People's Movement of Kosovo
|People's Movement of Kosovo|
|Newspaper||Zëri i Kosovës|
|Colours||Red, Black, Yellow|
|Politics of Kosovo
The People's Movement of Kosovo (Albanian: Lëvizja Popullore e Kosovës - LPK) was a political party in Kosovo[a] after the Kosovo war, beside being a political movement of Albanian nationalists from 1981. Despite the several participations in the elections in Kosovo, the pre-war period is the most significant for its existence. Historically, its support and membership came from Albanian diaspora, especially within Switzerland and Germany, originating mainly from former Yugoslavian republics.
PMK started in 1981-1982, during turmoils which would bring the Albanian population of Yugoslavia in the center of attention. During the 1981 demonstrations in Kosovo, protesters demanded Kosovo to become a republic within the Yugoslav Federation. PMK was crystallized on Feb 17th, 1982, in Switzerland, as a marxist union of Albanian diaspora organizations with support and sympathy for/from the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, struggling for the rights of Albanians throughout Yugoslavia and unification with Albania, originally named LRSHJ, to be renamed later as PMK. PMK's ideology was left-wing nationalism. Peter Schwarz, while talking about KLA in "Kosovo and the crisis in the Atlantic Alliance", (Sep, 1st, 1999), states: "In Germany a ban was in the course of being implemented against the core of the party, the Enver Hoxha-oriented KPM (Kosovo People's Movement)". Robert Elsie states in his "Historical Dictionary of Kosovo, 2011" that: "It was initially Marxist-oriented, seeing Kosova's salvation in Albania and thus supporting the regime of Enver Hoxha". The Marxist-Leninist orientation was necessary in order to achieve support from PSRA, and was abandoned after fall of communism in Albania.
Three core organizations that constituted LPK were: PKMLSHJ (Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Albanians in Yugoslavia, in Albanian: Partia Komuniste Marksiste-Leniniste e Shqiptarëve në Jugosllavi), LNÇKVSHJ ( National-Liberation Movement of Kosovo and other Albanian regions, in Albanian: Lëvizjes Nacionalçlirimtare të Kosovës dhe Viseve të tjera Shqiptare) joining initially as LRSSHJ (Movement for Albanian Socialist Republic in Yugoslavia, in Albanian: Lëvizja për Republikën Socialiste Shqiptare në Jugosllavi), and OMLK (Marxist-Leninist Organization of Kosovo, in Albanian: Organizata Marksiste Leniniste e Kosovës), which had started in 1970 as GRK (Kosovo Revolutionary Group, in Albanian: Grupi Revolucionar i Kosovës), joining on 15 May 1982, when the final name and program were established. The negotiations had started on late November 1981, failing for the first time in Istanbul between Sabri Novosella and Abdullah Prapashtica despite the support of Albanian Ambassador in Turkey. The movement's platform would be based on that of PKMLSHJ as a little moderate (for an Albanian Republic within Yugoslavia), while the other two organizations were straightly aiming for Kosovo unification with Albania.
There is some controversy on who were exactly the founders of PMK. One of its founders, Abdullah Prapashtica, mentions other executive committee's members as Osman Osmani, Faton Topalli, Sabri Novosella, Jusuf Gërvalla, Bardhosh Gërvalla, Xhafer Durmishi, Kadri Zeka, Hasan Mala, Xhafer Shatri, and Nuhi Sylejmani (joining after the execution of Gërvalla brothers), while others like Emrush Xhemajli define slightly different names and circumstances.
Activity until 1998
PMK remained active throughout Europe and continuously sponsored and supported insurgents, propaganda, and activities inside Yugoslavia, as well as lobbied for the Albanian national cause. Many would be imprisoned by Yugoslavian authorities or lose their lives. On 17 January 1982, Jusuf Gërvalla, Kadri Zeka and Bardhosh Gërvalla were executed in Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Federal Republic of Germany from Yugoslav secret service secret agents. Two other members, Rexhep Mala and Nuhi Berisha died in a shoot-out with Yugoslavian police forces in a Prishtina neighborhood (today "Kodra e Trimave") on 11 January 1984. On November 2, 1989, Afrim Zhitia and Fahri Fazliu would die in a similar shoot-out (from 12:45 till around 19:00) after being surrounded by Serbian police in the "Kodra e Diellit" neighborhood of Pristina.
Despite the difficulties, PMK would diligently continue to be the main representative of the Albanian resistance against Serbian oppression until December 1989, when Ibrahim Rugova and other intellectuals in Kosovo founded the Democratic League of Kosovo (in Albanian: Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës, LDK).
PMK would establish the core of what would be known later as Kosovo Liberation Army, following later with UÇPMB in Preševo Valley, National Liberation Army (UÇK) in Macedonia[b], as well as FBKSh of Gafurr Adili. Many members including most of the leadership would actively join the war, including Adem Jashari, Sami Lushtaku, Fatmir Limaj, Fehmi Lladrovci, Ramush Haradinaj, Azem Syla, Adem Grabovci, Jakup Krasniqi, Ali Ahmeti, and Hashim Thaçi.
On 14-05-1999, most of the PMK membership would support the creation of Democratic Progress of Kosovo (Partia për Progres Demokratik e Kosovës) as a political wing of the Kosovo Liberation Army after the war, renamed on 21-05-2000 as Democratic Party of Kosovo (Albanian: Partia Demokratike e Kosovës, PDK) lead by Hashim Thaçi. Many others would join other political entities that emerged into Kosovo's political arena, i.e. Socialist Party of Kosovo (Albanian: Partia Socialiste e Kosovës), National Movement for the Liberation of Kosovo (Albanian: Lëvizja Kombëtare për Çlirimin e Kosovës, LKCK), Vetëvendosje!, etc. The fraction that did not support these changes continued political activity under the same original name (Lëvizja Popullore e Kosovës).
- History of Yugoslavia
- Albanians in Kosovo
- Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo
- Yugoslavian State Security Administration
- Kosovo War
- List of Kosovo Albanians
- List of political parties in Kosovo
- Democratic Party of Kosovo
- Pavlović, Momčilo (April 26, 2013), 1981 demonstrations in Kosovo, transconflict.com, retrieved 2013-08-13
- Lorimer, Doug (June 14, 1999), NATO's Balkan War and the Kosova Liberation Struggle, DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST PERSPECTIVE - The Activist - Volume 9
- WALSH, LYNN (June 1999), The KLA and the struggle for Kosovar self-determination, Socialism Today
- International Crisis Group (ICG) (2 September 1998), Kosovo's Long Hot Summer: Briefing on Military, Humanitarian and Political Developments in Kosovo, UNHCR refworld
- Schwarz, Peter (1 September 1999), Kosovo and the crisis in the Atlantic Alliance, World Socialist Web Site
- Robert Elsie (2011). Historical Dictionary of Kosovo. Historical Dictionaries of Europe 79. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7231-8. Page 138
- Prapashtica, Abdullah (28 July 2013), Reagim: Enver Hoxha nuk e ka themeluar LPK! (Response: PMK was not founded by Enver Hoxha!) (in Albanian), KosovariMedia.com
- Xhemajli, Emrush (February 2002), LËVIZJA POPULLORE E KOSOVËS, 1982 – 2002, 20 VJET VEPRIMTARI (PMK, 1982-2002, 20 years of activity)) (in Albanian), Kosovo Socialist Party
- Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada (1 April 1992), Switzerland: 1) Information on social clubs in Zurich operated for ethnic Albanians from Yugoslavia and Albania and their association with political or dissident groups; 2) Information on Grvala/Gervala/Gervalla, UNHCR refworld, retrieved 11 August 2013
- Kosovapress (17 January 2013), 31 vjet të mjegulluara (31 blurry years) (in Albanian), KosovaPress.com Check date values in:
|year= / |date= mismatch(help)
- Christopher S. Stewart, Hunting the Tiger: The Fast Life and Violent Death of the Balkans' Most Dangerous Man. Thomas Dunne Books, 2008. ISBN 978-0312356064. Page 88
- Tim Judah Kosovo: War and Revenge. 2002. ISBN 978-0300097252. Page 110
- Demir Reshiti (November 2, 2005), "Heroizmi i Afrimit dhe Fahriut, fillimi i një epoke të re" [Heroism of Afrim and Fahri, start of a new age], Zëri i Kosovës (in Albanian) (People's Movement of Kosovo), retrieved 2013-09-22
- Liebknecht, Rosa (10 April 1992), Inside the KLA, International Viewpoint
- Ahmeti, Ali (10 April 1992), Mbi nje periudhë të rendesishme të LPRK-së - LPK-së (Regarding an important period of PMRK - PMK ) (in Albanian), Zëri i Kosovës
- Adili, Gafurr (5 February 2013), Unioni Shqipëri-Kosovë, hapi i parë drejt ribashkimit kombëtar! (Union Albania-Kosovo, the first step towards national reunification!) (in Albanian), GazetaDitore.com
- Ian Jeffries, "The Former Yugoslavia at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition (Routledge Studies of Societies in Transition)", 2002, ROUTLEDGE CHAPMAN & HALL, ISBN 978-0415281904, p. 254
- International Crisis Group (ICG) (3 March 2000), What happened to the KLA?, UNHCR refworld, retrieved 11 August 2013
- Zeri.info (2013-07-23), VV bashkohet me Lëvizjen Popullore të Kosovës (Self-Determination unites with PMK) (in Albanian), Zeri.info
- Vetëvendosje! (23 July 2013), Bashkim në Lëvizje! (Merge in the movement) (in Albanian), Vetëvendosje!
|a.||^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.|
|b.||^ The name of Republic of Macedonia is part of an international dispute with Greece. Official name enlisted in UN is 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia'. See: Macedonia naming dispute, Controversy between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece.|
- Malcolm, Noel. Kosovo: A Short History. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998. ISBN 978-0333666128.
- Robert Elsie. Historical Dictionary of Kosovo, 2011. Historical Dictionaries of Europe 79. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7231-8.
- Tim Judah. Kosovo: War and Revenge, 2002. Yale University Press; 2 Sub edition. ISBN 978-0300097252.
- Ian Jeffries. The Former Yugoslavia at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: A Guide to the Economies in Transition (Routledge Studies of Societies in Transition), 2002, Routledge Chapman & Hall, ISBN 978-0415281904.
- Bedri Islami. I vërteti : (Ali Ahmeti, si e njoha unë) [The real one: Ali Ahmeti, like I knew him], Tringa Design, 2011. ISBN 978-6082110387