China–Portugal relations

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People's Republic of China relations–Portugal relations
Map indicating locations of People's Republic of China and Portugal

China

Portugal

People's Republic of China–Portugal relations officially began in 2 February 1979.[1]

History[edit]

Ming dynasty[edit]

Sino-Portuguese relations developed from the first Portuguese explorer, Jorge Álvares arrived in southern Chinese city of Guangzhou in 1513.[2] Around this time Portugal established trading activities in southern China and gradually expanded into Macau and paid rent to the Ming Empire.[2]

The first official visit of Fernão Pires de Andrade to Guangzhou (1517–1518) was fairly successful, and the local Chinese authorities allowed the embassy led by Tomé Pires, brought by de Andrade's flotilla, to proceed to Beijing.[3]

However, Fernão's brother Simão de Andrade, whose fleet came to Guangzhou in 1519, managed to quickly spoil the Sino-Portuguese relations, due to his disregard for the host country's laws and customs. Under the pretext of a threat from pirates, and without a permission from the local authorities, he built a fort in Tamão Island, behaving there as if it were Portuguese territory. (Particularly offensive to the Chinese sensibilities was his building a gallows there, and executing one of his own sailors there for some offense).[4] He attacked a Chinese official who protested to the Portuguese captain's demands that his vessels should take precedence in trade with China before those from Asian countries.[4] The worst, however, were his kidnappings of Chinese children and taking them abroad to be enslaved; (untrue) rumors spread that they disappearing children were cannibalized[4] after being roasted by the Portuguese.[5]

It was more than two years, however, before Thome Pires could get permission to make the journey to Pekin. Fernao Pires left on his return with a very rich cargo in September 1518; his stay had not, owing to his discretion, been marked by any unpleasant incident. This expedition did not penetrate much further than Canton; one of the ships sailed to explore the Lew Chews, but failing to make good her passage, returned to the mainland at Fuhkien, where her traffic was as successful as that of her sister ships in Canton.

In August 1519 Simao d'Andrade, brother of Fernao Pires, made another voyage to Canton. He found Thome Pires still awaiting permission to travel to Pekin,—a permission which arrived finally in January 1520. Simao d'Andrade was a pompous braggart, he built a small fort and erected a gallows, and used the latter to hang one of his sailors—all acts which scandalized the Chinese feelings of sovereignty. He tried to prevent any ships of other nations getting cargo before his own, and he and his officers outraged the Chinese by freely buying boys and girls who, as it turned out, had been kidnapped. To crown all, on the death of the Emperor of China, Simao refused to leave the port when ordered. Several Portuguese were killed in the streets of Canton, and although at the end of June 1521 they were successful in a naval skirmish, they had to leave on 8 September 1521, fighting their way out to sea. Matters were left hopelessly embroiled, and every vessel reaching Chinese shores with a Portuguese on board was confiscated.

These events reacted on the unfortunate Thome Pires. He reached Pekin, after a year's journey, in January 1521, but his reception was not encouraging. The news of the capture of Malacca, over which, through Siam, the Chinese claimed some shadowy influence, and of the earlier proceedings of Simao d'Andrade at Canton, had preceded him. 1 He was treated as a spy and refused even the privilege granted to other envoys, who were allowed to kneel and bow five times to the wall of the palace behind which the Emperor was said to be living. He was sent back to Canton with orders that he was to be imprisoned until Malacca was restored, and there after a few years he died.[6][7]

"The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497-1550" by Richard Stephen Whiteway (1899)

A Chinese porcelain vase made in 1552 for Jorge Anriques, a Portuguese trading ship captain

'According to a Chinese account '-foreigners from the West called Fa-lan-ki. who said they had tribute, abruptly entered the Bogue and by their tremendously loud guns shook the place far and near. This was reported at court, and an order returned to drive them away immediately and stop the trade."[8]

"Historic Macao" by Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus (1902)

The annexation of Tamou, apparently projected when Jorge Alvares erected the padrao there, was boldly attempted by Simao de Andrade, another hero of Malacca, who in 1518 reached Tamou with a ship and three junks. For the purpose of defending the place against piratical attacks, he constructed a fort; and as a deterrent, he raised gallows on an adjacent islet, where a delinquent was eventually put to death with all the impressive formalities of an execution in Portugal—assumptions of sovereignty which gave great umbrage to the Chinese government. While several towns were sacked by native marauders in the name of foreigners, the Portuguese were rendered still more hated through sensational outcries to the effect that many Cantonese boys and girls of good families had been kidnapped and sold to Simao de Andrade for the purpose of being eaten roasted. The anti-foreign prejudices thus maliciously stirred were accentuated by further high-handed measures: Simao de Andrade controlled the trade and shipping of Tamou, refused to pay duties, and ill-used a customs official severely.4 It was obviously this Andrade who thrashed a mandarin and thereby roused such animosity that, according to Gaspar da Cruz,5 it ended in his desperate retreat with the loss of some vessels; whilst as related by Couto,6 an imperial edict in big gilt characters was posted over the gate of Canton forbidding admittance to "long-bearded and large-eyed men." In almost every account of early Portuguese intercourse with China, Simlio de Andrade is held up to execration as an inhuman, wanton marplot. For his assumption of authority at Tamou, no justification is found in the exasperating intolerance of raandarindom, the rife piracy, and the necessity of founding a Portuguese stronghold on such perilous aud inhospitable shores; and while credence is readily given to every aspersion, the alleged iniquities are not even confronted with noteworthy antecedents: that Simao de Andrade, like Ferniio Peres de Andrade, was one of those distinguished officers whose sense of justice and humanity prompted them to protest against the outrageous execution of Kuy Dias; that for this reason they were put in chains [9][10]

"Historic Macao", by Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus (1902)

Young Chinese boys and girls were kidnapped by Simao to be sold as slaves.[11]

The king of Portugal, desirous of the trade of China, sent an ambassador and one of his captains to propose a commercial alliance. The ambassador was gladly received, and sent by land to Nankin, and the honourable behaviour of Pedro de Andrade gained the important traffic of the harbour of Canton. On this officer's return to India, Sequeyra the governor sent Simon de Andrade, brother to Pedro, with five ships to China; and whatever were his instructions, the absurdity of bis actions was only equalled by his gross insolence. As if he had arrived among beings of an inferior order, he assumed an authority like that which is claimed by man over the brute creation. He seized the island of Tamou, opposite to Canton. Here he erected a fort and a gallows ; and while he plundered the merchants, the wives and daughters of the principal inhabitants were dragged from their friends to his garrison, and the gibbet punished resistance. Nor did he stop even here. The Portuguese in India wanted slaves, and Andrade thought he had found the proper nursery. He published his design to buy the youth of both sexes, and in this inhuman traffic ha was supplied by the most profligate of the natives. These proceedings, however, were soon known to tha emperor of China, and the Portuguese ambassador and his retinue died the death of spies. Andrade was attacked by the Chinese itao, or admiral, and escaped with much loss, by the favour of a tempest, after being forty days harassed by a fleet greatly superior to his own. Next year Alonzo de Melo, ignorant of these transactions, entered the harbour of Canton with four vessels. But his ships were instantly seized, and the crews massacred, as spies and robbers by the enraged Chinese. And though the Portuguese afterwards were permitted to some trade with China, it was upon very restricted and disgraceful conditions1*, conditions which treated them as a nation of pirates, as men who were not to bs trusted unless fettered and watched.[12][13]

"The works of the English poets, from Chaucer to Cowper: including the series edited with prefaces, biographical and critical" by Samuel Johnson (1810) and "The Percy anecdotes: Original and select" by Sholto Percy, Reuben Percy (1826)

"Even the very lascars and scullions of the Portuguese purchase and carry slaves away. Hence it happens that many of them die on the voyage, because they are heaped up upon each other, and if their masters fall sick (these masters are sometimes Kaffirs and negroes of the Portuguese), the slaves are not cared for; it even often happens that the Kaffirs cannot procure the necessary food for them. These scullions give a scandalous example by living in debauchery with the girls they have bought, and whom some of them introduce into their cabins on the passage to Macao. I here omit the excesses committed on the lands of the pagans, where the Portuguese spread themselves to recruit youths and girls, and where they live in such a fashion that the pagans themselves are stupefied at it."[14] [15]

"A history of Japan during the century of early foreign intercourse, 1542-1651" by James Murdoch, Isoh (1903)

As a result, the Chinese posted an edict banning men with Caucasian features from entering Canton.[16] The Chinese responded by killing multiple Portuguese in Canton and drove the Portuguese back to sea.[17]

After the Sultan of Bintan detained several Portuguese, The Chinese then executed 23 members of Tomé Pires' ill-fated embassy, and threw the rest into prison where they resided in squalid, sometimes fatal conditions. Later on, the Chinese then massacred Portuguese who resided at Ningpo and Fujian trading posts in 1545 and 1549, due to extensive and damaging raids by the Portuguese along the coast, which irritated the Chinese.[18]

After the Portuguese bribed their way into obtaining a trade mission in Ningbo and Quanzhou, they inflicted savage behaviour against the Chinese, and raided the Chinese ports. In retaliation, in 1545 the entire Portuguese community of Ningbo were exterminated by Chinese forces.[19][20][21][22][23] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[24][25] The resulting complaints made it to the province's governor who commanded the settlement destroyed and the inhabitants wiped out. In 1542 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1545, when a force of 60,000 Chinese troops descended on the community, 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed.[26][27][28][29]

In 1564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631.[30]

The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7, 1845

The later antagonism of Chinese toward foreigners was a result of the "reprehensible" behavior of first Portuguese who made contact.[31]

However, with gradual improvement of relations and aid given against the Japanese Wokou pirates along China's shores, by 1557 Ming China finally agreed to allow the Portuguese to settle at Macau in a new Portuguese trade colony.[32] The Malay Sultanate of Johor also improved relations with the Portuguese and fought alongside them against the Aceh Sultanate.

Sino-Malay alliance against Portugal[edit]

The Malay Malacca Sultanate was a tributary state and ally to Ming Dynasty China. When Portugal conquered Malacca in 1511 and committed atrocities against the Malay Sultanate, the Chinese responded with violent force against Portugal.

The Chinese Imperial Government imprisoned and executed multiple Portuguese envoys after torturing them in Guangzhou. The Malaccans had informed the Chinese of the Portuguese seizure of Malacca, to which the Chinese responded with hostility toward the Portuguese. The Malaccans told the Chinese of the deception the Portuguese used, disguising plans for conquering territory as mere trading activities, and told of all the atrocities committed by the Portuguese.[33]

Due to the Malaccan Sultan lodging a complaint against the Portuguese invasion to the Chinese Emperor, the Portuguese were greeted with hostility from the Chinese when they arrived in China.[34][35][36][37][38] The Malaccan Sultan, based in Bintan after fleeing Malacca, sent a message to the Chinese, which combined with Portuguese banditry and violent activity in China, led the Chinese authorities to execute 23 Portuguese and torture the rest of them in jails. After the Portuguese set up posts for trading in China and committed piratical activities and raids in China, the Chinese responded with the complete extermination of the Portuguese in Ningbo and Quanzhou[39] Pires, a Portuguese trade envoy, was among those who died in the Chinese dungeons.[40][41][42]

The Chinese defeated a Portuguese fleet in 1521 at the First Battle of Tamao (1521), killing and capturing so many Portuguese that the Portuguese had to abandon their junks and retreat with only three ships, only escaping back to Malacca because a wind scattered the Chinese ships as the Chinese launched a final attack.[43]

The Chinese effectively held the Portuguese embassy hostage, using them as a bargaining chip in demanding that the Portuguese restore the deposed Malaccan Sultan (King) to his throne.[44]

The Chinese proceeded to executed several Portuguese by beating and strangling them, and torturing the rest. The other Portuguese prisoners were put into iron chains and kept in prison.[45] The Chinese confiscated all of the Portuguese property and goods in the Pires embassy's possession.[46]

In 1522, Martim Afonso de Merlo Coutinho was appointed commander of another Portuguese fleet sent to establish diplomatic relations.[47] The Chinese defeated the Portuguese ships led by Coutinho at the Second Battle of Tamao (1522). A large number of Portuguese were captured and ships destroyed during the battle. The Portuguese were forced to retreat to Malacca.[48][49]

The Chinese forced Pires to write letters for them, demanding that the Portuguese restore the deposed Malaccan Sultahn (king) back onto his throne. The Malay ambassador to China was to deliver the letter.[50]

The Chinese had sent a message to the deposed sultan (king) of Malacca concerning the fate of the Portuguese embassy, which the Chinese held prisoner. When they received his reply, the Chinese officials then proceeded to executed the Portuguese embassy, slicing their bodies into multiple pieces. Their genitalia were inserted into the oral cavity. The Portuguese were executed in public in multiple areas in Guangzhou, deliberately by the Chinese in order to show that the Portuguese were insignificant in the eyes of the Chinese.[51] When more Portuguese ships landed and were seized by the Chinese, the Chinese then executed them as well, cutting off the genitalia and beheading the bodies and forcing their fellow Portuguese to wear the body parts, while the Chinese celebrated with music. The genitalia and heads were displayed strung up for display in public, after which they were discarded.[52]

In response to Portuguese piracy and establishing bases in Fujian at Wuyu island and Yue harbor at Zhangzhou, Shuangyu island in Wenzhou, and Nan'ao island in Guangdong, the Imperial Chinese Right Deputy Commander Zhu Wang exterminated all the pirates and razedthe Shuangyu Portuguese base, using force to prohibit trading with foreigners by sea.[53]

Chinese traders boycotted Malacca after it fell under Portuguese control, some Chinese in Java assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city from Portugal using ships. The Java Chinese participation in retaking Malacca was recorded in "The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon"[54] trading the Chinese did business with Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese.[55]

Due to hostility from the Chinese regarding the trafficking in Chinese slaves, in 1595 a law was passed by Portugal banning the selling and buying of Chinese slaves.[56] On 19 February 1624, the King of Portugal forbade the enslavement of Chinese of either sex.[57][58]

Qing dynasty- Ningbo Massacre of Portuguese Pirates[edit]

During the Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "THE NINGPO MASSACRE" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reigned in the pirates.

Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonesee shipping in the early 1800s were exterminated by Cantonese forces around Ningbo.[59]

The Ningbonese people supported the Cantonese massacre of the Portuguese pirates and the attack on the Portuguese consul. The Cantonese did not see the Portuguese as the same as other Europeans, not being afraid of them and fighting them man to man. The Ningbo authorities had made an agreement with a Cantonese pirate named A'Pak to exterminate the Portuguese pirates. The Portuguese did not even try to fight when the Cantonese pirates sacked their consulate, trying to flee and hide among the tombs, the Cantonese butchered around 40 Portuguese while sacking the consulate. Only two Chinese and one Englishman who sided with the Cantonese died.[60][61]

Modern era[edit]

As China underwent turbulent times in the 19th and 20th century, Portugal maintained its colony in Macau by stationing its troops, refusing to pay rent and opposing the ruling Qing Empire. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, formal diplomatic relations were not officially instated until 1979 and after the Carnation Revolution in Portugal which began the period of decolonization.[2] The Chinese government viewed Macau as Chinese territory under Portuguese administration.

Relations between Portugal and China began to improve as talks in relation to Macau's future were conducted and final agreement reach to return Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1999.[1][62] After Macau returned to China, Portugal's ties with China has largely been about cultural and economic exchanges.[63]

Bilateral relations[edit]

The trade between the two countries have increased since resolving the longstanding issue of Macau's future and the economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980s. In 2002, trade between the two countries were valued at US$380 million in 2002.[1]

China's exports to Portugal are textile goods, garments, shoes, plastics, acoustic equipment, steel materials, ceramic goods, and lighting equipment.[1] China is Portugal's ninth biggest trading partner.[64][65]

Portugal's exports to China are electric condensers and accessory parts, primary plastics, paper, medicinal, textile goods and wine.[1][64][66]

Portugal has participated in Shanghai's Expo 2010 to further boost bilateral trade.[67]

Notes[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497-1550, by Richard Stephen Whiteway, a publication from 1899 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Historic Macao, by Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus, a publication from 1902 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The works of the English poets, from Chaucer to Cowper: including the series edited with prefaces, biographical and critical, by Samuel Johnson, a publication from 1810 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Percy anecdotes: Original and select, by Sholto Percy, Reuben Percy, a publication from 1826 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from A history of Japan during the century of early foreign intercourse, 1542-1651, a publication from 1903 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from A history of Japan, Volume 2, by Joseph Henry Longford, L. M. C. Hall, a publication from 1903 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7, a publication from 1845 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ a b c d e http://www.mfa.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/xos/gjlb/3351/t16989.htm
  2. ^ a b c http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-8304.html
  3. ^ Donald Ferguson, ed. (1902). Title Letters from Portuguese captives in Canton, written in 1534 & 1536: with an introduction on Portuguese intercourse with China in the first half of the sixteenth century. Educ. Steam Press, Byculla. pp. 11–13.  According to Cortesão's later research, the letters were actually written in 1524.
  4. ^ a b c Ferguson 1902, pp. 14–15
  5. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xxxix. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "more charges, some of them quite fantastic, were being brought against the Portuguese. After telling us that one of the charges was that 'we bought kidnapped children of important people and ate them roasted'...Some early Chinese historians even go so far as to give vivid details of the price paid for the children and how they were roasted." 
  6. ^ Richard Stephen Whiteway (1899). The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497-1550. WEST MINSTER ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO 2 WHITEHALL GARDENS: A. Constable. p. 339. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "trade, who had been sent to India to collect drugs. It was more than two years, however, before Thome Pires could get permission to make the journey to Pekin. Fernao Pires left on his return with a very rich cargo in September 1518; his stay had not, owing to his discretion, been marked by any unpleasant incident. This expedition did not penetrate much further than Canton; one of the ships sailed to explore the Lew Chews, but failing to make good her passage, returned to the mainland at Fuhkien, where her traffic was as successful as that of her sister ships in Canton. 1 An. Mar. e Col., Series 4, p. 479. In August 1519 Simao d'Andrade, brother of Fernao Pires, made another voyage to Canton. He found Thome Pires still awaiting permission to travel to Pekin,—a permission which arrived finally in January 1520. Simao d'Andrade was a pompous braggart, he built a small fort and erected a gallows, and used the latter to hang one of his sailors—all acts which scandalized the Chinese feelings of sovereignty. He tried to prevent any ships of other nations getting cargo before his own, and he and his officers outraged the Chinese by freely buying boys and girls who, as it turned out, had been kidnapped. To crown all, on the death of the Emperor of China, Simao refused to leave the port when ordered. Several Portuguese were killed in the streets of Canton, and although at the end of June 1521 they were successful in a naval skirmish, they had to leave on 8 September 1521, fighting their way out to sea. Matters were left hopelessly embroiled, and every vessel reaching Chinese shores with a Portuguese on board was confiscated. These events reacted on the unfortunate Thome Pires. He reached Pekin, after a year's journey, in January 1521, but his reception was not encouraging. The news of the capture of Malacca, over which, through Siam, the" 
  7. ^ Richard Stephen Whiteway (1899). The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497-1550. WEST MINSTER ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE & CO 2 WHITEHALL GARDENS: A. Constable. p. 340. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Chinese claimed some shadowy influence, and of the earlier proceedings of Simao d'Andrade at Canton, had preceded him. 1 He was treated as a spy and refused even the privilege granted to other envoys, who were allowed to kneel and bow five times to the wall of the palace behind which the Emperor was said to be living. He was sent back to Canton with orders that he was to be imprisoned until Malacca was restored, and there after a few years he died." 
  8. ^ Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus (1902). Historic Macao. HONGKONG: Kelly & Walsh, limited. p. 3. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Dec. HI, Book II, Chap. VIII. 'According to a Chinese account '-foreigners from the West called Fa-lan-ki. who said they had tribute, abruptly entered the Boguc'and by their tremendously loud guns shook the place far and near. This was reported at court, and an order returned to drive them away immediately and stop the trade." Chinete Bepotitory, I, 369." 
  9. ^ Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus (1902). Historic Macao. HONGKONG: Kelly & Walsh, limited. p. 4. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "The annexation of Tamou, apparently projected when Jorge Alvares erected the padrao there, was boldly attempted by Simao de Andrade, another hero of Malacca, who in 1518 reached Tamou with a ship and three junks. For the purpose of defending the place against piratical attacks, he constructed a fort; and as a deterrent, he raised gallows on an adjacent islet, where a delinquent was eventually put to death with all the impressive formalities of an execution in Portugal—assumptions of" 
  10. ^ Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus (1902). Historic Macao. HONGKONG: Kelly & Walsh, limited. p. 5. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "The annexation of Tamou, apparently projected when Jorge Alvares erected the padrao there, was boldly attempted by Simao de Andrade, another hero of Malacca, who in 1518 reached Tamou with a ship and three junks. For the purpose of defending the place against piratical attacks, he constructed a fort; and as a deterrent, he raised gallows on an adjacent islet, where a delinquent was eventually put to death with all the impressive formalities of an execution in Portugal—assumptions of sovereignty which gave great umbrage to the Chinese government. While several towns were sacked by native marauders in the name of foreigners, the Portuguese were rendered still more hated through sensational outcries to the effect that many Cantonese boys and girls of good families had been kidnapped and sold to Simao de Andrade for the purpose of being eaten roasted. The anti-foreign prejudices thus maliciously stirred were accentuated by further high-handed measures: Simao de Andrade controlled the trade and shipping of Tamou, refused to pay duties, and ill-used a customs official severely.4 It was obviously this Andrade who thrashed a mandarin and thereby roused such animosity that, according to Gaspar da Cruz,5 it ended in his desperate retreat with the loss of some vessels; whilst as related by Couto,6 an imperial edict in big gilt characters was posted over the gate of Canton forbidding admittance to "long-bearded and large-eyed men." In almost every account of early Portuguese intercourse with China, Simlio de Andrade is held up to execration as an inhuman, wanton marplot. For his assumption of authority at Tamou, no justification is found in the exasperating intolerance of raandarindom, the rife piracy, and the necessity of founding a Portuguese stronghold on such perilous aud inhospitable shores; and while credence is readily given to every aspersion, the alleged iniquities are not even confronted with noteworthy antecedents: that Simao de Andrade, like Ferniio Peres de Andrade, was one of those distinguished officers whose sense of justice and humanity prompted them to protest against the outrageous execution of Kuy Dias; that for this reason they were put in chains; and Albuquerque himself" 
  11. ^ Arnold J. Meagher (2008). The coolie trade: the traffic in Chinese laborers to Latin America 1847-1974. Arnold J. Meagher. p. 54. ISBN 1-4363-0943-3. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "The Portuguese explorer Simao d'Andrade visited Canton witha a squadron of four ships in August 1519 and carried off a number of Chinese youths,, boys and girls, to be used as household servants and slaves.11 According to the French traveller Jean Mocquet, who visited Goa in the first decade of the seventeenth century, Chinese servants were in big" 
  12. ^ Samuel Johnson (1810). Alexander Chalmers, ed. The works of the English poets, from Chaucer to Cowper: including the series edited with prefaces, biographical and critical. Volume 21 of The Works of the English Poets: From Chaucer to Cowper; Including the Series Edited, with Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, by Dr. Samuel Johnson: and the Most Approved Translations. LONDON: J. Johnson. p. 559. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "•ommerce, a subject unworthy of grave history. The political philosopher, however, will esteem it of more importance, and will draw the best of precepts from it The king of Portugal, desirous of the trade of China, sent an ambassador and one of his captains to propose a commercial alliance. The ambassador was gladly received, and sent by land to Nankin, and the honourable behaviour of Pedro de Andrade gained the important traffic of the harbour of Canton. On this officer's return to India, Sequeyra the governor sent Simon de Andrade, brother to Pedro, with five ships to China; and whatever were his instructions, the absurdity of bis actions was only equalled by his gross insolence. As if he had arrived among beings of an inferior order, he assumed an authority like that which is claimed by man over the brute creation. He seized the island of Tamou, opposite to Canton. Here he erected a fort and a gallows ; and while he plundered the merchants, the wives and daughters of the principal inhabitants were dragged from their friends to his garrison, and the gibbet punished resistance. Nor did he stop even here. The Portuguese in India wanted slaves, and Andrade thought he had found the proper nursery. He published his design to buy the youth of both sexes, and in this inhuman traffic ha was supplied by the most profligate of the natives. These proceedings, hou ever, were soon known to tha emperor of China, and the Portuguese ambassador and his retinue died the death of spies. Andrade was attacked by the Chinese itao, or admiral, and escaped with much loss, by the favour of a tempest, after being forty days harassed by a fleet greatly superior to his own. Next year Alonzo de Melo, ignorant of these transactions, entered the harbour of Canton with four vessels. But his ships were instantly seized, and the crews massacred, as spies and robber?, by the enraged Chinese. And though the Portuguese afterwards were permitted to some trade with China, it was upon very restricted and disgraceful conditions1*, conditions which treated them as a nation of pirates, as men who were not to bs trusted unless fettered and watched. While Sequcyra was engaged in a second attempt upon Dio, Duarte de Menezes arrived in India, and succeeded him in office. Unmeaning slaughter on the coasts of Magadascar, the Red Sea, India, and the Maluco islands, comprise the whole history of his regency. About this time died Emmanuel, king of Portugal. If this history seem to arraign his government, it will also prove how difficult it is for the most vigilant prince always to receive just intelligence. For Emmanuel was both a great and a good king. Of great vigilance in council, of great magnanimity in the execution of all his enterprises: of great capacity in distinguishing the abilities of men, and naturally lilieral in the reward of merit. If such a prince as Emmanuel erred, if his administration of Indian affairs in any instance arraign his policy, let it thence be inferred, what exactitude of intelligence is necessary to the happy government of a distant colony. The trial-administration of Indian affairs was now the popular complaint at the court of Lisbon. Tha traffic of India, which had raised the caliphs of Egypt to the height of their formidable power, and which had enriched Venice, was now found scarcely sufficient to support the military method of commanding it, practised by the Portuguese. A general of t he first abilities was wanted, and the celebrated Vasco de Gama, old as he now was, honoured with the title of count de Vidigucyra, was appointed viceroy by John HI. In 1524, Gama arrived the third lime in India. Cochio, the, faithful ally, and chief trading port of the Portuguese, was threatened by a powerful army of the zamorim, and the Indian seas were infested by numberless fleets of the Moors, whom their enemies called pirates. To suppress these Gama sent different squadrons, which were successful in executing his orders. But while lie meditated far greater designs, designs of the same exalted and liberal policy which had been begun by himself, and so gloriously prosecuted by Albuquerque, death, at the end of t hree mouths, closed the regency of Gama. It was the custom of the kings of Portugal, to send commissions, or writs of succession, sealed up, to India, with orders which should be first opened when a successor to government was wanted. Gama, who brought with him three of these, finding the approach of dissolution, opened the first writ •» The Chinese had too much Dutch policy utterly to expel any merchandize from their harbours. A few days after this, the Portuguese, who bioughtgold from Africa and spicery from India, were allowed to purchase the silks, porcelain, and tea of China, at the port of Sanciam. And an event, which refutes all the Jesuitical accounts of the greatness of the power and perfection of the Chinese government, soon gave them a better settlement. A pirate named Tchang-si-lao made himself master of the little island of Macao. Here he built fleets which blocked up the ports of China, and laid siege to Canton itself. In this crisis of distress the Chinese implored the assistance of the Portuguese, whom they had lately expelled as the worst of mankind. Two or three Portuguese sloops effected what the potent empire of China could not do, and the island of Macao was given them by the emperor, in reward of this eminent service. The porcelain of China is not so brittle, nor the figures upon it mure awkward, than the Chinese strength and policy must appear in the light w hich this went throws upon thesa." 
  13. ^ Sholto Percy, Reuben Percy (1826). The Percy anecdotes: Original and select. Volume 18 of The Percy Anecdotes. VOL. LONDON: PRINTED FOR J. CUMBERLAND, 19. LUDGATE HILL.: G. Berger. p. 73. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "principal inhabitants were dragged from their friends to his garrison, and the gibbet punished resistance. Nor did he stop even here. The Portuguese in India wanted slaves, and Andrade thought he had found the proper nursery. He published his design to buy the youth of both sexes, and in this inhuman traffic, he was supplied by the most profligate of the natives. These proceedings, however, soon became known to the Emperor of China; several of the Portuguese were seized, and suffered an ignominious death; while Andrade himself escaped, with much loss, by the favour of a tempest, after being forty days harassed by a fleet greatly superior to his own. Not long after, Alonzo de Melo, ignorant of these transactions, entered the harbour of Canton with four vessels; but his ships were instantly seized, and the crews massacred by the enraged Chinese. The Chinese, however, were too politic a people to expel utterly any merchandize from their harbours. A few years having elapsed, the Portuguese who brought gold from Africa, and spices from India, were allowed to purchase the silks, porcelain, and tea, of China, at the ports of Sanciarn; and an event which refutes all the Jesuitical accounts of the greatness and power of the Chinese Empire, soon gave them a better settlement. A pirate, named Tchangsi-lao, made himself master of the little island of Macao. Here he built fleets which blocked up the ports of China, and laid siege to Canton itself. In this crisis of distress, the Chinese implored the assistance of the Portuguese, whom they had lately expelled as the worst of mankind. Two or three Portuguese ships effected what the potent empire of H China could not do, and the island of Macao was given them by the emperor, in reward for this eminent service." 
  14. ^ James Murdoch, Isoh Yamagata, Asiatic Society of Japan (1903). Joseph Henry Longford, L. M. C. Hall, ed. A history of Japan, Volume 2. K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co., ltd. p. 243. Retrieved 14 December 2011. ""Even the very lascars and scullions of the Portuguese purchase and carry slaves away. Hence it happens that many of them die on the voyage, because they are heaped up upon each other, and if their masters fall sick (these masters are sometimes Kaffirs and negroes of the Portuguese), the slaves are not cared for; it even often happens that the Kaffirs cannot procure the necessary food for them. These scullions give a scandalous example by living in debauchery with the girls they have bought, and whom some of them introduce into their cabins on the passage to Macao. I here omit the excesses committed on the lands of the pagans, where the Portuguese spread themselves to recruit youths and girls, and where they live in such a fashion that the pagans themselves are stupefied at it." It was Hideyoshi and his successors, not the Jesuits, who put down this accursed trade. One feature in it was contracts for years of servitude, and down to 1596 the Jesuits made no difficulty in giving their approval for these. Then on the representations of the (Christian) Otonas of Nagasaki, who cited Hideyoshi's severe law against the slave-trade and the execution of several Japanese for infringing it, Bishop Martinez at last issued an excommunication against all buyers of slaves, at the same time imposing a fine of ten crwuulos for every slave bought. In 1598 this measure was reaffirmed by his successor Cerqueyra." 
  15. ^ James Murdoch, Isoh Yamagata (1903). A history of Japan during the century of early foreign intercourse, 1542-1651. KOBE, JAPAN : PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE "CHRONICLE.": Published at the Office of the "Chronicle". p. 243. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "11 Orraullalion lemie par CKivfits (Jery eirn, au fjet rf« etelaves ac'itles Oh cnyayct el lmnxparta hort du Japan, 4 September 1593. One paragraph nms:—"Even the very lascars and scullions of the Portuguese purchase and carry slaves away. Hence it happens that many of them die on the voyage, because they are heaped up upon each other, and if their masters fall sick (these masters are sometimes Kaffirs and negroes of the Portuguese), the slaves are not cared for; it even often happens that the Kaffirs cannot procure the necessary food for them. These scullions give a scandalous example by living in debauchery with the girls they have bought, and whom some of them introduce into their cabins on the passage to Macao. I here omit the excesses committed on the lands of the pagans, where the Portuguese spread themselves to recruit youths and girls, and where they live in such a fashion that the pagans themselves are stupefied at it." It was Hideyoshi and his successors, not the Jesuits, who pnt down this accursed trade. One feature in it was contracts for years of servitude, and down to 1596 the Jesuits made no difficulty in giving their approval for these. Then on the representations of the (Christian) Oton.ts of Nagasaki, who cited Hideyoshi's severe law against the slave-trade and the execution of several Japanese for infringing it, Bishop Martinez at la.^t issued an excommunication against all buyers of slaves, at the same time imposing ;i fine of ten cruaufo* for every slave bought. In 1598 this measure was reaffirmed by his successor Cerqueyra." 
  16. ^ Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus (1902). Historic Macao. Kelly & Walsh, limited. p. 5. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  17. ^ Richard Stephen Whiteway (1899). The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497-1550. A. Constable. p. 339. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  18. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  19. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011. "The Portuguese, who considered all Eastern peoples legitimate prey, established trading settlements at Ningpo and in Fukien, but both were wiped out by massacres in 1545 and 1549. For some years the Portuguese were second only to the" 
  20. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  21. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  22. ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co. p. 102. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement near Ningpo which was wiped out by massacre in 1545; another Portuguese settlement in Fukien province met a similar fate in 1549, but they finally succeeded in establishing a" (the University of California)
  23. ^ Witold Rodziński (1983). A history of China, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-08-021806-7. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A further attempt was made by the Portuguese in 1 522 by Af fonso de Mello Coutinho which also suffered defeat. In spite of these initial setbacks the Portuguese succeeded, probably by bribing local officials, in establishing themselves in Ningpo (Chekiang) and in Ch' uanchou (Fukien), where considerable trade with the Chinese was developed. In both cases, however, the unspeakably brutal behavious of the Portuguese caused a revulsion of Chinese feeling against the newcomers. In 1545 the Portuguese colony in Ningpo was completely wiped out after three years of existence and later, in 1 549, the same fate met the settlement in Ch' iianchou. Somewhat later, the Portuguese did succeed finally in gaining" (the University of Michigan)
  24. ^ Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (Indiana University)
  25. ^ Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (the University of Virginia)
  26. ^ A.J. Johnson Company (1895). Charles Kendall Adams, ed. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 202. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from the University of California)
  27. ^ Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. 1909. p. 490. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  28. ^ Charles Kendall Adams (1895). Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6. NEW YORK: A.J. Johnson Co. p. 202. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from Princeton University)
  29. ^ Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1902). Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 490. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  30. ^ The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. LONDON: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "In I564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macao. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection." (Princeton University)
  31. ^ Nigel Cameron, Brian Brake (1965). Peking: a tale of three cities. Harper & Row. p. 105. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Meanwhile, as things went from bad to worse with Ming government, the first Portuguese traders arrived in South China in 1514, forerunners of many others from European countries whose activities in China were eventually to contribute in large part to the fall of the Ch'ing, last of all the Chinese dynasties, and to the tardy conversion of Chinese life to a modern, in place of a medieval, outlook. The behavior of the Portuguese, who were at first well received by the Chinese, was so reprehensible that it set the pattern of later Chinese antagonism toward foreigners in general." 
  32. ^ Wills, John E., Jr. (1998). "Relations with Maritime Europe, 1514–1662," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 2, 333–375. Edited by Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank, and Albert Feuerwerker. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24333-5, 343-344.
  33. ^ Nigel Cameron (1976). Barbarians and mandarins: thirteen centuries of Western travelers in China. Volume 681 of A phoenix book (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-226-09229-1. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "envoy, had most effectively poured out his tale of woe, of deprivation at the hands of the Portuguese in Malacca; and he had backed up the tale with others concerning the reprehensible Portuguese methods in the Moluccas, making the case (quite truthfully) that European trading visits were no more than the prelude to annexation of territory. With the tiny sea power at this time available to the Chinese" )
  34. ^ Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, ed. (1985). Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 11. ISBN 9971-988-08-9. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." )
  35. ^ Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1968). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Part 124. M. Nijhoff. p. 446. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (University of Minnesota)
  36. ^ Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Volume 124. 1968. p. 446. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of California)
  37. ^ Alijah Gordon, Malaysian Sociological Research Institute (2001). The propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay archipelago. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute,. p. 136. ISBN 983-99866-2-7. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "His reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Melaka, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of Michigan)
  38. ^ Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië, Hague (1968). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, Volume 124. M. Nijhoff. p. 446. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of Michigan)
  39. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The inexusable behavior of the Portuguese, combined with the ill-chosen language of the letters which Pires presented to the celestial emperor, supplemented by a warning from the Malay sultan of Bintan, persuaded the Chinese that Pires was indeed up to no good" )
  40. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  41. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  42. ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co. p. 102. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Fernao Pires de Andrade reached Peking, China, in 1520, but unfortunately for that Portuguese envoy, he was treated as a spy and died in a Cantonese prison. establishing a" (the University of California)
  43. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xl. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "In the meantime, after the departure of Simão de Andrade, the ship Madalena, which belonged to D. Nuno Manuel, coming from Lisbon under the command of Diogo Calvo, arrived at Tamão with some other vessels from Malacca, among them the junk of Jorge Álvares, which the year before could not sail with Simão de Andrade's fleet, because she had sprung a leak. .., the Chinese seized Vasco Calvo, a brother of Diogo Calvo, and other Portuguese who were in Canton trading ashore. On 27 June 1521 Duarte Coelho arrived with two junks at Tamão. Besides capturing some of the Portuguese vessels, the Chinese blockaded Diogo Calvo's ship and four other Portuguese vessels in Tamão with a large fleet of armed junks. A few weeks later Ambrósio do Rego arrived with two other ships. As many of the Portuguese crews had been killed in the fighting, slaughtered afterwards or taken prisoners, by this time there was not enough Portuguese for all the vessels, and thus Calvo, Coelho, and Rego resolved to abandon the junks in order the batteter to man the three ships. They set sail on 7 September and were attacked by the Chinese fleet, managing however to escape, thanks to a providential gale which scattered the enemy junks, and arrived at Malacca in October 1521. Vieira mentions other junks which arrived in China with Portuguese aboard; all were attacked, and the entire crews were killed fighting or were taken prisoners and slaughtered later." 
  44. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xl. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Finally Pires and his companions left Peking on 22 May and arrived in Canton on 22 Sept. 1521. Francisco de Budoia died during the journey. From Peking instructions were sent to Canton that the ambassador and his suite should be kept in custody, and that only after the Portuguese had evacuated Malacca and returned it to its king, a vassal of the Emperor of China, would the members of the embassy be liberated." 
  45. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack ... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xli. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. "But many others died in prison, some of hunger, many strangled, 'after carrying boards stating that they should die as sea-robbers', one struck on the head with a mallet, and others beaten to death. Pires and his companionis arrived at Canton a fortnight after the three Portuguese ships had escaped from Tamão, and they found themselves in a most difficult position... "Tomé Pires replifed that he had not come for that purpose, nor was it meet for him to discuss such a matter; that it would be evident from the letter he had brought that he had no knowledge of anthing else. . . . With these questions he kept us on our knees for four hourse; and when he had tired himself out, he sent each one back to the prison in which he was kept. On 14 August 1522 the Pochanci put fetters on the hands of Tomé Pires, and on those of the company he put fetters, and irons on their feet, url=http://books.google.com/books?id=h82D-Y0E3TwC&pg=PR40&dq=malacca+chinese+seized+portuguese+embassy&hl=en&ei=RSr1TdHSLO2o0AH9-OjrDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=pires%20companions%20fortnight%20three%20position&f=false" 
  46. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack ... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xlii. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. "clerks who were present wrote down ten and stole three hundred . . . The goods that they took from us were twenty quintals of rhubarb, one thousand five hundred or six hundred rich pieces of silk, a matter of four thousand slik handkerchiefs which the Chinese call sheu-pa (xopas) of Nanking, and many fans, and also three arrobas of musk in powerder, one thousand three hundred pods of musk, four thousand odd taels of silver and seventy or eighty taels of gold and other pices of silver, and all the cloths, url=http://books.google.com/books?id=h82D-Y0E3TwC&pg=PR40&dq=malacca+chinese+seized+portuguese+embassy&hl=en&ei=RSr1TdHSLO2o0AH9-OjrDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=rhubarb%20one%20thousand%20five%20hundred&f=false" 
  47. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xlii. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Meanwhile from India, where the news of this state of affairs had not yet arrived, another fleet of four ships under the command of Martim Afonso de Merlo Coutinho sailed for China in April 1522. Countinho had left Lisbon just one year before, commissioned by Dom Manuel with a message of good-will to the Emperor of China, for which purpose he carried another ambassador with him." 
  48. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xliii. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Coutinho's fleet of six sail left Malacca on 10 July and arrived at Tamão in August 1522. They were soon attacked by the Chinese fleet. The Portuguese had many men killed and taken prisoners, two ships and the junk were lost, and after vain efforts to re-establish relations with the Cantonese authorities, Coutinho returned with the other ships to Malacca, where he arrived in the middle of October 1522. Though some chroniclers put the blame on the Chinese, Chang quotes Chinese sources which assert that the Portuguese should be held responsible for the outbreak of hostilities." 
  49. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xlvi. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "On fol. 108v. it is stated that Martim Afonso de Melo Coutinho went from Malacca to China in 1521, but in fol. 121 it is correctly said that he arrived in 1522." 
  50. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xliii. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "According to Vieira the mandarins again ordered that Pires should write a letter to the King of Portugal, which the ambassador of the ex-king of Malacca should take to Malacca, in order that his country and people might be returned to their former master; if a satisfactory reply did not come, the Portuguese ambassador would not return. A draft letter in Chinese was sent to the imprisoned Portuguese, from which they wrote three letters, for King Manuel, the Governor of India and the Captain of Malacca. These letters were delivered to the Cantonese authorities on 1 October 1522. The Malay ambassador was not anxious to be the courier, nor was it easy to find another. At last a junk with fifteen Malays and fifteen Chinese sailed from Canton on 31 May 1523 and reached Pattani." 
  51. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xliv. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "A message came to the king of Bintang from his ambassador [in Canton], and the man who brought it soon returned. The report which the king of Bintang was spreading in the country is that the Chinese intended to come against Malacca. This is not very certain, though there are things that may happen The man who brought a message to the king of Bintang 'soon returned', says Jorge de Albuquerque. Vieira tells us that the junk 'returned with a message from the king of Malacca, and reached Canton on 5 September' (fol.110V.). . . 'On the day of St. Nicholas [6 Dec.] in the year 1522 they put boards on them [the Portuguese prisoners] with the sentence that they should die and be exposed in pillories as robbers. The sentences said: "Petty sea robbers sent by the great tobber falsely; they come to spy out our country; let them die in pillories as robbers." a report was sent to the king according to the information of the mandarins, and the king confirmed the sentence. On 23 Sept. 1523 these twenty-three persons were each one cut in pieces, to wit, heads, legs, arms, and their private members placed in their mouths, the trunk of the body being divided into two pices around the belly. In the streets of Canton," 
  52. ^ Tomé Pires, Armando Cortesão, Francisco Rodrigues (1990). Armando Cortesão, ed. The Suma oriental of Tome Pires: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to China, written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 ; and, The book of Francisco Rodrigues : Pilot-Major of the armada that discovered Banda and the Moluccas : rutter of a voyage in the red sea, nautical rules, almanack .... Volume 1 of The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, Written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515, and The Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Rutter of a Voyage in the Red Sea, Nautical Rules, Almanack and Maps, Written and Drawn in the East Before 1515 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. xlv. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "both those of Canton and those of the environs, in order to give them to understand that they thought nothing of the Portuguese, so that the people might not talk about Portuguese. Thus our ships were captured through two captains not agreeing, and so all in the ships were taken, they were all killed, and their heads and private members were carried on the backs of the Portuguese in front of the Mandarin of Canton with the playing of musical instruments and rejoicing, were exhibited suspended in the streets, and were then thrown into the dunghills." 
  53. ^ Qingxin Li (2006). Maritime silk road. 五洲传播出版社. p. 117. ISBN 7-5085-0932-3. Retrieved 21 November 2011. "From there they retreated to other islands off the coast of China including Nan'ao Island to the east of Guangdong, Shuangyu Island of Wenzhou in Zhejiang, Wuyu Island and Yue Harbor in Zhangzhou of Fujian, where they colluded with powerful and wealthy families, scoundrels of the sea and Japanese pirates, dealing in contraband and plundering. In 1547, the Ming court appointed Right Deputy Commander and imperial agent Zhu Wang as provincial commander in charge of Zhejiang and Fujian's naval defenses, strictly enforcing the ban on maritime trade and intercourse with foreign countries. Zhu Wan also destroyed the Portuguese fortress on Shuangyu Island and eradicated all Chinese and Foreign buccaneers" 
  54. ^ C. Guillot, Denys Lombard, Roderich Ptak, ed. (1998). From the Mediterranean to the China Sea: miscellaneous notes. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 179. ISBN 3-447-04098-X. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "Chinese authors have argued, the Malacca-Chinese were not treated too favorably by the Portuguese...it is generally true that Chinese ships tended to avoid Malacca after 1511, sailing to other ports instead. Presumably these ports were mainly on the east coast of the Malayan peninsula and on Sumatra. Johore, in the deep south of the peninsula, was another place where many Chinese went... After 1511, many Chinese who were Muslims sided with other Islamic traders against the Portuguese; according to The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon, Chinese settlers living on northern Java even became involved in counter-attacks on Malacca. Javanese vessels were indeed sent out but suffered a disastrous defeat. Demak and Japara alone lost more than seventy sail." 
  55. ^ Peter Borschberg, National University of Singapore. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Fundação Oriente (2004). Peter Borschberg, ed. Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka area and adjacent regions (16th to 18th century). Volume 14 of South China and maritime Asia (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 12. ISBN 3-447-05107-8. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "still others withdrew to continue business with the Javanese, Malays and Gujaratis...When the Islamic world considered counter-attacks against Portuguese Melaka, some Chinese residents may have provided ships and capital. These Chinese had their roots either in Fujian, or else may have been of Muslim descent. This group may have consisted of small factions that fled Champa after the crisis of 1471." 
  56. ^ Maria Suzette Fernandes Dias (2007). Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1-84718-111-2. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  57. ^ Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 114. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  58. ^ Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 115. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  59. ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 67. ISBN 988-8028-54-5. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "There was indeed a group of Portuguese who became pirates, called "Macau ruffians," or policemen who turned bad, along with "Manila-men" from the Philippines and escaped African slaves. Their fleet attacked “the Cantonese ships when they could get them at an advantage, and murdered their crews with circumstances of great atrocity.”55 They were destroyed in Ningbo by a fleet of Chinese pirates with the support of the local Chinese government and other Europeans." 
  60. ^ George Wingrove Cooke (1858). China: being "The Times" special correspondence from China in the years 1857-58 (reprint ed.). G. Routledge. p. 131. Retrieved 4 November 2011. (the University of California)
  61. ^ George Wingrove Cooke (1861). China and lower Bengal: being "The Times" correspondence from China in the years 1857-58 (5 ed.). Routledge, Warne, & Routledge. p. 131. Retrieved 4 November 2011. (the New York Public Library)
  62. ^ Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macao
  63. ^ http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/2649/t180139.htm
  64. ^ a b http://www.fita.org/countries/portugal.html
  65. ^ http://www.fita.org/countries/economic_and_political_outline_41.html#classification_by_country
  66. ^ Portuguese Wine Makers Eye Growing Chinese Market
  67. ^ Sino-Portuguese ties to improve via Expo 2010, officials say

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