Pentavalent antimonial

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Pentavalent antimonials (also abbreviated pentavalent Sb or SbV) are a group of compounds used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. They are also called pentavalent antimony compounds.

Types[edit]

The first pentavalent antimonial used was urea stibamine: first introduced in the 1930s, it fell out of favour in the 1950s due to higher toxicity compared to sodium stibogluconate.

The compounds currently available for clinical use are:

The pentavalent antimonials can only be given by injection: there are no oral preparations available.

Alternatives[edit]

In many countries, widespread resistance to antimony has meant that amphotericin or miltefosine are now used in preference.[2]

Side effects[edit]

Cardiotoxicity, reversible renal failure, pancreatitis, anemia, leukopenia, rash, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminase elevation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lima EB, Porto C, Motta JCO, Sampaio RNR.Treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. An Bras Dermatol. 2007;82(2):111-24.
  2. ^ Olliaro P, Guerin P, Gerstl S, (2005). "Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980–2004". Lancet Infect Dis 5 (12): 763–774. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70296-6. PMID 16310148.