Penrith and The Border (UK Parliament constituency)
|Penrith and the Border|
|for the House of Commons|
Boundary of Penrith and the Border in Cumbria.
Location of Cumbria within England.
|Electorate||65,234 (December 2010)|
|Major settlements||Appleby-in-Westmorland, Brampton, Penrith and Wigton|
|Member of Parliament||Rory Stewart (Conservative)|
|Number of members||One|
|Created from||Penrith & Cockermouth
|European Parliament constituency||North West England|
Penrith and the Border was first contested in 1950 since which it has to date been a safe Conservative seat and on rare occasions a marginal. The Conservatives came close to losing the seat in a 1983 by-election, when the former cabinet minister 'Willie' Whitelaw became the leader of the House of Lords: the by-election took place a mere seven weeks after his success in the 1983 general election. Since that year the Liberal Democrats have come second behind the Conservatives.
History of Boundaries 
The constituency was created in 1950 by merging part of Penrith and Cockermouth with North Cumberland. The constituency was enlarged in the 1980s by taking first most of the northern part of the former Westmorland constituency and later the Kirkby Stephen/Tebay area of the Westmorland and Lonsdale constituency.
From 1983-1997, the constituency was formed from:
- Aspatria, Boltons, Marsh, Silloth, Tarns, Wampool, Warnell, Waver, and Wigton in Allerdale District
- Arthuret, Brampton, Burgh, Dalston, Great Corby and Geltsdale, Hayton, Irthing, Lyne, St Cuthbert Without, Stanwix Rural, and Wetheral in the City of Carlisle
- Alston Moor, Appleby, Appleby Bongate, Askham, Brough, Crosby Ravensworth, Dacre, Eamont, Greystoke, Hartside, Hesket, Kirkby Thore, Kirkoswald, Langwathby, Lazonby, Long Marton, Lowther, Penrith East, Penrith North, Penrith South, Penrith West, Skelton, Ullswater, and Warcrop in Eden District
Penrith and The Border is the largest constituency by area in England. Despite the name it only includes part of the English border with Scotland. The neighbouring constituency of Hexham (together with Berwick-upon-Tweed) also takes in the border area. The name stems from the fact that when the constituency was first created it consisted of the Penrith Rural and Urban Districts, the Border Rural District and also the Alston with Garrigill Rural District
Parliament accepted the Boundary Commission's Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies which slightly altered this constituency for General Election 2010 since which it has electoral wards:
- Alston Moor, Appleby, Appleby (Bongate), Askham, Brough, Crosby Ravensworth, Dacre, Eamont, Greystoke, Hartside, Hesket, Kirkby Stephen, Kirkby Thore, Kirkoswald, Langwathby, Lazonby, Long Marton, Lowther, Morland, Orton with Tebay, Penrith: Carlton, East, North, Palegate, South and, West; Ravenstonedale, Shap, Skelton, Ullswater, and Warcrop, i.e. the Eden District
- Brampton, Great Corby and Geltsdale, Hayton, Irthing, Longtown and Rockcliffe, Lyne and Stanwix Rural in the City of Carlisle
- Warnell, and Wigton in Allerdale District
- Proposed changes
As part of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies from 2011, the Boundary Commission for England has proposed redrawing the Penrith and The Border seat, to create a newly formed and named Penrith and Solway
Constituency Profile 
A heavily undualating, mostly farmed terrain dotted by market towns and historic villages, with wooded mountainsides and heath-covered tops, the constituency is focussed on the Eden Valley beside the Pennines and the Lake District, with the vale of the River Irthing above Carlisle. In the north towards Scotland are 8 of its 42 wards all beside or in the market town of Brampton which sits beside Hadrian's Wall.
Members of Parliament 
The seat was represented for nearly three decades by William Whitelaw, who served as a cabinet minister in various capacities during Conservative governments of the 1970s and 1980s and later joined the House of Lords. His successor the former Conservative Chief Whip and junior minister, David Maclean sat as MP from 1983 to 2010 when he stood down due to the state of his health; he was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 1996. He was succeeded by the Conservative MP, Rory Stewart.
|1983 by-election||David Maclean||Conservative|
Elections in the 2010s 
|General Election 2010: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal Democrat||Peter Thornton||12,830||28.5||+2.6|
Elections in the 2000s 
|General Election 2005: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal Democrat||Geyve Walker||12,142||25.9||+4.1|
|Legalise Cannabis||Mark Gibson||549||1.2||−0.8|
|General Election 2001: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal Democrat||Geyve Walker||9,625||21.8||−4.9|
|Legalise Cannabis||Mark Gibson||870||2.0||N/A|
Elections in the 1990s 
|General Election 1997: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal Democrat||Geyve Walker||13,067||26.7||−2.3|
|Referendum Party||Charles Pope||2,018||4.1|
|General Election 1992: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal Democrat||Geyve Walker||15,359||26.1||−2.6|
|Green||Robert A. Gibson||610||1.0||+1.0|
|Natural Law||Ian Docker||129||0.2||+0.2|
Elections in the 1980s 
|General Election 1987: Penrith and The Border|
|By-election 1983: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal||Michael Alan Young||16,978||44.6||+16.7|
|Monster Raving Loony||Screaming Lord Sutch||412||1.1||N/A|
|Retired Naval Officer||Eric Morgan||150||0.4||N/A|
|Death off Roads: Freight on Rail||Helen Anscomb||72||0.2||N/A|
|Independent Socialist||John Connell||69||0.2||N/A|
|New Britain||Peter Smith||35||0.1||N/A|
|General Election 1983: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal||Michael Alan Young||13,883||27.9||+11.4|
Elections in the 1970s 
|General Election 1979: Penrith and The Border|
|General Election October 1974: Penrith and The Border|
|General Election February 1974: Penrith and The Border|
|General Election 1970: Penrith and The Border|
Elections in the 1960s 
|General Election 1966: Penrith and The Border|
|General Election 1964: Penrith and The Border|
Elections in the 1950s 
|General Election 1959: Penrith and The Border|
|General Election 1955: Penrith and The Border|
|Labour||Thomas L MacDonald||9,119||23.02|
|Independent Conservative||William Brownrigg||368||0.93|
|General Election 1951: Penrith and The Border|
|Independent Conservative||William Brownrigg||158||0.37|
|General Election 1950: Penrith and The Border|
|Liberal||Wilfrid Hugh Wace Roberts||12,333||28.04|
|Conservative win (new seat)|
See also 
Notes and References 
- "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- 2010 post-revision map non-metropolitan areas and unitary authorities of England
- Penrith and Solway Boundary Commission for England
- 2001 Census
- Unemployment claimants by constituency The Guardian
- 2011 census interactive maps
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 2)[self-published source][better source needed]
- BBC - Election 2010 - Penrith & The Border
- "Politics Resources". Election 1997. Politics Resources. 1 May 1997. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- C. Rallings & M. Thrasher, The Media Guide to the New Parliamentary Constituencies, p.132 (Plymouth: LGC Elections Centre, 1995).
- The 1997 election result has swings relative to the notional, not the actual, 1992 result.
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 December 2010.