|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
|• Total||34.41 km2 (13.29 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Perinthalmanna is a town and municipality in Malappuram district of Kerala. Perinthalmanna's name is derived from Perumthallu (Malayalam: പെരുന്തല്ല്, the native name for fight). It was the capital of Valluvanad, a princely state ruled by the Valluvakonathiris, a suspected[by whom?] branch of the Pallava dynasty of the ancient Tamil kingdoms. The members of the royal families are divided among them and living in four kovilakams: Aripra, Ayiranazi, Kadannamanna and Mankada.
Perinthalmanna is the location where the East India Company established their first high school, first court, first Taluk office, and more after the Malabar treaty. Perinthalmanna has four hospitals, including a medical college, attracting patients from other parts of Kerala and from outside of India. Due to the abundance of medical centers in town, it is now called the Hospital Town of Kerala. For several centuries, Perinthalmanna was known as a center of trading and commercial activities. The town became a municipality on 10 February 1990.
- 1 Origin of the name
- 2 Historic Perinthalmanna
- 3 The British period
- 4 Politics
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Tourism
- 7 Pilgrim centres
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Educational Institutions
- 10 The medical revolution
- 11 Notable people
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Origin of the name
Etymologically, Perintalmanna derives its name from the Malayalam words "perum" (Malayalam: പെരും, meaning "big") + "thallu" (തല്ല്, meaning "fight") + "mannu" (മണ്ണ്, meaning "land") to mean "land of big, rigorous fights". The original word "Perumthallumannu" was replaced by "Perintalmanna" over time. The traditions associated with this ancient town state that in the olden days, sporting events, including martial activities, were organized under the leadership of Kakooth Nair's, the commander-in-chief of the Valluvakkonathiris. These sporting events were organized before Angadipuram Thirumandhamkunnu Temple (see below) festival, which was celebrated after the harvesting of crops in the month of Makara, which corresponds to the months of January/February of the Gregorian calendar. Another main event of the festival was the Aattakalam or the stage for Kathakali performance. People from a cross-section of the society participated in these festivities, and everyone wanted to see the place were the Perinthallu or Perumthallu (that is, the rigorous fighting) took place. It was a place situated to the east of Angadipuram, and became known as Perinthallu, and got modified to its present form of Perintalmanna under British influence.
In the olden days,[when?] Valluvanad was an independent princely state. The ruler of Valluvanad was a witness during the offering of the title deed by King Veeraraghava. After the death of Cheraman Perumal, Kerala was divided among the rulers of Thiruvithamcoore, Kochi, Kolothunaadu, Kurumbanadu and Valluvanad states. The post of the ruler of Valluvanad was known as Valluvakkonathiri. The eldest member of Ayirazhi- Kadannamanna-aripra 'Kovilakam' became the Valluvakkonathiri. At first, the capital of Valluvanad was Kuruvaand, and later, Angadipuram became the capital. As it was the land ruled by the Valluvakkonathiri, it came to be known as Valluvanad. Even at that time Perinthalmanna was considered to be the main center of Valluvanad. Both Perinthalmanna province and Angadipuram province were together known as Angadipuram. In the past, the Perinthalmanna High School was known as Angadipuram Elementary School.
The British period
From 1835 until late 19th century, violent disturbances surfaced from time to time in different parts of the Malabar region, particularly in Eranad and Valluvanad, and the adjoining areas, which included Perintalmanna. These disturbances and uprisings were agrarian unrest. After these disturbances subsided, relative peace returned to an area approximately equivalent to the modern state of Kerala. Malabar came under the direct administrative control of the British raj, and was made a part of the Madras Presidency.
In 1921, the Mappila rebellion, also known as the Mopla riots, occurred. These incidents also affected Valluvanad. There were large-scale religious violence and riots in different parts of Valluvanad, followed by large-scale exodus of people from the affected areas.Those anti social elements who were determined to fish in troubled waters largely contributed to give it a communal colour. Rumours were spread that large scale forcible conversions were taking place and those who resisted were massacred by the Muslim groups. The involvement of a large number of anti social elements in the violence and looting at Perinthalmanna made the then British Government to establish a police station and install imported communication equipments from France. It facilitated easy passage of messages to the superior officers. The available British records of 1921 incidents say that a large number of people from the surrounding places of Perinthalmanna were subjected to summary execution, for being disobedient to the British soldiers. An interesting part of the 1921 incidents is that there were very little Mopila families to receive the financial assistance and rations offered by the British government after the rebellion was crushed, as the relief works were as strong as ever among the Muslims of Perinthalmanna.
An investigation carried out by Sir Logan, the Collector and District Magistrate of Wygram found that the report given by Sir Steinch, stating that the riots sprang from religious fanaticism, was wrong. Sir Logan was appointed as a special officer to investigate the matter and the truth behind the complaint that the landlords did not give land to construct mosques. The report submitted by Sir Logan stated that the Muslims considered it to be a religious right to take arms against the landlords who maltreated the tenants and the government which supported such landlords.
The looting of the government treasury by the rioters rocked Valluvanad. Rumours surrounding this looting instigated violence in Eranad and many other parts of Valluvanad, but most of the residents of Perintalmanna had, to a certain extent, refrained themselves from indulging in violence. The main reason for this was the social and cultural amity that existed in Perintalmanna for centuries.
Local self governance
Perintalmanna was at first under Malappuram Taluk board, and then under the Valluvanad Taluk board. This place became a Panchayat in 1933, and the Panchayat office was situated in the building where the lower primary school functioned. The first Panchayat president was P. Achuthan Menon. According to the local bodies Act, the Panchayat president was selected by organizing a public meeting and raising of hands to show support for a member. All the executive powers were vested on the Panchayat president.
Perinthalmanna assembly constituency is part of the Malappuram (Lok Sabha constituency)
Nalakath soopy is one influential politician from the town who has played a key role to accelerate the progress of the town
He came to active politics through the Muslim Students Federation and held high position in the party. He was elected to the Kerala Legislative Assembly from Perinthalmanna Constituency in 1980 for the first time, and re elected to the Assembly in all the General Elections till 2001. Served as the Minister for Education from 2001 to 2004 in A.K. Antony Ministry..
The Shoranur-Nilambur Railway Line passes through Angadipuram, which is a town merely 3 km from Perinthalmanna. The NH 213 passes through the town centre, crossing the Perumbilavu-Nilambur State Highway.
Angadipuram, which is roughly 3 km (2 mi) from Perinthalmanna is an important railway station on the Shoranur-Nilambur railway line. There are 7 pairs of trains running daily in the Shoranur-Nilambur section via Angadipuram including Rajya Rani Express to Thiruvananthapuram. Computerised reservation facility is available at Angadipuram Railway Station from 08:00 to 14:00 hours. Reservation for any train can be reserved from here.
The town is on the NH 213 and well-connected. Plenty of private and K.S.R.T.C. buses are available to Kozhikode, Palakkad, Thrissur, Guruvayur, Nilambur, Malappuram, Valanchery, Kottakkal and Manjeri. K.S.R.T.C. operates long distance buses to Sultan Battery, Kalpetta and southern Kerala. Interstate buses to Coimbatore, Madurai, Pondicherry, Gudalur[disambiguation needed], Chennai and Hassan are available. There is high demand to start Perinthalmanna - Ernakulam Jetty service through Guruvayur
- Kulirmala: This hill, which lies close to Perinthalmanna town, is the highest point from where to get a glimpse of the whole town and the neighboring places. It has a verdant landscape with water springs. This place is near to town.
- Olingara: Situated near the PTM Government College, it is one of the highest regions blessed with water springs which have never dried up, even in summer.
- Kodikuthimala: A scenic hilltop near Perinthalmanna town, named after the flag-hoisting during the survey conducted by the British, it has elevation of about 2,000 ft (610 m) above sea level. It has a 6 km (3.7 mi) path to reach the top. Its panoramic view attracts tourists from all over Kerala. The view includes several mountains and rivers surrounding Perinthalmanna town. The watch tower, suicide point and waterfalls are famous. Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC) is now developing it further as a tourist spot.
- Pathaikkara: This is a scenic Valluvanadan village place near Perintalmanna. It is a famous village in Perintalmanna Municipality. There are so many temples and mosques situated there. Pathaikkara Mana is one of the well-known Namboothiri illam in Kerala. Pathaikara Sree Mahavishnu Temple near Kargil jn. is a very famous Vishnu temple in Valluvanad, and now developing the temple as another important attraction of Pathaikara.
The kind of cosmopolitan existence that Perinthalmanna has, is best reflected in the presence of its several pilgrim centres. Pilgrim centres of all religions abound in this tiny region. Religion is the heartbeat of this town, and the followers of all the major religions namely Hinduism, Islam and Christianity, have lived here for centuries. Together came up temples, mosques, churches and spiritual centers. There is a very long list of temples, mosques and tombs and churches spread all over Perinthalmanna.
- Arakkuparambu Thanakursi Narasimha Kshethram. Situated 13 km north-east of Perintalmanna with significant cultural and historical importance. Arakkuparamba is connected with the age of "PANDAVAS". 'Arakkkillam ' made up of wax to cheat and kill pandavas by the kauravas. Formerly 42 Namboodiri families lived in this village. All 40 Illam were burned with Arakkillam and only 2 Illam remain in this village. Late Senior Karuthedam Neelakandan Namboodiri is the Thanthri and caretaker of Narasimha Moorhty at his lifetime and not married, even though 'Moose' elder brother in the family. Karuthedam is the main landlord family in this village and owrned lands from the Kodikuthy Mala to Paduvanthodu in Alanallur.
- Juma Masjid: This mosque was built at the time of the incursion of Tippu. It is situated near the private bus station, on Ootty road, and accommodates 12,000 worshippers on most Fridays.
- Salafi Masjid: A mosque of the town which has Malayalam qutba, run by Mujahids.
- Valyangadi Palli/Mosque: Most prominent mosque which could be considered the oldest in the locality, catering to about 1000 worshippers for Friday mass. In the Masjid Compound, there is a pond which never dries.
- Pattani Mosque: It is named after the group of people who came with logistic support for the soldiers of Tippu sulthan.
One can see a large number of small Namaskara pallis in and around the town mainly on the shore of a thodu which have been in existence for centuries.
As of 2001[update] India census, Perinthalmanna had a population of 44,613. Males constituted 48% of the population and females 52%. Perinthalmanna has had an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83%, and female literacy is 79%. In Perinthalmanna, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.
- Ezhukannippalam, The oldest railway bridge on the British periods
The academic growth of Perintalmanna is best reflected with its number of educational institutions, including the Malappuram Centre of Alighar Muslim University(established in 2012) at Chelamala. There is a long list of schools and colleges spread all over Perintalmanna.
- Darul falah English school,poopalam-it is one of the best schools of perinthalmanna
- AMUP School Poovathani is the one of the oldest aided school located at Poovathani managing by Mr. CH Aboobacker. The school is well known for its producing of a highly educated generation which is straightening out Poovathani from surrounding villages like Kambram, Vattapparambu, Karinkallathani etc.
- AUP School Arakkuparamba managed and owned by Kauthedath Mana family members.
- I.S.S. English Medium Senior Secondary School: I.S.S. E.M. School is a famous name in the educational map of Malabar region. The school was formed in the year 1982, with a view to establish an institution which gives importance for academic, as well as spiritual, education. The venture which glows with its Silver Jubilee Celebrations is affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education. It has aligned its vision and activities in line with the current and future needs of the society.
- Presentation English Medium High School
- Sree Valluvanad Vidya Bhavan
- Government High School
- St Mary's H S S Pariyapuram
- St Mary's College Puthanagadi
- Fathima U P School Pariyapuram
- Tharakan H S S Angadipuram
- M.J. Academy
- M.E.S. Central School
- M.E.A. Engineering College
- Pookoya Thangal Memorial Government College
- M.E.S. Academy of Medical Sciences
- Government Polytechnic College
- Moulana Institute of Nursing And Paramedical Sciences
- M.E.S. School of Nursing
- Alshifa School of Nursing And Pharmacy
- Mic English Medium School,Cherukara
- Hamad ITC
- perfect ITI
- al-kamil ITI & institute technology
- perfect teachers' training institute
- SNDP Sathabdi Smaraka College
- Silvermount International School- The first and only international school of perinthalmanna. Started in 2009 by a group of young professionals from Perintalmanna. Affiliated to Cambridge International Education and now affiliated to CBSE. Widely accepted as the best and innovative school in Perintalmanna.
- Aura Edify Global School: Perinthalmanna attracted the educational groups, which was awarded as India's Most emerging K12 School of the year 2011. The school was launched by Padma Shree Yousufali M.A., Managing Director of EMKE Group.it is the best school of perinthalmanna
- Al Salama College of Optometry
- Al Salama Institute of Architecture
- Al Salama School of Interior Design
The medical revolution
In this town of about 50,000 population, there are about 400 doctors practising their profession. There are 4 major tertiary care hospitals which have the most modern facilities at affordable costs. It costs around Rs. 20,000 for an angioplasty. The orthopaedics wing in one of the hospitals is considered to be among the best in the country and joint replacements are done at similar rates. It has already developed to be known as a medical town with people near and far relying on the major hospitals for treatment. A good number of Arab nationals also visit this place with their families for treatment.Apart from the private run hospitals, there is a MES medical college which admits students for MBBS and BDS corses.There is a Taluk hospital situated at the heart of the town which acts as a relief to the poor sections of society. The progress achieved by Perinthalmanna in such a short period of about 25 years can be attributed to the hospital industry.The flow of money from the gulf countries started with a large number of people from this region finding jobs abroad, especially in the gulf countries, earning money, and sending it to their families here.Some of those who had enough education were fortunate enough to land highly paid jobs abroad.The investment of such NRI money in various forms of business resulted in employing the local population here and thus alleviating poverty..Two major tertiary hospital which have an international face were ventures of NRIs.The setting up of a whole chain of hospitals across all classes of medicine were triggered by the start of these two major tertiary care hospitals.
- Poonthanam, author of the poem Njanappana
- E.M.S. Namboodiripad, born in Elamkulam
- Nalakath Soopy, MLA for 26 years from 1980- 2006 and former Minister for Education
- Nanthanar P.C. Gopalan,the author of "Unnikkuttante Oru Divasam " and such beautiful novels born at angadippuram
- Cherukadu a notable marxian writer born at Eravimangalam
- Vazhenkada Kunju Nair, an outstanding Kathakali mastero born at Vazhenkada
- Ajeesh Kumar , Logistics Analyst UK
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Perintalmanna.|
- "Assembly Constituencies - Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies". Kerala. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.