Performance-enhancing drugs

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Performance-enhancing drugs (also known as PEDs) are substances used to improve performance. Although the phrase performance-enhancing drugs is popularly used in reference to anabolic steroids or their precursors (hence the colloquial term "steroids"), anti-doping organizations apply the term broadly.[1]


Performance-enhancing drugs are used by athletes and bodybuilders. Use of cognitive performance enhancers by students is sometimes referred to as academic doping. They are also used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.[2]


The phrase has been used to refer to several distinct classes of drugs:


The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing drugs are not entirely clear-cut and objective. As in other types of categorization, certain prototype performance enhancers are universally classified as such (like anabolic steroids), whereas other substances (like vitamins and protein supplements) are virtually never classified as performance enhancers despite their effects on performance. As is usual with categorization, there are borderline cases; caffeine, for example, is considered a performance enhancer by some but not others.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Performance-Enhancing Drug Resources". Drug Free Sport. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Anon. Better Fighting Through Chemistry? The Role of FDA Regulation in Crafting the Warrior of the Future. Food and Drug Law: Final Paper. March 8, 2004.
  3. ^ McKelvey Martin, Valerie. "Drugs in Sport". Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "Stimulants". Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "Caffeine and Sports Performance". Retrieved 2012-03-04. 

External links[edit]