Perceived Stress Scale
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The Perceived Stress Scale was developed to measure the degree to which situations in one’s life are appraised as stressful. Psychological stress has been defined as the extent to which persons perceive (appraise) that their demands exceed their ability to cope.
The PSS was published in 1983, and has become one of the most widely used psychological instruments for measuring nonspecific perceived stress. It has been used in studies assessing the stressfulness of situations, the effectiveness of stress-reducing interventions, and the extent to which there are associations between psychological stress and psychiatric and physical disorders.
The PSS predicts both objective biological markers of stress and increased risk for disease among persons with higher perceived stress levels. For example, those with higher scores (suggestive of chronic stress) on the PSS fend worse on biological markers of aging, cortisol levels, immune markers, depression, infectious disease, wound healing, and prostate-specific antigen levels in men.
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