People's Liberation Army Navy
|People's Liberation Army Navy
Flag of the People's Liberation Army Navy
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Branch||People's Liberation Army|
515+ active ships
|Engagements||Chinese Civil War
Battle of the Paracel Islands
Anti-piracy operations in Somalia
|Admiral Wu Shengli, PLA-N|
|Fighter||J-8, J-10, J-11, Su-30MK2|
|Helicopter||Z-8, Z-9, Mi-8, Ka-28, AS365|
|People's Liberation Army Navy|
The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN or PLA Navy) is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The navy can trace its lineage to naval units fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was established during the September of 1950. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s the Soviet Union provided assistance to the PLAN in the form of naval advisers and export of equipment and technology. Until the late 1980s, the PLAN was largely a riverine and littoral force (Brown-water navy), however by the 1990s, following the fall of the Soviet Union and a shift towards more out-looking attitudes, leaders were freed from worrying over land border disputes, and instead turned its attention towards the seas. This led to the development of the People's Liberation Army Navy into the Green-water navy it is today. Before the 1990s the PLAN had traditionally played a subordinate role to the People's Liberation Army Ground Force.
In 2008, General Qian Lihua confirmed that China plans to operate a small fleet of aircraft carriers in the near future. However, for the purpose of regional defence as opposed to "global reach" As of 2013 PLA officials have also outlined plans to operate in the First and Second island chains. Chinese strategists term the development of the PLAN from a Green-water navy into a Blue-water navy “a regional [blue-water] defensive and offensive navy."
The People's Liberation Army Navy is composed of five branches; the People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force, the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force, the People's Liberation Army Navy Coastal Defense Force, the People's Liberation Army Marine Corps and the People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force. With a personnel strength of 290,000 service men and women, including 12,000 PLA Marine Corps and 35,000 PLA Naval Air Force personnel, it is the second largest navy in the world, only behind the United States Navy. PLAN assets include one aircraft carrier, three amphibious transport docks, 26 destroyers, 49 frigates 61 submarines (of which 11 are nuclear-powered), one corvette, 122 missile boats, 231 patrol vessels, 107 mine countermeasures vessels, five replenishment oilers and a large fleet of smaller auxiliary vessels.
The PLAN traces its lineage to units of the Republic of China Navy who defected to the People's Liberation Army towards the end of the Chinese Civil War. In 1949, Mao Zedong asserted that "to oppose imperialist aggression, we must build a powerful navy." During the Landing Operation on Hainan Island, the communists used wooden junks fitted with mountain guns as both transport and warships against the Republic of China Navy. The Naval Academy was set up at Dalian on 22 November 1949, mostly with Soviet instructors. The navy was established in September 1950 by consolidating regional naval forces under General Staff Department command in Jiangyan, now in Taizhou, Jiangsu province. It then consisted of a motley collection of ships and boats acquired from the Kuomintang forces. The Naval Air Force was added two years later. By 1954 an estimated 2,500 Soviet naval advisers were in China—possibly one adviser to every thirty Chinese naval personnel—and the Soviet Union began providing modern ships. With Soviet assistance, the navy reorganized in 1954 and 1955 into the North Sea Fleet, East Sea Fleet, and South Sea Fleet, and a corps of admirals and other naval officers was established from the ranks of the ground forces. In shipbuilding the Soviets first assisted the Chinese, then the Chinese copied Soviet designs without assistance, and finally the Chinese produced vessels of their own design. Eventually Soviet assistance progressed to the point that a joint Sino-Soviet Pacific Ocean fleet was under discussion.
1950s and 1960s 
Through the upheavals of the late 1950s and 1960s the Navy remained relatively undisturbed. Under the leadership of Minister of National Defense Lin Biao, large investments were made in naval construction during the frugal years immediately after the Great Leap Forward. During the Cultural Revolution, a number of top naval commissars and commanders were purged, and naval forces were used to suppress a revolt in Wuhan in July 1967, but the service largely avoided the turmoil affecting the country. Although it paid lip service to Mao and assigned political commissars aboard ships, the Navy continued to train, build, and maintain the fleets.
1970s and 1980s 
In the 1970s, when approximately 20 percent of the defense budget was allocated to naval forces, the Navy grew dramatically. The conventional submarine force increased from 35 to 100 boats, the number of missile-carrying ships grew from 20 to 200, and the production of larger surface ships, including support ships for oceangoing operations, increased. The Navy also began development of nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN) and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBN).
In the 1980s, under the leadership of Chief Naval Commander Liu Huaqing, the navy developed into a regional naval power, though naval construction continued at a level somewhat below the 1970s rate. Liu Huaqing was an Army Officer who spent most of his career in administrative positions involving science and technology. It was not until 1988 that the People's Liberation Army Navy was led by a Naval Officer. Liu was also very close to Deng Xiaoping as his modernization efforts were very much in keeping with Deng's national policies. While under his leadership Naval construction yards produced fewer ships than the 1970s, greater emphasis was placed on technology and qualitative improvement. Modernization efforts also encompassed higher educational and technical standards for personnel; reformulation of the traditional coastal defense doctrine and force structure in favor of more green-water operations; and training in naval combined-arms operations involving submarine, surface, naval aviation, and coastal defense forces. Examples of the expansion of China's capabilities were the 1980 recovery of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in the Western Pacific by a twenty-ship fleet, extended naval operations in the South China Sea in 1984 and 1985, and the visit of two naval ships to three South Asian nations in 1985. In 1982 the navy conducted a successful test of an underwater-launched ballistic missile. The navy also had some success in developing a variety of surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles, improving basic capabilities.
In 1986 the Navy's order of battle included two Xia-class SSBNs armed with twelve CSS-N-3 missiles and three Han-class SSNs armed with six SY-2 cruise missiles. In the late 1980s, major deficiencies reportedly remained in antisubmarine warfare, mine warfare, naval electronics (including electronic countermeasures equipment), and naval aviation capabilities.
The PLA Navy was ranked in 1987 as the third largest navy in the world, although naval personnel had comprised only 12 percent of PLA strength. In 1987 the Navy consisted (as it does now) of the naval headquarters in Beijing; three fleet commands – the North Sea Fleet, based at Qingdao, Shandong; the East Sea Fleet, based at Ningbo; and the South Sea Fleet, based at Zhanjiang, Guangdong – and about 2,000 ships. The 350,000-person Navy included Naval Air Force units of 34,000 men, the Coastal Defense Forces of 38,000, and the Marine Corps of 56,500. Navy Headquarters, which controlled the three fleet commands, was subordinate to the PLA General Staff Department. In 1987, China's 1,500 km coastline was protected by more than 100 diesel-powered Romeo- and Whiskey-class submarines, which could remain at sea only a limited time. Inside this protective ring and within range of shore-based aircraft were destroyers and frigates mounting Styx anti-ship missiles, depth-charge projectors, and guns up to 130 mm. Any invader penetrating the destroyer and frigate protection would have been swarmed by almost 900 fast-attack craft. Stormy weather limited the range of these small boats, however, and curtailed air support. Behind the inner ring were Coastal Defense Force personnel operating naval shore batteries of Styx missiles and guns, backed by ground force units deployed in depth.
Into the 21st century 
As the 21st century approached, the PLAN began to transition to an off-shore defensive strategy that entailed more out-of-area operations away from its traditional territorial waters. Between 1989 and 1993, the training ship Zhenghe paid ports visits to Hawaii, Thailand, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India. PLAN vessels visited Vladivostok in 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996. PLAN task groups also paid visits to Indonesia in 1995; North Korea in 1997; New Zealand, Australia, and the Philippines in 1998; Malaysia, Tanzania, South Africa, the United States, and Canada in 2000; and India, Pakistan, France, Italy, Germany, Britain, Hong Kong, Australia, and New Zealand in 2001. In March 1997, the Luhu-class guided missile destroyer Harbin, the Luda-class guided missile destroyer Zhuhai, and the replenishment oiler Nancang began the PLA Navy's first circumnavigation of the Pacific Ocean, a 98-day voyage with port visits to Mexico, Peru, Chile, and the United States, including Pearl Harbor and San Diego. The flotilla was under the command of Vice Admiral Wang Yongguo, the commander-in-chief of the South Sea Fleet.
The Luhu-class guided missile destroyer Qingdao and the replenishment oiler Taicang completed the PLA Navy's first circumnavigation of the world (pictured), a 123-day voyage covering 32,000 nautical miles (59,000 km; 37,000 mi) between 15 May – 23 September 2002. Port visits included Changi, Singapore; Alexandria, Egypt; Aksis, Turkey; Sevastopol, Ukraine; Piraeus, Greece; Lisbon, Portugal; Fortaleza, Brazil; Guayaquil, Ecuador; Callao, Peru; and Papeete in French Polynesia. The PLA naval vessels participated in naval exercises with the French frigates Nivôse and Prairial, as well as exercises with the Peruvian Navy. The flotilla was under the command of Vice Admiral Ding Yiping, the commander-in-chief of the North Sea Fleet, and Captain Li Yujie was the commanding officer of the Qingdao. Overall, between 1985 and 2006, PLAN naval vessels visited 18 Asian-Pacific nations, 4 South American nations, 8 European nations, 3 African nations, and 3 North American nations. In 2003, the PLAN conducted its first joint naval exercises during separate visits to Pakistan and India. Bi-lateral naval exercises were also carried out with exercises with the French, British, Australian, Canadian, Philippine, and United States navies.
On 26 December 2008, the PLAN dispatched a task group consisting of the guided missile destroyer Haikou (flagship), the guided missile destroyer Wuhan, and the supply ship Weishanhu to the Gulf of Aden to participate in anti-piracy operations off the coast of Somalia. A team of 16 Chinese Special Forces members from its Marine Corps armed with attack helicopters were on board. Since then, China has maintained a three-ship flotilla of two warships and one supply ship in the Gulf of Aden by assigning ships to the Gulf of Aden on a three monthly basis. other recent PLAN incidents include the 2001 Hainan Island incident, a major submarine accident in 2003, and naval incidents involving the U.S. MSC-operated ocean surveillance ships Victorious and Impeccable during 2009. At the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the PLAN, 52 vessels were shown in manoeuvres off Qingdao in April 2009 including previously unseen nuclear submarines. The demonstration was seen as a sign of the growing status of China, while the CMC Chairman, Hu Jintao, indicated that China is neither seeking regional hegemony nor entering an arms race.
The PLAN is organized into several departments for purposes of command, control and coordination. Main operating forces are organized into fleets, each with its own headquarters, a commander (a Rear Admiral or Vice Admiral) and a Political Commisar. All PLAN headquarters are subordinate to the PLA General Staff Department and the Chairman of the Central Military Committee.
The People's Liberation Army Navy is divided into three fleets:
- The North Sea Fleet, based in the Yellow Sea and headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong Province.
- The East Sea Fleet, based in the East China Sea and headquartered in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province.
- The South Sea Fleet, based in the South China Sea and headquartered in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province.
Each fleet consists of surface forces (destroyers, frigates, amphibious vessels etc), submarine forces, coastal defence units, and aircraft.
PLAN Submarine Force 
The People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force is one of five branches in the navy and consists of all submarines both nuclear-powered and conventionally-powered in service with the PLAN. They are organised into flotillas spread across the three main fleets.
PLAN Surface Force 
The People's Liberation Army Surface Force is one of five branches in the navy and consists of all surface warfare ships in service with the PLAN. They are organised into flotillas spread across the three main fleets.
PLAN Coastal Defence Force 
The PLAN Coastal Defence Force is a land-based fighting force and branch of the PLAN with a strength of around 25,000 personnel. The also known as the coastal defense troops, they serve to defend China's coastal areas from invasion via amphibious landings or air-attack. Throughout the 1960s to 1980s, the Coastal Defense Force was focused on defending China's coast from a possible Soviet sea-borne invasion. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the threat of an amphibious invasion of China has diminished and therefore the branch is often considered to no-longer to be a vital component of the PLAN. Especially as the surface warships of the PLAN continue to improve in terms of anti-ship and air-defence capabilities.
PLA Marine Corps 
The PLA Marine Corps was originally established in the 1950s and then re-established in 1979 under PLAN organisation. It consists of around 12,000 marines organised into two 6000-man brigades and are based in the South China Sea with the South Sea Fleet. The marine Corps are considered elite troops, and are rapid mobilization forces trained primarily in amphibious warfare and as Paratroopers to to establish a beachhead or act as a fighting spearhead during operations against enemy targets. The marines are equipped with the standard Type 95 Assault Rifle as well as other small arms and personnel equipment, and a blue/littoral camouflage uniform as standard. The marines are also equipped with armoured fighting vehicles (including amphibious light tanks such as the Type 62), artillery, and anti-aircraft artillery systems and short range surface-to-air missiles.
With the PLAN's accelerating efforts to expand its capabilities beyond territorial waters, it would be likely for the Marine Corps to play a greater role in terms of being an offshore expeditionary force similar to the USMC and Royal Marines.
The People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force is the "air force" of the PLAN and has a strength of around 25,000 personnel and 430 aircraft. It operates similar aircraft to the People's Liberation Army Air Force, including fighter aircraft, bombers, strike aircraft, tankers, reconnaissance aircraft, electronic warfare aircraft, maritime patrol aircraft, transport aircraft, and helicopters of various roles. The PLA Naval Air Force has traditionally received older aircraft than the PLAAF and has taken less ambitious steps towards mass modernization. Advancements in new technologies, weaponry and aircraft acquisition were made after 2000. With the introduction of China's first aircraft carrier, Liaoning the Naval Air Force is for the first time conducting aircraft carrier operations. Naval Air Bases includes:
- North Sea Fleet: Dalian, Qingdao, Jinxi, Jiyuan, Laiyang, Jiaoxian, Xingtai, Laishan, Anyang, Changzhi, Liangxiang and Shan Hai Guan
- East Sea Fleet: Danyang, Daishan, Shanghai (Dachang), Ningbo, Luqiao, Feidong and Shitangqiao
- South Sea Fleet: Foluo, Haikou, Lingshui, Sanya, Guiping, Jialaishi and Lingling
Relationship with other maritime organisations of China 
The PLAN is complemented by paramilitary maritime services, such as China Marine Surveillance (CMS), Hai Guang, People's Armed Police and the militia. The CMS is known to perform mostly coastal and ocean search and rescue or patrols. The CMS has received quite a few large patrol ships that would significantly enhance their operations. Hai Guang, militia, police and other services operate hundreds of small patrol craft. For maritime patrol services, these craft are usually quite well armed with machine guns and 37mm antiaircraft guns. It is believed that in the near future, an integration of all these separate services would form a Chinese coast guard. In addition, these services operate their own small aviation units to assist their maritime patrol capabilities. Hai Guang and CMS are known to operate a handful of Harbin Z-9 helicopters, and a maritime patrol aircraft based on the Harbin Y-12 STOL transport.
The Chinese Coast Guard is not under an independent command. Instead, they're part of the armed police, under the local (provincial) border defense force command. Every coastal province has 1 to 3 Coast Guard squadrons:
- 3 Squadrons: Fujian, Guangdong
- 2 Squadrons: Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Hainan, Guangxi
- 1 Squadron: Heibei, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Shanghai
The ranks in the People's Liberation Army Navy are similar to those of the People's Liberation Army Ground Force. The current system of officer ranks and insignia dates from 1988 and is a revision of the ranks and insignia used from 1955 to 1965. The rank of Hai Jun Yi Ji Shang Jiang (First Class Admiral) was never held and was abolished in 1994. With the official introduction of the Type 07 uniforms all officer insignia are on either shoulders or sleeves depending on the type of uniform used. The current system of enlisted ranks and insignia dates from 1998.
Strategy, plans, priorities 
The People's Liberation Army Navy has become more prominent in recent years owing to a change in Chinese strategic priorities. The new strategic threats include possible conflict with the United States and/or a resurgent Japan in areas such as the Taiwan Strait or the South China Sea. As part of its overall program of naval modernization, the PLAN has a long-term plan of developing a blue water navy. Robert D. Kaplan has said that it was the collapse of the Soviet Union that allowed China to transfer resources from its army to its navy and other force projection assets. China is constructing a major underground nuclear submarine base near Sanya, Hainan. In December 2007 the first Type 094 submarine was moved to Sanya. The Daily Telegraph on 1 May 2008 reported that tunnels were being built into hillsides which could be capable of hiding up to 20 nuclear submarines from spy satellites. According to the Western news media the base is reportedly to help China project seapower well into the Pacific Ocean area, including challenging United States naval power.
During a 2008 interview with the BBC, Major General Qian Lihua, a senior Chinese defense official, stated that the PLAN aspired to possess a small number of aircraft carriers to allow it to expand China's air defense perimeter. According to Qian the important issue was not whether China had an aircraft carrier, but what it did with it. On 13 January 2009, Adm. Robert F. Willard, head of the U.S. Pacific Command, called the PLAN's modernization "aggressive," and that it raised concerns in the region. On 15 July 2009, Senator Jim Webb of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee declared that only the "United States has both the stature and the national power to confront the obvious imbalance of power that China brings" to situations such as the claims to the Spratly and Paracel islands.
Ronald O'Rourke of the Congressional Research Service wrote that the PLAN "continues to exhibit limitations or weaknesses in several areas, including capabilities for sustained operations by larger formations in distant waters, joint operations with other parts of China’s military, C4ISR systems, anti-air warfare (AAW), antisubmarine warfare (ASW), MCM, and a dependence on foreign suppliers for certain key ship components." In 1998 China purchased the discarded Ukrainian ship Varyag and began retrofitting it for naval deployment. On 25 September 2012, the People's Liberation Army Navy took delivery of China's first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning. The 60,000 ton ship can accommodate 33 fixed wing aircraft. It is widely speculated that these aircraft will be the J15 fighter (the Chinese version of Russias SU-33).
Japan has raised concerns about the PLAN's growing capability and the lack of transparency as its naval strength keeps on expanding. China has reportedly[by whom?] entered into service the world's first anti-ship ballistic missile called DF-21D. The potential threat from the DF-21D against U.S. aircraft carriers has reportedly caused major changes in U.S. strategy.
2008 Anti-piracy operations 
On 18 December 2008, Chinese authorities deployed People's Liberation Army Navy vessels to escort Chinese shipping in the Gulf of Aden. This deployment came after a series of attacks and attempted hijackings on Chinese vessels by Somali pirates. Reports suggest two destroyers (Type 052C 171 Haikou and Type 052B 169 Wuhan) and a supply ship are the ones being used. This move was welcomed by the international community as the warships complement a multinational fleet already operating along the coast of Africa. Since this operation PLAN has sought the leadership of the ‘Shared Awareness and Deconfliction’ body (SHADE), which would require an increase in the number of vessels contributing to the anti-piracy fleet. This is the first time Chinese warships have deployed outside the Asia-Pacific region for a military operation since Zheng He's expeditions in the 15th century.
Libyan civil war 
Ships and submarines 
The Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning in 2001 before her re-build.
The Type 052C destroyer Lanzhou (DDG170).
A Type 054A frigate transits the Gulf of Aden.
The Shenyang J-11 is one of the primary multi-role fighter aircraft of the PLANAF.
The Changhe Z-8 maritime helicopter is a Chinese built variant of the French Aérospatiale Super Frelon.
The PLAN's ambitions include operating out to the first and second island chains, as far as the South Pacific near Australia, and spanning to the Aleutian islands, and operations extending to the Straits of Malacca near the Indian Ocean. The future PLAN fleet will be composed of a balance of assets aimed at maximising the PLAN's fighting effectiveness. On the high end, there would be modern destroyers equipped with long range air defense missiles (Type 052B, Type 052C, Type 051C, Type 052D); destroyers armed with supersonic anti-ship missiles (Sovremenny class); advanced nuclear-powered attack and ballistic missile submarines (Type 093, Type 095, Type 094, Type 096); advanced conventional attack submarines (Kilo and Yuan); aircraft carriers and large amphibious warfare vessels capable mobilizing troops at long distances. On the medium and low end, there would be more economical multi-role capable frigates and destroyers (Luhu, Jiangwei II, Jiangkai); corvettes (Jiangdao); fast littoral missile attack craft (Houjian, Houxin, Houbei); various landing ships and light craft; and conventionally powered coastal patrol submarines (Song). The obsolete combat ships (based on 1960s designs) will be phased out in the coming decades as more modern designs enter full production. It may take a decade for the bulk of these older ships to be retired. Until then, they will serve principally on the low end, as multi-role patrol/escort platforms. Their use could be further enhanced in the future by being used as fast transports or fire support platforms. This system of phasing out would see a reversal in the decline in quantity of PLAN vessels by 2015, and cuts in inventory after the end of the Cold War could be made up for by 2020.
During 2001–2006 there has been a rapid building and acquisition program. There were more than a dozen new classes of ships built in these last five years, totalling some 60 brand new ships (including landing ships and auxiliaries). Simultaneously, dozens of other ships have been either phased out of service or refitted with new equipment.xSubmarines play a significant role in the development of the PLAN's future fleet. This is made evident by the construction of a new type of nuclear ballistic missile submarine, the Type 094 and the Type 093 nuclear attack submarine. This will provide the PLAN with a more modern response for the need of a seaborne nuclear deterrent. The new submarines will also be capable of performing conventional strike and other special warfare requirements.
Ronald O'Rourke of the Congressional Research Service reported that the long term goals of PLAN planning include:
- Assert or defend China’s claims in maritime territorial disputes and China’s interpretation of international laws relating to freedom of navigation in exclusive economic zones (an interpretation at odds with the U.S. interpretation);
- Protect China’s sea lines of communications to the Persian Gulf, on which China relies for some of its energy imports; and
- Assert China’s status as a major world power, encourage other states in the region to align their policies with China, and displace U.S. regional military influence.
During the military parade on the 60th anniversary of the People's Republic of China, the YJ-62 naval cruise missile made its first public appearance; the YJ-62 represents the next generation in naval weapons technology in the PLA.
See also 
- List of active Chinese Navy ships
- People's Liberation Army Ground Force
- People's Liberation Army Air Force
- People's Liberation Army Ground Force Aircraft
- People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force
- People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force Aircraft
- Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning
- Republic of China Navy
- Is the US Navy big enough to take on China and Iran?
- People's Liberation Navy - History
- The View from the West: Chinese Naval Power in the 21st Century, by Christian Bedford
- A senior Chinese defence official has told a British newspaper that any great power would want an aircraft carrier
- "China to conduct naval drills in Pacific amid tension". Reuters. 30 January 2013.
- Ronald O'Rourke, "China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress", December 10, 2012, page 7
- People's Liberation Navy - Organizational Structure
- People's Liberation Navy - Personel
- Chinese Warships
- The View from the West: Chinese Naval Power in the 21st Century, by Christian Bedford
- Cole, Bernard D. The Great Wall at Sea Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2001
- China's Navy 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Navy. 2008. pp. 23–30. ISBN 0-7852-2759-8. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- China's Navy 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Navy. 2008. p. 114. ISBN 0-7852-2759-8. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Dengfeng, Wu (2009). "Deep Blue Defense – A Modern Force at Sea". Focus. China Pictorial. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Dumbaugh, Kerry; Richard Cronin, Shirley Kan, Larry Niksch, David M. Ackerman (2 February 2009, reviewd 12 November 2001). China’s Maritime Territorial Claims: Implications for U.S. Interests. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service (CRS). pp. CRS–32. ISBN CRS Report RL31183 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Kim, Duk-ki (2000). Naval strategy in Northeast Asia: geo-strategic goals, policies, and prospects. New York, New York: Routledge. p. 152. ISBN 0-7146-4966-X. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- JO1 Robert Benson, USN (Fall 1997). "Chinese Navy's Historic Pearl Harbor Visit". Forum. Asian Pacific Defense (APAN). Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "30 Years of Sino- US Relations". News feature. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2001. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
- Graham, Euan (2005). Japan's sea lane security, 1940–2004: a matter of life and death?. New York: Institute/Routledge Japanese Studies. p. 208. ISBN 0-415-35640-7.
- China's Navy 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Navy. 2008. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-7852-2759-8. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "China celebrates navy's circumnavigation". News Online. ABC News. 23 September 2002. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Chinese naval ships made first round-the-world sailing". Special Reports. Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China. 18 September 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "2002: Chinese naval ships made first round -the-world sailing". Yearly Focus. PLA Daily. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Chinese Naval Fleet Concludes Visit to Turkey". World News. People's Daily Online. 24 June 2002. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
- "Chinese Naval Ship Formation's First Global Navigation". People's Daily. 28 September 2002. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- China's Navy 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Navy. 2008. p. 115. ISBN 0-7852-2759-8. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- China's Navy 2007. Washington, DC: U.S. Navy. 2008. p. 116. ISBN 0-7852-2759-8. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "China to add special forces, helicopters to fight pirates". Shanghai Daily. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
- "China ready to use force on Somali pirates". Defencetalk.com. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2009.[dead link]
- Erikson, Andrew R.; Lt. Justine D. Mikolay, USN (March 2009). "Welcome China to the Fight Against Pirates". U.S. Naval Institute Proceeding 135 (3): 34–41. ISSN 0041–798X. Retrieved 20 April 2009. "Access requires registration."
- Kathrin Hille (24 April 2009). "China's show of sea power challenges US". Financial Times.
- People's Liberation Army Navy
- People's Liberation Army navy - Submarine Branch
- People's Liberation Army Navy - Surface Force
- People's Liberation Army Navy - Coastal Defense Force
- China's first aircraft carrier enters service
- "China's Arrival: A Strategic Framework for a Global Relationship, page 50" (PDF). Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- "Secret Sanya – China's new nuclear naval base revealed – Jane's Security News". Janes.com. 21 April 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- Harding, Thomas, "Chinese Build Secret Nuclear Submarine Base", The Daily Telegraph (London), 2 May 2008.
- Harding, Thomas, "Chinese Nuclear Submarines Prompt 'New Cold War' Warning", The Daily Telegraph (London), 3 May 2008.
- "China has aircraft carrier hopes". BBC News. 17 November 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "China's 'aggressive' buildup called worry". The Washington Times. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- "US Reaffirms Its Rights to Operate in South China Sea". Voanews.com. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- Ronald O’Rourke (23 December 2009). "CRS RL33153 China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities–Background and Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- Chang, Felix K. (October 2012). "MAKING WAVES: DEBATES BEHIND CHINA’S FIRST AIRCRAFT CARRIER". FOREIGN POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE. p. 6. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- "China Launches Carrier, but Experts Doubt Its Worth". 25 September 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "China sea power concerns new Japan foreign minister " Japan Today: Japan News and Discussion". Japantoday.com. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "Somalia Pirates: China Deploys Navy To Gulf Of Aden Following Hijack Attempt | World News | Sky News". News.sky.com. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- "Chinese navy frigate crosses Suez Canal for Libya evacuation.". Xinhua. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Annual Report to Congress, Military Power of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 22 May 2008
- "The Next Arms Race". Apac2020.the-diplomat.com. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- "China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress". Opencrs.com. Retrieved 25 October 2010.