Perfume intolerance

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Perfume intolerance is a condition wherein people exhibit sensitivity or allergic reactions to ingredients in perfume, such as Balsam of Peru.[1]

The most common allergic reactions to perfume or fragrances added to products is contact dermatitis,[2][3] though other symptoms may occur, including allergic conjunctivitis.[4]

Balsam of Peru was the main recommended marker for perfume allergy before 1977, which is still advised. The presence of Balsam of Peru in a cosmetic will be denoted by the INCI term Myroxylon pereirae.[5][1] In some instances, Balsam of Peru is listed on the ingredient label of a product by one of its various names, but it may not be required to be listed by its name by mandatory labeling conventions (in fragrances, for example, it may simply be covered by an ingredient listing of "fragrance").[6][7][8][9][10]

The diagnosis of the causal allergen is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix. This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7–4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix.

Two studies show that inhalant-like allergies and sensitivity/intolerances are experienced by a subset of the US population, in the form of asthma and chemical sensitivities. Results aggregated from both surveys found that 30.5% of the general population[11] reported scented products on others irritating, 19% reported adverse health effects from air fresheners, and 10.9% reported irritation by scented laundry products vented outside.

Household products, such as soaps and detergents, perfume products, cosmetics, and other consumer goods, are estimated to use 2,500 different fragrance ingredients. Of those, approximately 100 different substances are known to elicit responses in at least some individuals. An estimated 1.7-4.1% of the general population shows a contact allergic response to a mix of common perfume ingredients.[12]

Although products can be labeled "fragrance-free", many still contain lesser-known fragrance chemicals that consumers may not recognize.[13]

Cinnamaldehyde (cinnamic aldehyde)[14][15] is a common fragrance allergen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jeanne Duus Johansen, Peter J. Frosch, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin (2010). Contact Dermatitis. Springer. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  2. ^ http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/SAIYASOMBATI%20PENPAN.pdf?ucin1061561348
  3. ^ https://depts.washington.edu/exposure/article_faqs.html
  4. ^ http://www.mckinley.illinois.edu/handouts/allergies.htm
  5. ^ M. H. Beck; S. M. Wilkinson (2010), "Contact Dermatitis: Allergic", Rook's Textbook of Dermatology 2 (8th ed.), Wiley, p. 26.40 
  6. ^ Alexander A. Fisher (2008). Fisher's Contact Dermatitis. PMPH-USA. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  7. ^ Jeanne Duus Johansen, Peter J. Frosch, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin (2010). Contact Dermatitis. Springer. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  8. ^ Phyllis A. Balch (2002). Prescription for Herbal Healing. Penguin. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  9. ^ William D. James, Timothy Berger, Dirk Elston (2011). Andrew's Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  10. ^ Hongbo Zhai, Howard I. Maibach (2004). Dermatotoxicology, Sixth Edition. CRC Press. Retrieved March 13, 2014. 
  11. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19326669
  12. ^ "Fragrance Contact Allergy: A Clinical Review". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. Retrieved 11 Feb 2012. "Fragrance ingredients are also one of the most frequent causes of contact allergic reactions. The diagnosis is made by patch testing with a mixture of fragrance ingredients, the fragrance mix. This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7–4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix." 
  13. ^ "Exposing covert fragrance chemicals". Am. J. Contact Dermatitis 12 (4): 225–8. December 2001. doi:10.1053/ajcd.2001.28697. PMID 11753900. 
  14. ^ http://www.emeraldmaterials.com/epm/kalama/micms_doc_admin.display?p_customer=FISKALAMA&p_name=PRODBULL-CINNAMICALDEHYDE.PDF
  15. ^ http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/SAIYASOMBATI%20PENPAN.pdf?ucin1061561348

Further reading[edit]

  • Elberling J, Linneberg A, Dirksen A, Johansen JD, Frølund L, Madsen F, et al. Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity. Clin Exp Allergy 2005
  • Kumar P, Caradonna-Graham VM, Gupta S, Cai X, Rao PN, Thompson J. Inhalation challenge effects of perfume scent strips in patients with asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995

External links[edit]