Penny-farthing

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For other uses, see Penny farthing (disambiguation).
A penny-farthing photographed in the Škoda Auto Museum in the Czech Republic
Two men ride penny-farthings in Los Angeles, California, 1886.
Velocipedist in Sweden
Penny-farthings are still ridden today, if only for the novelty value.
Students of Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, ride a penny-farthing and a quadruplet bicycle during the Chalmers Cortège of 2006.
Touring the countryside, 1887. The man on the far right is coasting down the hill with his feet off the pedals, as they were fixed to the wheel.
Components of a penny-farthing
A Kangaroo with chain drive to allow for a smaller front wheel

The penny-farthing, also known as the high wheel, high wheeler or ordinary, is a type of bicycle with a large front wheel and a much smaller rear wheel. It was popular after the boneshaker until the development of the safety bicycle in the 1880s.[1] It was the first machine to be called a "bicycle".[2]

Although the name "penny-farthing" is now the most common, it was probably not used until the machines were nearly outdated; the first recorded print reference is from 1891 in Bicycling News.[3] It comes from the British penny and farthing coins, one much larger than the other, so that the side view resembles a penny leading a farthing.[4] For most of their reign, they were simply known as "bicycles". In the late 1890s, the name "ordinary" began to be used, to distinguish them from the emerging safety bicycles,[5] and this term or hi-wheel (and variants) is preferred by many modern enthusiasts.[6][7]

About 1870, English inventor James Starley, described as the father of the bicycle industry, and others began producing bicycles based on the French boneshaker but with front wheels of increasing size,[4] because larger front wheels, up to 1.5 m (60 in) in diameter, enabled higher speeds on bicycles limited to direct drive.[1][4][8][9][10] In 1878, Albert Pope began manufacturing the Columbia bicycle outside of Boston, starting their two-decade heyday in America.[4]

Although the trend was short-lived, the penny-farthing became a symbol of the late Victorian era. Its popularity also coincided with the birth of cycling as a sport.[4]

History[edit]

Origins and development[edit]

Eugène Meyer of Paris, France is now regarded as the father of the High Bicycle by the International Cycling History Conference in place of James Starley. Meyer patented a wire-spoke tension wheel with individually adjustable spokes in 1869.[4] They were called "spider" wheels in Britain when introduced there.[4] Meyer produced a classic high bicycle design until the 1880s.

James Starley in Coventry added the tangent spokes[4] and the mounting step to his famous bicycle named "Ariel." He is regarded as the father of the British cycling industry. Ball bearings, solid rubber tires and hollow-section steel frames became standard, reducing weight and making the ride much smoother.[4]

Penny-farthing bicycles are dangerous due to the risk of headers. Makers developed "moustache" handlebars, allowing the rider's knees to clear them,[11] "Whatton" handlebars, that wrapped around behind the legs,[12] and ultimately (though too late, after the Starley safety bike), with the 1889 American Eagle and Star, the position of big and small wheel was reversed.[13][14] This prevented headers, but left the danger of being thrown backwards when riding uphill. Other attempts included moving the seat rearward and driving the wheel by levers or treadles, as in the Xtraordinary or Facile,[15][16] or gears, by chain as in the Kangaroo or at the hub in the Crypto;[13] another option was to move the seat well back, as in the Rational.[13][17]

Even so, bicycling remained the province of the urban well-to-do, and mainly men, until the 1890s,[18] and was a salient example of conspicuous consumption.[19]

Attributes[edit]

The penny-farthing used a larger wheel than the velocipede, thus giving higher speed on all but steep hills. In addition, the large wheel rolled more readily over cobbles, stones, ruts, and so on. Since rough-paved and unpaved roads were more common than smooth roads, the increase in rider comfort was significant.[citation needed]

The high riding position might seem daunting, but mounting could be learned on a lower velocipede. Once mastered, a high wheeler can be mounted and dismounted easily on flat ground and some hills.[citation needed]

An important and unfortunate attribute of the penny-farthing is that the rider sits high and nearly over the front axle. When the wheel strikes rocks and ruts, or under hard braking, the rider can be pitched forward off the bicycle head-first, called "taking a header" or simply "a header". Headers were relatively common and a significant, sometimes fatal, hazard. Riders coasting down hills often took their feet off the pedals and put them over the tops of the handlebars, so they would be pitched off feet-first instead of head-first. It is hypothesised that the origin of the Unicycle occurred when a wheelman with great balance was able to recover from a mild header and continue to ride with the rear wheel off the ground. After mastering this skill he cut off the rear wheel.[citation needed]

Penny-farthing bicycles often used similar materials and construction as earlier velocipedes: cast iron frames, solid rubber tires, and plain bearings for pedals, steering, and wheels. They were often quite durable and required little service. For example, when cyclist Thomas Stevens rode around the world in the 1880s, he reported only one significant mechanical problem in over 20,000 km, caused when the local military confiscated his bicycle and damaged the front wheel.

End of an era[edit]

The well-known dangers of the penny-farthing[20] were, for the time of its prominence, outweighed by its strengths. While it was a difficult, dangerous machine, it was simpler, lighter, and faster than the safer velocipedes of the time. Additionally, the large wheel rode over bumps in the road more smoothly than smaller-wheeled vehicles. Two new developments changed this situation, and led to the rise of the safety bicycle. The first was the chain drive, originally used on tricycles, allowing a gear ratio to be chosen independent of the wheel size. The second was the pneumatic bicycle tire, allowing smaller wheels to provide a smooth ride.

The nephew of one of the men responsible for popularity of the penny-farthing was largely responsible for its demise. James Starley had built the Ariel (spirit of the air)[21] high-wheeler in 1870; but this was a time of innovation, and when chain drives were upgraded so that each link had a small roller, higher and higher speeds became possible without the large wheel. In 1885, Starley's nephew John Kemp Starley took these new developments to launch the Rover Safety Bicycle, so-called because the rider, seated much lower and farther behind the front wheel contact point, was less prone to "a header" (going over the bars).[4]

In 1888, when John Dunlop re-invented the pneumatic tire for his son's tricycle, the high wheel was made obsolete. The comfortable ride once found only on tall wheels could now be enjoyed on smaller chain-driven bicycles. By 1893, high-wheelers were no longer being produced.[1] Use lingered into the 1920s in track cycling until racing safety bicycles were perfected.

Today, enthusiasts ride restored penny-farthings, and a few manufacturers build new ones.[22]

Characteristics[edit]

The penny-farthing is a direct-drive bicycle, meaning the cranks and pedals are fixed directly to the hub. Instead of using "gears" to multiply the revolutions of the pedals, the driven wheel was enlarged to be close to the rider's inseam, to increase the maximum speed. This shifted the rider nearly on top of the wheel and made it impossible for the rider to reach the ground while sitting on the seat.[4]

Construction[edit]

The frame is a single tube following the circumference of the front wheel, then diverting to a trailing wheel. A mounting peg is above the rear wheel. The front wheel is in a rigid fork with little if any trail. A spoon brake is usually fitted on the fork crown, operated by a lever from one of the handlebars. The bars are usually mustache shaped, dropping from the level of the headset. The saddle mounts on the frame less than 50 cm (18 in) behind the headset.

One particular model, made by Pope Manufacturing Company in 1886, weighs 36 lb (16 kg), has a 60-spoke 53-inch (1.35 m) front wheel and a 20-spoke 18-inch rear wheel. It is fitted with solid rubber tires. The rims, frame, fork, and handlebars are made from hollow, steel tubing. The steel axles are mounted in adjustable ball bearings. The leather saddle is suspended by springs.[23]

Another model, made by Humber and Co., Ltd., of Beeston, Nottingham, England, weighs only 24 lb (11 kg), and has 52 and 18-inch wheels. It has no step and no brakes, in order to minimize weight.[24]

A third model, also made by Pope Manufacturing Company, weighs 49 lb and has forged steel forks. A brake lever on the right, straight handlebar operates a spoon brake against the front wheel.[25]

All three have cranks that can be adjusted for length.

Operation[edit]

Mounting requires skill. The rider must first grasp the handlebar and place one foot on a peg above the back wheel. Then the rider scoots the bicycle forward to gain momentum and quickly jumps up onto the seat while continuing to steer the bicycle and maintain balance. [26]

Although easy to ride slowly because of their high center of mass and the inverted pendulum effect,[27][28] the penny-farthing was prone to accidents. To stop, the rider presses back on the pedals while applying a spoon-shaped brake pressing the tire. The center of mass being high and not far behind the front wheel meant any sudden stop or collision with a pothole or other obstruction could send the rider over the handlebars ("taking a header" or "coming a cropper").[29] On long downhills, some riders hooked their feet over the handlebars. This made for quick descents but left no chance of stopping.[4] A new type of handlebar was introduced, called Whatton bars, that looped behind the legs so that riders could still keep their feet on the pedals and also be able to leap forward feet-first off the machine.[12]

Performance[edit]

The first recorded hour record was set in 1876 when Frank Dodds of England pedalled 15.8 miles (25.4 km) in an hour on a high wheeler around the Cambridge University Ground.[30][31] The last (paced) hour record ever achieved on a penny-farthing bicycle was 23.72 miles (38.17 km) by Frederick J. Osmond (England) in 1891.[32]

In 1884, Thomas Stevens rode a Columbia penny-farthing from San Francisco to Boston[4]—the first cyclist to cross the United States. In 1885–86, he continued from London through Europe, the Middle East, China, and Japan, to become the first to ride round the world.

Tremendous feats of balance were reported, including negotiating a narrow bridge parapet and riding down the US Capitol steps with the small wheel in front.[33]

In popular culture[edit]

An American Star Bicycle from 1885 with the small wheel in front

The bike, with the one wheel dominating, led to riders being referred to in America as "wheelmen", a name that lived on for nearly a century in the League of American Wheelmen until renamed the League of American Bicyclists in 1994.[34] Clubs of racing cyclists wore uniforms of peaked caps, tight jackets and knee-length breeches, with leather shoes, the caps and jackets displaying the club's colors. In 1967 collectors and restorers of penny-farthings (and other early bicycles) founded the Wheelmen,[35] a non-profit organization "dedicated to keeping alive the heritage of American cycling".

The high-wheeler lives on in the gear inch units used by cyclists in English-speaking countries to describe gear ratios.[36] These are calculated by multiplying the wheel diameter in inches by the number of teeth on the front chain-wheel and dividing by the teeth on the rear sprocket. The result is the equivalent diameter of a penny-farthing wheel. A 60-inch gear, the largest practicable size for a high-wheeler, is nowadays a middle gear of a utility bicycle, while top gears on many exceed 100 inches. There was at least one 64-inch Columbia made in the mid-1880s,[37] but 60 was the largest in regular production.

Events[edit]

  • Each February in Evandale, Tasmania, penny-farthing enthusiasts from around the world converge on the small village for a series of Penny-farthing races, including the national championship.
  • In 2004, British leukemia patient and charity fundraiser Lloyd Scott (43) rode a penny-farthing across the Australian outback to raise money for a charity cause.[40]
  • In November 2008, Briton Joff Summerfield completed a 22,000-mile round-the-world trip on a penny-farthing. Summerfield spent two-and-a-half years cycling through 23 countries, taking in sights such as the Taj Mahal, Angkor Wat and Mount Everest.[41]
  • Knutsford in England has hosted the Knutsford Great Race every 10 years since 1980. The 1980 race had 15 teams/entries, and there were 16 in 1990 and 2000. The 2010 race was limited to 50 teams and was in aid of the ShelterBox charity.[42][43][44]
  • Each year in the USA The Wheelmen hold a national meet that celebrates antique bicycles.[citation needed]
  • In 2012, the first Clustered Spires High Wheel Race took place in Frederick, Maryland USA. This is the country's only race of its kind - a one-hour criterium race around a 0.4 mi course through the historic downtown district. This is a recurring annual event.[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Brown, Sheldon. "Sheldon Brown Glossary High Wheeler". Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  2. ^ "Pedaling History Bicycle Museum, A Quick History of Bicycles: The High Wheel Bicycle". Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  3. ^ John Simpson & Edmund Weiner (2008). "Oxford English Dictionary" (Draft, online ed.). Oxford University Press. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle, The History. Yale University Press. pp. 155–250. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. 
  5. ^ "The Wheelmen FAQ: What do you call high wheel bicycles?". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  6. ^ "Rideable Bicycle Replicas". Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  7. ^ "HiWheel Sources aka Penny Farthing, Ordinary, Boneshaker". Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  8. ^ "The Wheelmen FAQ:"Why did they make the wheel so big?"". Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  9. ^ "Britannica Online". Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  10. ^ "Exploratorium". Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  11. ^ Norcliffe, Glenn (2006). Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle in Canada, 1869-1900. University of Toronto Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-8020-8205-3. 
  12. ^ a b Wilson, David Gordon; Jim Papadopoulos (2004). Bicycling Science (Third ed.). The MIT Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-262-73154-1. 
  13. ^ a b c Norcliffe, p.53.
  14. ^ "Old Spokes Home: 1889 Special Pony Star". Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  15. ^ "Old Spokes Home: 1884 "Facile" Highwheel Safety 40" by Beale and Straw". Retrieved 2010-01-05. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Old Spokes Home: 1885 Xtraordinary Challenge 50" wheel by Singer". Retrieved 2010-01-05. [dead link]
  17. ^ Sharp, Archibald (2003). Bicycles & Tricycles, A Classical Treatise on Their Design and Construction. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-42987-8. 
  18. ^ Norcliffe, pp.31-2 & 124.
  19. ^ Norcliffe, pp.31-2, 35, 124, & 243-6.
  20. ^ Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle: the History. Yale University Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-300-10418-9. 
  21. ^ De Cet, Mirco (2005). Quentin Daniel, ed. The Complete Encyclopedia of Classic Motorcycles. Rebo International. ISBN 978-90-366-1497-9. 
  22. ^ Tomi Obaro (August 19, 2012). "Frederick hosts high-wheel bike race". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-09-10. "An original can cost $29,000, a well-made replica $4,000 to $5,000; cheaper, newer examples can be had for less than $1,000." 
  23. ^ "National Museum of American History, America on the Move Collection: Columbia Light Roadster ordinary bicycle". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  24. ^ "National Museum of American History, America on the Move Collection: Humber "Genuine Beeston" racing ordinary bicycle". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  25. ^ "National Museum of American History, America on the Move Collection: Standard Columbia ordinary bicycle". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  26. ^ "The Wheelmen FAQ: "How do you get up on those things?"". Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  27. ^ Wilson, David Gordon; Jim Papadopoulos (2004). Bicycling Science (Third ed.). The MIT Press. p. 268. ISBN 0-262-73154-1. 
  28. ^ Fajans, Joel. "Email Questions and Answers: Robot Bicycles". Retrieved 2006-08-04. 
  29. ^ "The Wheelmen FAQ: "Why were those newer bicycles called safety bicycles?"". Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  30. ^ Kyle, Chester R. (April 1999). "Human Powered Vehicle Association: Announcing the $25,000 Dempsey - MacCready Hour Record Prize". Retrieved 2009-01-24. [dead link]
  31. ^ On this day: 25 March, ESPN, http://www.espn.co.uk/onthisday/sport/story/100.html
  32. ^ Ralf Laue. "World Records for Penny-Farthing Bicycles". Recordholders.org. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  33. ^ "Pedaling History Bicycle Museum, A Quick History of Bicycles: The High Wheel Safety". Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  34. ^ The History of the League of American Bicyclists
  35. ^ "The Wheelmen - About Us". Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  36. ^ Brown, Sheldon. "Sheldon Brown's Glossary: Gear Inches". Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  37. ^ Niquette, Paul (2005). "You're Never Going to Ride That Thing". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  38. ^ Yon, Jean-Claude. Jacques Offenbach. Éditions Gallimard, Paris, 2000.
  39. ^ "Australian Bicycle History Centre, Bicycles Manufactured Before 1900". Archived from the original on 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  40. ^ "Penny-farthing man's Bondi brake". BBC News. 2004-12-02. Archived from the original on 2006-07-01. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  41. ^ "Cyclist goes around the world on penny-farthing". The Daily Telegraph (London). 2008-11-09. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  42. ^ http://www.theknutsfordgreatrace.co.uk/
  43. ^ "BBC News - Penny-farthing race takes place in Knutsford". bbc.co.uk. 2010-09-05. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  44. ^ "BBC - Knutsford museum set for ten-yearly penny farthing race". news.bbc.co.uk. 2010-07-13. Retrieved January 1985. 
  45. ^ Tomi Obaro (August 19, 2012). "Frederick hosts high-wheel bike race". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-04-04.