June 11, 2006
  46. ^ Moynihan Station Redevelopment 2001 Design | SOM | Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP. SOM. Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
  47. ^ Dunlap, David W. (October 26, 2006). "With Each Redesign, a Sparer Penn Station Emerges". The New York Times. 
  48. ^ Moynihan Station Redevelopment 2007 Design | SOM | Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP. SOM (March 19, 2010). Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
  49. ^ Inside the Retro-Futuristic Moynihan Station: Newest Plans Are a Throwback to the Old Post Office. Observer (July 10, 2012). Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
  50. ^ "Moynihan Station Development Corporation and NJ Transit Agree to Partner in Moynihan Station" (Press release). Empire State Development Corporation. November 21, 2005. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  51. ^ Magnet, Alec (November 22, 2005). "New Jersey Transit To Be Anchor Rail Tenant of Proposed Station". New York Sun. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  52. ^ Corley, Colleen (February 15, 2006). "Online High Expectations for Madison Square Garden's Rumored $750M Move". Commercial Property News. Retrieved January 16, 2010. [dead link]
  53. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (April 4, 2009). "Garden Unfurls Its Plan for a Major Renovation". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  54. ^ Friends of Moynihan Station. Moynihanstation.org (August 30, 2005). Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
  55. ^ Michaelson, Juliette (February 16, 2010). "Moynihan Station Awarded Federal Grant". Friends of Moynihan Station. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  56. ^ "New York Penn Station expansion to finally see light of day". Trains. October 18, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  57. ^ "Work to begin on massive Penn Station expansion". Long Island Business News. Associated Press. May 9, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  58. ^ Friends of Moynihan Station. Moynihanstation.org (August 24, 2005). Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
  59. ^ Randolph, Eleanor (June 2013). "Bit by Bit, Evicting Madison Square Garden". New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  60. ^ Bagli, Charles (July 24, 2013). "Madison Square Garden Is Told to Move". New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Official[edit]

Unofficial[edit]