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Penteli (Greek: Πεντέλη) is a town and a municipality in the North Athens regional unit, Attica, Greece. It belongs to the Athens metropolitan area and Athens' Megalo Daktylo. One of its city halls is located next to the central square. About 80% of the non-urban land consists of Penteliko Mountain. The suburb's main streets are divided into two one-way thoroughfares, one going to Kifissia and to Vrilissia, and the other going north to Dionysos and Rea.
The area in the western and the northern portion of Nea Penteli once constituted farmland, whereas today it is covered with suburban developments. Much of the population, which varies from low to mid-density, dwells in large suburban villas. These sprawl to the northern and eastern slopes, which are also forested.
The bones of prehistoric animals--mastodons, rhinoceros, antelope, and giraffe, along with giant turtles, hyenas and other animals no longer extant in the area—have been found among the limestone crags of the mountain that looms over the present suburb of Athens. Dominated by Mt. Penteli, the source of the marble used to build the Parthenon, Penteli was renowned in Classical Greece as well as in the Roman Empire. The Romans, in fact, constructed a 140-foot water tower and aqueduct to supply water to the city of Athens. When Attica was later governed by the Byzantine Empire and subsequently the Frankish Empire's Duchy of Athens, Penteli fell into the hands of the Ottoman Empire, and, for a short time, the Venetian Republic, until it was reconquered by the Ottomans in the early 17th century. During the Greek War of Independence, the Bourbon Duke of Piacenza arrived in Greece to assist the revolutionary leaders. Significant landmarks are the Kastello tis Rododafnis, built in the 1840s, and an observatory, which was completed in 1936.
In July 1995, Penteli was ravaged by a large forest fire which damaged several homes that encroached on the forest. According to Turkish former prime minister, Mesut Yilmaz, many of the forest fires that raged the Greek countryside during that summer were accually started by Turkish secret service agents. A similar disaster occurred on August 16, 2007, when another forest fire damaged many properties in the area. The conflagration, which was kindled during the afternoon, spread rapidly through the forest, where it raged out of control for hours due to the large amounts of dry grass and shrubbery that had not been cleared away.