Peperomia pellucida

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Peperomia pellucida
Peperomia pellucida.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Piperales
Family: Piperaceae
Genus: Peperomia
Species: P. pellucida
Binomial name
Peperomia pellucida
Kunth
Synonyms

Piper concinnum Haw.
Peperomia translucens Trel.
Piper pellucidum L.

Peperomia pellucida(a.k.a. pepper elder, shining bush plant) is an annual, shallow-rooted herb, usually growing to a height of about 15 to 45 cm. it is characterized by succulent stems, shiny, heart-shaped, fleshy leaves and tiny, dot-like seeds attached to several fruiting spikes. It has a mustard-like odor when crushed. The family Piperaceae comprises about a dozen genera and around 3000 species. The genus Peperomia represents nearly half of the Piperaceae with the genus Piper making the bulk of the rest.

Habitat[edit]

Flowering year-round, the plant is found in various shaded, damp habitats all over Asia and the Americas. It grows in clumps, thriving in loose, humid soils and a tropical to subtropical climate.

Uses[edit]

Peperomia pellucida has been used as a food item as well as a medicinal herb. Although mostly grown for its ornamental foliage, the entire plant is edible, both cooked and raw.

Pharmacology[edit]

The analgesic properties of the plant seem to be related to its effect on prostaglandin synthesis.[1] It may have potential as a broad spectrum antibiotic, as demonstrated in tests against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.[2] Chloroform extracts from dried leaves of P. pellucida have been shown to exhibit antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro.[3]

Anti-inflammatory activity (in paw edema) and analgesic activity has been demonstrated in rats and mice.[4]

Although the plant can cause asthma-like symptoms in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions to the species, no clinical data have yet been reported on human toxicity.

Traditional medicine[edit]

Ethnomedicinal uses for the plant vary. P. pellucida has been used for treating abdominal pain, abscesses, acne, boils, colic, fatigue, gout, headache, renal disorders, and rheumatic joint pain.[5][6] In Bolivia, Alteños Indians use the whole plant to stop hemorrhages.[citation needed] The roots are used to treat fevers and the aerial parts are used as dressing for wounds.[7] In northeastern Brazil, the plant has been used to lower cholesterol.[8] In Guyana and the Amazon region, it is a popular cough suppressant, emollient, and diuretic.[citation needed] It is also used to treat proteinuria.[9][10] In the Philippines, a decoction of the plant is used to decrease uric acid levels and to treat renal problems.[citation needed] It is also used topically for skin disorders such as acne and boils.[citation needed]

Common names[edit]

Throughout the Americas, it is known as pepper elder, silverbush, rat-ear, man-to-man, clearweed (North America); konsaka wiwiri (Suriname); coraçãozinho or "little heart" (Brazil); lingua de sapo, herva-de-vidro, herva-de-jaboti or herva-de-jabuti (South America), corazón de hombre (Cuba).[11] In Oceania, it is called rtertiil (Belauan); podpod-lahe or potpopot (Chamorro). In the different dialects of the Philippines, it is called pansit-pansitan or ulasimang-bato (Tagalog), olasiman ihalas (Bisaya), sinaw-sinaw or tangon-tangon (Bikol), lin-linnaaw (Ilocano) and "clavo-clavo" (Chavacano). In other parts of Asia, it is known as càng cua (Vietnam); pak krasang ผักกระสัง (Thailand); "krasang teap" ក្រសាំងទាប (Cambodia); suna kosho (Japan); rangu-rangu, ketumpangan or tumpang angin (Bahasa/Malay); rinrin (Nigeria), "shining bush" (Trinidad and Tobago)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aziba PI , Adedeji A , Ekor M , Adeyemi O (2001). "Analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida aerial parts in mice". Fitoterapia 72 (1): 57–58. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00249-5. PMID 11163942. 
  2. ^ Bojo AC , Albano-Garcia E , Pocsidio GN (1994). "The antibacterial activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae)". Asia Life Sci 3: 35–44. 
  3. ^ Ragasa CY , Dumato M , Rideout JA (1998). "Antifungal compounds from Peperomia pellucida". ACGC Chem Res Commun 7: 54–61. 
  4. ^ Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, et al. (2004), Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae)
  5. ^ Khan MR , Omoloso AD . Antibacterial activity of Hygrophila stricta and Peperomia pellucida . Fitoterapia . 2002;73:251-254.
  6. ^ Aziba PI , Adedeji A , Ekor M , Adeyemi O . Analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida aerial parts in mice . Fitoterapia . 2001;72:57-58
  7. ^ Muñoz V , Sauvain M , Bourdy G , et al. A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach: Part III. Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of plants used by Alteños Indians . J Ethnopharmacol . 2000;71:123-131
  8. ^ Bayma JD , Arruda MS , Müller AH , Arruda AC , Canto WC . A dimeric ArC 2 compound from Peperomia pellucida . Phytochemistry . 2000;55:779-782.
  9. ^ Arrigoni-Blank Mde F , Oliveira RL , Mendes SS , et al. Seed germination, phenology, and antiedematogenic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) H. B. K. BMC Pharmacol . 2002;2:12-19.
  10. ^ de Fatima Arrigoni-Blank M , Dmitrieva EG , Franzotti EM , Antoniolli AR , Andrade MR , Marchioro M . Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae) . J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;91:215-218.
  11. ^ Roig y Mesa, Juan Tomás (1962). Diccionario Botánico de Nombres Vulgares Cubanos Tomo I 3ª edición. La Habana:Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria. 

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