Properties of metals, metalloids and nonmetals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Periodic table color-coded to show metals, metalloids, and nonmetals.
In the periodic table, metals occupy most of the left and centre sections; a narrow diagonal band of metalloids separates them from the nonmetals in the upper right corner.

The chemical elements can be broadly divided into metals, metalloids and nonmetals according to their shared physical and chemical properties. All metals have a shiny appearance (at least when freshly polished); are good conductors of heat and electricity; form alloys with other metals; and have at least one basic oxide. Metalloids are metallic-looking brittle solids that are either semiconductors or exist in semiconducting forms, and have amphoteric or weakly acidic oxides. Typical nonmetals have a dull, coloured or colourless appearance; are brittle when solid; are poor conductors of heat and electricity; and have acidic oxides. Most or some elements in each category share a range of other properties; a few elements have properties that are either anomalous given their category, or otherwise extraordinary.

Shared properties[edit]


Pure (99.97 %+) iron chips, electrolytically refined, accompanied by a high purity (99.9999 % = 6N) 1 cm3 cube
Main article: Metal

Metals appear lustrous (beneath any patina); form mixtures (alloys) when combined with other metals; tend to lose or share electrons when they react with other substances; and each forms at least one predominately basic oxide.

Most metals are silvery looking, high density, relatively soft and easily deformed solids with good electrical and thermal conductivity, closely packed structures, low ionisation energies and electronegativities, and are found naturally in combined states.

Some metals appear coloured (Cu, Cs, Au), have low densities (e.g. Be, Al) or very high melting points, are liquids at or near room temperature, are brittle (e.g. Os, Bi), not easily machined (e.g. Ti, Re), or are noble (hard to oxidise) or have nonmetallic structures (Mn and Ga are structurally analogous to, respectively, white P and I).

Metals comprise the large majority of the elements, and can be subdivided into several different categories. From left to right in the periodic table, these categories include the highly reactive alkali metals; the less reactive alkaline earth metals, lanthanides and radioactive actinides; the archetypal transition metals, and the physically and chemically weak post-transition metals. Specialized subcategories such as the refractory metals and the noble metals also exist.


A shiny silver-white medallion with a striated surface, irregular around the outside, with a square spiral-like pattern in the middle.
Tellurium, described by Dmitri Mendeleev as forming a transition between metals and nonmetals[1]
Main article: Metalloid

Metalloids are metallic looking brittle solids; tend to share electrons when they react with other substances; have weakly acidic or amphoteric oxides; and are usually found naturally in combined states.

Most are semiconductors, and moderate thermal conductors, and have structures that are more open than those of most metals.

Some metalloids (As, Sb) conduct electricity like metals.

The metalloids, as the smallest major category of elements, are not subdivided further.


25 ml of bromine, a dark red-brown liquid at room temperature
Main article: Nonmetal

Nonmetals have open structures (unless solidified from gaseous or liquid forms); tend to gain or share electrons when they react with other substances; and do not form distinctly basic oxides.

Most are gases at room temperature; have relatively low densities; are poor electrical and thermal conductors; have relatively high ionisation energies and electronegativities; form acidic oxides; and are found naturally in uncombined states in large amounts.

Some nonmetals (C, black P, S and Se) are brittle solids at room temperature (although each of these also have malleable, pliable or ductile allotropes).

From left to right in the periodic table, the nonmetals can be subdivided into the polyatomic nonmetals which, being nearest to the metalloids, show some incipient metallic character; the diatomic nonmetals, which are essentially nonmetallic; and the monatomic noble gases, which are almost completely inert.

Comparison of properties[edit]

Number of metalloid properties that resemble metals or nonmetals or are reasonably distinct
     Resemble metals        Relatively distinctive     Resemble nonmetals  
Properties compared: (36) 
 6 (17%) 25  (69%) 5 (14%)
Physical (20) 
 4 (20%) 14  (70%) 2 (10%)
 • Presentation & structure  (10) 
 2 2         
 • Thermodynamics (4) 
 • Electronics (6) 
Chemical (16) 
 2 (13%) 11  (69%) 3 (19%)
 • Elemental chemistry (6) 
 • Combined form chemistry (6) 
 • Environmental chemistry (4) 

The characteristic properties of metals and nonmetals are quite distinct, as shown in the table below. Metalloids, straddling the metal-nonmetal border, are mostly distinct from either, but in a few properties resemble one or the other, as shown in the shading of the metalloid column below and summarized in the small table at the top of this section.

Authors differ in where they divide metals from nonmetals and in whether they recognize an intermediate metalloid category. Some authors count metalloids as nonmetals with weakly nonmetallic properties.[n 1] Others count some of the metalloids as post-transition metals with weakly metallic properties.[citation needed]

Physical and chemical properties of the three major categories of chemical elements[n 2]
Metals[7] Metalloids Nonmetals[7]
Presentation and structure (top)
Colour nearly all are shiny and grey-white
Cu, Cs, Au shiny and golden
shiny and grey-white[8] most are colourless or dull red, yellow, green, or intermediate shades[9]
C, P, Se, I shiny and grey-white
Reflectivity intermediate to typically high[10][11] intermediate[12][13] zero or low (mostly)[14] to intermediate[15]
Form almost all solid
Rb, Cs, Fr, Ga, Hg liquid at/near stp[16][17][n 3]
all solid[8] most gaseous[19]
C, P, S, Se, I solid; Br liquid
Density generally high, with some exceptions such as the alkali metals[20] lower than neighbouring metals but higher than neighbouring nonmetals[21] often low
Deformability (as a solid) typically ductile and malleable brittle[22] brittle
Poisson's ratio[n 4] low to high[n 5] low to intermediate[n 6] low to intermediate[n 7]
Crystalline structure at freezing point Most are hexagonal or cubic, or distortions thereof (Be; Zn, Cd; In; U, Np)
Ga orthorhombic; Sn, Pa tetragonal; Sm trigonal; Hg, Bi rhombohedral; Pu monoclinic
B, As, Sb rhombohedral
Si, Ge cubic
Te hexagonal
Majority are orthorhombic (P, S, Cl, Br, I) or FCC (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)
H, C, N, Se hexagonal; He HCP; O, F cubic
Packing & coordination number close-packed crystal structures;[37]
high coordination numbers
relatively open crystal structures
medium coordination numbers[38]
open structures
low coordination numbers
Atomic radius
intermediate to very large
112–298 pm, average 187
small to intermediate: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te
87–123 pm, av. 115.5
very small to intermediate
31–120 pm, av. 76.4
Allotropy[n 8] around half form allotropes
a few have atypically metalloidal/nonmetallic forms, e.g. Sn(grey), Bi(thin-film)
all or nearly all form allotropes
some have atypically nonmetallic forms, e.g. B(red), As(yellow)
over half form allotropes
some have atypically metalloidal/metallic forms, e.g. C(graphite), P(black), Se(grey), I(crystalline)
Thermodynamics (top)
Thermal conductivity medium to high[39] mostly intermediate;[22][40] Si is high almost negligible[41] to very high[42]
Temperature coefficient of resistance[n 9] nearly all positive (Pu is negative)[43] negative (B, Si, Ge, Te)[44] or positive (As, Sb)[45] nearly all negative (C, as graphite, is positive in the direction of its planes)[46][47]
Melting behaviour volume generally expands[48] some contract, unlike (most)[49] metals[50] volume generally expands[48]
Enthalpy of fusion low to high intermediate to very high very low to low (except C is very high)
Electronics (top)
Electrical conductivity good to high[n 10] intermediate[52] to good[n 11] poor to good[n 12]
... as a liquid[58] falls gradually as temperature rises[n 13] most behave like metals[60][61] increases as temperature rises
Periodic table block s, p, d, f [62] p [63] s, p [63]
Outer s and p electrons few in number (1–3)
except 0(Pd); 4(Sn,Pb,Fl); 5(Bi); 6(Po)
medium number (3–6) high number (4–8)
except 1(H); 2(He)
Electron bands: (valenceconduction) nearly all have substantial band overlap
Bi has slight band overlap (semimetal)
most have narrow band gap (semiconductors)
As, Sb are semimetals
most have wide band gap (insulators)
C (graphite) is a semimetal
P (black), Se, I are semiconductors
Electron behaviour "free" electrons (facilitating electrical and thermal conductivity) valence electrons less freely delocalized; considerable covalent bonding present[64]
have Goldhammer-Herzfeld criterion[n 14] ratios straddling unity[60][68]
no, few, or directionally confined "free" electrons (generally hampering electrical and thermal conductivity)
Elemental chemistry (top)
Overall behaviour metallic nonmetallic[69] nonmetallic
Ion formation tend to form cations some tendency to form anions in water;[6]
solution chemistry dominated by formation and reactions of oxyanions[70][71]
tend to form anions
Bonds seldom form covalent compounds form salts as well as covalent compounds[72] form many covalent compounds
Oxidation number nearly always positive positive or negative[73] positive or negative
Ionization energy relatively low intermediate[74][75] high
Electronegativity usually low Pauling: close to 2[76]
Allen: in narrow range 1.9–2.2[77][n 15]
Combined form chemistry (top)
With metals form alloys can form alloys[72][80][81] form ionic or interstitial compounds
With carbon carbides and organometallic compounds same as metals carbon-nonmetal (e.g. CO2, CS2)[n 16] or organic (e.g. CH4, C6H12O6) compounds
Hydrides alkali, alkaline earth metals: form ionic, solid hydrides with high melting points;
transition metals: metallic hydrides;
post-transition metals: covalent hydrides
covalent, volatile hydrides[82] covalent, gaseous or liquid hydrides
Oxides nearly all solid (Mn2O7 is a liquid)
very few glass formers[83]
lower oxides: ionic and basic
higher oxides: more covalent, acidic
glass formers (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te)[84]
polymeric in structure;[85] tend to be amphoteric or weakly acidic[8][86]
solid, liquid or gaseous
few glass formers (P, S, Se)[87]
covalent, acidic
Sulfates do form[n 17][n 18] most form[n 19] some form[n 20]
Halides, esp. chlorides (see also[108]) ionic, involatile
mostly water soluble (not hydrolysed)
higher halides, those of weaker metals:[109] greater covalency and volatility, and more or less prone to hydrolysis (layer-lattice types often reversibly so)[110] and to dissolution in organic solvents
covalent, volatile[111]
some partly reversibly hydrolysed[112]
usually dissolve in organic solvents[113]
covalent, volatile
most irreversibly[114] hydrolysed by water
usually dissolve in organic solvents
Environmental chemistry (top)
Molar composition of Earth's ecosphere[n 21] about 14%, mostly Al, Na, Ng, Ca, Fe, K about 17%, mostly Si about 69%, mostly O, H
Primary form on Earth most occur in combined states, as carbonates, silicates, phosphates, oxides, sulfides, or halides
some (e.g. Au, Cu, Ag, Pt) occur in free or uncombined states[118]
all occur in combined states, as borates, silicates, sulfides, or tellurides majority (C, N, O, S, noble gases) occur in free or uncombined states in large amounts
others occur only in combined states, as phosphates, oxides, selenides or halides (except H,[n 22] F[n 23], Se)
Required by mammals large amounts needed: Na, Mg, K, Ca
trace amounts needed of some others
trace amounts needed: B, Si, As large amounts needed: H, C, N, O, P, S, Cl
trace amounts needed: Se, Br, I
only noble gasses not needed
Composition of the human body, by weight about 1.5% Ca
traces of most others through 92U
trace amounts of B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te about 97% O, C, H, N, P
others detectable except noble gases

Anomalous properties[edit]

There were exceptions…in the periodic table, anomalies too—some of them profound. Why, for example, was manganese such a bad conductor of electricity, when the elements on either side of it were reasonably good conductors? Why was strong magnetism confined to the iron metals? And yet these exceptions, I was somehow convinced, reflected special additional mechanisms at work…

Oliver Sacks
Uncle Tungsten (2001, p. 204)

Within each category, elements can be found with one or two properties very different from the expected norm, or that are otherwise notable.


  • Sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, barium, platinum, gold
    The common notions that "alkali metal ions (group 1A) always have a +1 charge"[120] and that "transition elements do not form anions"[121] are textbook errors. The synthesis of a crystalline salt of the sodium anion Na was reported in 1974. Since then further compounds ("alkalides") containing anions of all other alkali metals except Li and Fr, as well as that of Ba, have been prepared. In 1943, Sommer reported the preparation of the yellow transparent compound CsAu. This was subsequently shown to consist of caesium cations (Cs+) and auride anions (Au) although it was some years before this conclusion was accepted. Several other aurides (KAu, RbAu) have since been synthesized, as well as the red transparent compound Cs2Pt which was found to contain Cs+ and Pt2− ions.
  • Manganese
    Well-behaved metals have crystal structures featuring unit cells with up to four atoms. Manganese has a complex crystal structure with a 58-atom unit cell, effectively four different atomic radii, and four different coordination numbers (10, 11, 12 and 16). It has been described as resembling "a quaternary intermetallic compound with four Mn atom types bonding as if they were different elements."[122] The half-filled 3d shell of manganese appears to be the cause of the complexity. This confers a large magnetic moment on each atom. Below 727 °C, a unit cell of 58 spatially diverse atoms represents the energetically lowest way of achieving a zero net magnetic moment.[123] The crystal structure of manganese makes it a hard and brittle metal, with low electrical and thermal conductivity. At higher temperatures "greater lattice vibrations nullify magnetic effects"[122] and manganese adopts less complex structures.[124]
  • Iron, cobalt, nickel, gadolinium, dysprosium
    The only elements strongly attracted to magnets are iron, cobalt, and nickel at room temperature, gadolinium just below, and dysprosium at ultra cold temperatures (below −185 °C).
  • Iridium
    The only element encountered with an oxidation state of +9 is iridium, in the [IrO4]+ cation. Other than this, the highest known oxidation state is +8, in Ru, Xe, Os, Ir, Pu, Cm, and Hs.[125]
  • Gold
    The malleability of gold is extraordinary: a fist sized lump can be hammered and separated into one million paper back sized sheets, each 10 nm thick.
  • Mercury
    1. Bricks and bowling balls will float on the surface of mercury thanks to it having a density 13.5 times that of water. Equally, a solid mercury bowling ball would weigh around 50 pounds and, if it could be kept cold enough, would float on the surface of liquid gold.
    2. The only metal having an ionisation energy higher than some nonmetals (sulfur and selenium) is mercury.
    3. Mercury and its compounds have a reputation for toxicity but on a scale of 1 to 10, dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) (abbr. DMM), a volatile colourless liquid, has been described as a 15. It is so dangerous that scientists have been encouraged to use less toxic mercury compounds wherever possible. In 1997, Karen Wetterhahn, a professor of chemistry specialising in toxic metal exposure, died of mercury poisoning ten months after a few drops of DMM landed on her "protective" latex gloves. Although Wetterhahn had been following the then published procedures for handling this compound, it passed through her gloves and skin within seconds. It is now known that DMM is exceptionally permeable to (ordinary) gloves, skin and tissues. And its toxicity is such that less than one-tenth of a ml applied to the skin will be seriously toxic.[126]
  • Lead
    The expression, to "go down like a lead balloon" is anchored in the common view of lead as a dense, heavy metal—being nearly as dense as mercury. However, it is possible to construct a balloon made of lead foil, filled with a helium and air mixture, which will float and be buoyant enough to carry a small load.
  • Bismuth
    Until recently, bismuth was thought to have the highest atomic number (Z = 83) of stable elements. In 2003 it was found to be slightly radioactive: its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, decays via alpha decay with a half life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe. This makes lead the stable element with the highest atomic number (Z = 82).
  • Uranium
    The only element with a naturally occurring isotope capable of undergoing nuclear fission is uranium.[127] The capacity of U-235 to undergo fission was first suggested (and ignored) in 1934, and subsequently discovered in 1938.[n 24]
  • Plutonium
    It is a commonly held belief that metals reduce their electrical conductivity when heated. Plutonium increases its electrical conductivity when heated in the temperature range of around –175 to +125 °C.


  • Boron
    Uniquely among the elements, boron has a partially disordered structure in its most thermodynamically stable crystalline form.[130]
  • Boron, antimony
    These elements are record holders within the field of superacid chemistry. For seven decades, fluorosulfonic acid HSO3F and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid CF3SO3H were the strongest known acids that can be isolated as single compounds. Both are about a thousand times times more acidic than pure sulfuric acid. In 2004, a boron compound broke this record by a thousand fold with the synthesis of carborane acid H(CHB11Cl11). Another metalloid, antimony, features in the strongest known acid, a mixture 10 billion times stronger than carborane acid. This is fluoroantimonic acid H2F[SbF6], a mixture of antimony pentafluoride SbF5 and hydrofluoric acid HF.
  • Silicon
    1. The thermal conductivity of silicon is better than that of most metals.
    2. A sponge-like porous form of silicon (p-Si) is typically prepared by the electrochemical etching of silicon wafers in a hydrofluoric acid solution.[131] Flakes of p-Si sometimes appear red;[132] it has a band gap of 1.97–2.1 eV.[133] The many tiny pores in porous silicon give it an enormous internal surface area, up to 1,000 m2/cm3.[134] When exposed to an oxidant,[135] especially a liquid oxidant,[134] the high surface-area to volume ratio of p-Si creates a very efficient burn, accompanied by nano-explosions,[131] and sometimes by ball-lightning-like plasmoids with, for example, a diameter of 0.1–0.8 m, a velocity of up to 0.5 m/s and a lifetime of up to 1s.[136] The first ever spectrographic analysis of a ball lightning event (in 2012) revealed the presence of silicon, iron and calcium, these elements also being present in the soil.[137]
  • Arsenic
    Metals are said to be fusible, resulting in some confusion in old chemistry as to whether arsenic was a true metal, or a nonmetal, or something in between. It sublimes rather than melts at standard atmospheric pressure, like the nonmetals carbon and red phosphorus.
  • Antimony
    A high-energy explosive form of antimony was first obtained in 1858. It is prepared by the electrolysis of any of the heavier antimony trihalides (SbCl
    , SbBr
    , SbI
    ) in a hydrochloric acid solution at low temperature. It comprises amorphous antimony with some occluded antimony trihalide (7–20% in the case of the trichloride). When scratched, struck, powdered or heated quickly to 200 °C, it "flares up, emits sparks and is converted explosively into the lower-energy, crystalline grey antimony."[138]


  • Hydrogen
    1. Water (H2O), a well known oxide of hydrogen, is a spectacular anomaly.[139] Extrapolating from the heavier hydrogen chalcogenides, namely hydrogen sulfide H2S, hydrogen selenide H2Se, and hydrogen telluride H2Te, water should be "a foul-smelling, poisonous, inflammable gas…condensing to a nasty liquid [at] around –100° C". Instead, due to hydrogen bonding, water is "stable, potable, odorless, benign, and…indispensable to life".[140]
    2. Less well known of the oxides of hydrogen is the trioxide, H2O3. Berthelot proposed the existence of this oxide in 1880 but his suggestion was soon forgotten as there was no way of testing it using the technology of the time.[141] Hydrogen trioxide was prepared in 1994 by replacing the oxygen used in the industrial process for making hydrogen peroxide, with ozone. The yield is about 40 per cent, at –78 °C; above around –40 °C it decomposes into water and oxygen.[142] Derivatives of hydrogen trioxide, such as F3C–O–O–O–CF3 ("bis(trifluoromethyl) trioxide") are known; these are metastable at room temperature.[143] Mendeleev went a step further, in 1895, and proposed the existence of hydrogen tetroxide HO–O–O–OH as a transient intermediate in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide;[141] this was prepared and characterised in 1974, using a matrix isolation technique.[citation needed] Alkali metal ozonide salts of the unknown hydrogen ozonide (HO3) are also known; these have the formula MO3.[143]
  • Helium
    1. At temperatures below 0.3 and 0.8 K respectively, helium-3 and helium-4 each have a negative enthalpy of fusion. This means that, at the appropriate constant pressures, these substances freeze with the addition of heat.
    2. Until 1999 helium was thought to be too small to form a cage clathrate—a compound in which a guest atom or molecule is encapsulated in a cage formed by a host molecule—at atmospheric pressure. In that year the synthesis of microgram quantities of He@C20H20 represented the first such helium clathrate and (what was described as) the world's smallest helium balloon.[144]
  • Carbon
    1. Graphite is the most electrically conductive nonmetal, better than some metals.
    2. Diamond is the best natural conductor of heat; it even feels cold to the touch. Its thermal conductivity (2,200 W/m•K) is five times greater than the most conductive metal (Ag at 429); 300 times higher than the least conductive metal (Pu at 6.74); and nearly 4,000 times that of water (0.58) and 100,000 times that of air (0.0224). This high thermal conductivity is used by jewelers and gemologists to separate diamonds from imitations.
    3. Graphene aerogel, produced in 2012 by freeze-drying a solution of carbon nanotubes and graphite oxide sheets and chemically removing oxygen, is seven times lighter than air, and ten per cent lighter than helium. It is the lightest solid known (0.16 mg/cm3), conductive and elastic.[145]
  • Phosphorus
    The least stable and most reactive form of phosphorus is the white allotrope. It is a hazardous, highly flammable and toxic substance, spontaneously igniting in air and producing phosphoric acid residue. It is therefore normally stored under water. White phosphorus is also the most common, industrially important, and easily reproducible allotrope, and for these reasons is regarded as the standard state of phosphorus. The most stable form is the black allotrope, which is a metallic looking, brittle and relatively non-reactive semiconductor (unlike the white allotrope, which has a white or yellowish appearance, is pliable, highly reactive and a semiconductor). When assessing periodicity in the physical properties of the elements it needs to be borne in mind that the quoted properties of phosphorus tend to be those of its least stable form rather than, as is the case with all other elements, the most stable form.
  • Iodine
    The mildest of the halogens, iodine is the active ingredient in tincture of iodine, a disinfectant. This can be found in household medicine cabinets or emergency survival kits. Tincture of iodine will rapidly dissolve gold,[146] a task ordinarily requiring the use of aqua regia (a highly corrosive mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids).h


  1. ^ For example:
    • Brinkley[2] writes that boron has weakly nonmetallic properties.
    • Glinka[3] describes silicon as a weak nonmetal.
    • Eby et al.[4] discuss the weak chemical behaviour of the elements close to the metal-nonmetal borderline.
    • Booth and Bloom[5] say "A period represents a stepwise change from elements strongly metallic to weakly metallic to weakly nonmetallic to strongly nonmetallic, and then, at the end, to an abrupt cessation of almost all chemical properties ...".
    • Cox[6] notes "nonmetallic elements close to the metallic borderline (Si, Ge, As, Sb, Se, Te) show less tendency to anionic behaviour and are sometimes called metalloids."
  2. ^ At standard pressure and temperature, unless otherwise noted
  3. ^ Copernicium is reported to be the only metal known to be a gas at room temperature.[18]
  4. ^ For polycrystalline forms of the elements unless otherwise noted. Determining Poisson's ratio accurately is a difficult proposition and there could be considerable uncertainty in some reported values.[23]
  5. ^ Beryllium has the lowest known value (0.0476) amongst elemental metals; indium and thallium each have the highest known value (0.46). Around one third show a value ≥ 0.33.[24]
  6. ^ Boron 0.13;[25] silicon 0.22;[26] germanium 0.278;[27] amorphous arsenic 0.27;[28] antimony 0.25;[29] tellurium ~0.2.[30]
  7. ^ Graphitic carbon 0.25;[31] [diamond 0.0718];[32] black phosphorus 0.30;[33] sulfur 0.287;[34] amorphous selenium 0.32;[35] amorphous iodine ~0.[36]
  8. ^ At atmospheric pressure, for elements with known structures
  9. ^ At or near room temperature
  10. ^ Metals have electrical conductivity values of from 6.9 × 103 S•cm−1 for manganese to 6.3 × 105 for silver.[51]
  11. ^ Metalloids have electrical conductivity values of from 1.5 × 10−6 S•cm−1 for boron to 3.9 × 104 for arsenic.[53] If selenium is included as a metalloid the applicable conductivity range would start from ~10−9 to 10−12 S•cm−1.[54][55][56]
  12. ^ Nonmetals have electrical conductivity values of from ~10−18 S•cm−1 for the elemental gases to 3 × 104 in graphite.[57]
  13. ^ Mott and Davis[59] note however that 'liquid europium has a negative temperature coefficient of resistance' i.e. that conductivity increases with rising temperature
  14. ^ The Goldhammer-Herzfeld criterion is a ratio that compares the force holding an individual atom's valence electrons in place with the forces, acting on the same electrons, arising from interactions between the atoms in the solid or liquid element. When the interatomic forces are greater than or equal to the atomic force, valence electron itinerancy is indicated. Metallic behaviour is then predicted.[65] Otherwise nonmetallic behaviour is anticipated. The Goldhammer-Herzfeld criterion is based on classical arguments.[66] It nevertheless offers a relatively simple first order rationalization for the occurrence of metallic character amongst the elements.[67]
  15. ^ Chedd[78] defines metalloids as having electronegativity values of 1.8 to 2.2 (Allred-Rochow scale). He included boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium and astatine in this category. In reviewing Chedd's work, Adler[79] described this choice as arbitrary, given other elements have electronegativities in this range, including copper, silver, phosphorus, mercury and bismuth. He went on to suggest defining a metalloid simply as, 'a semiconductor or semimetal' and 'to have included the interesting materials bismuth and selenium in the book'.
  16. ^ Phosphorus is known to form a carbide in thin films.
  17. ^ See, for example, the sulfates of the transition metals,[88] the lanthanides[89] and the actinides.[90]
  18. ^ Sulfates of osmium have not been characterized with any great degree of certainty.[91]
  19. ^ Common metalloids: Boron is reported to be capable of forming an oxysulfate (BO)2SO4,[92] a bisulfate B(HSO4)3[93] and a sulfate B2(SO4)3.[94] The existence of a sulfate has been disputed.[95] In light of the existence of silicon phosphate, a silicon sulfate might also exist.[96] Germanium forms an unstable sulfate Ge(SO4)2 (d 200 °C).[97] Arsenic forms oxide sulfates As2O(SO4)2 (= As2O3.2SO3)[98] and As2(SO4)3 (= As2O3.3SO3).[99] Antimony forms a sulfate Sb2(SO4)3 and an oxysulfate (SbO)2SO4.[100] Tellurium forms an oxide sulfate Te2O3(SO)4.[101] Less common: Polonium forms a sulfate Po(SO4)2.[102] It has been suggested that the astatine cation forms a weak complex with sulfate ions in acidic solutions.[103]
  20. ^ Hydrogen forms hydrogen sulfate H2SO4. Carbon forms (a blue) graphite hydrogen sulfate C+
     • 2.4H2SO4.[104]
    Nitrogen forms nitrosyl hydrogen sulfate (NO)HSO4 and nitronium (or nitryl) hydrogen sulfate (NO2)HSO4.[105] There are indications of a basic sulfate of selenium SeO2.SO3 or SeO(SO4).[106] Iodine forms a polymeric yellow sulfate (IO)2SO4.[107]
  21. ^ Based on a table of the elemental composition of the biosphere, and lithosphere (crust, atmosphere, and seawater) in Georgievskii,[115] and the masses of the crust and hydrosphere give in Lide and Frederikse.[116] The mass of the biosphere is negligible, having a mass of about one billionth that of the lithosphere.[citation needed] "The oceans constitute about 98 percent of the hydrosphere, and thus the average composition of the hydrosphere is, for all practical purposes, that of seawater."[117]
  22. ^ Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae and is a natural component of flatus. It can be found in the Earth's atmosphere at a concentration of 1 part per million by volume.
  23. ^ Fluorine can be found in its elemental form, as an occlusion in the mineral antozonite[119]
  24. ^ In 1934, a team led by Enrico Fermi postulated that transuranic elements may have been produced as a result of bombarding uranium with neutrons, a finding which was widely accepted for a few years. In the same year Ida Noddack, a German scientist and subsequently a three-time Nobel prize nominee, criticised this assumption, writing "It is conceivable that the nucleus breaks up into several large fragments, which would of course be isotopes of known elements but would not be neighbors of the irradiated element."[128][emphasis added] In this, Noddak defied the understanding of the time without offering experimental proof or theoretical basis, but nevertheless presaged what would be known a few years later as nuclear fission. Her paper was generally ignored as, in 1925, she and two colleagues claimed to have discovered element 43, then proposed to be called masurium (later discovered in 1936 by Perrier and Segrè, and named technetium). Had Ida Noddack's paper been accepted it is likely that Germany would have had an atomic bomb and, 'the history of the world would have been [very] different.'[129]


  1. ^ Mendeléeff 1897, p. 274
  2. ^ Brinkley 1945, p. 378
  3. ^ Glinka 1965, p. 88
  4. ^ Eby et al. 1943, p. 404
  5. ^ Booth & Bloom 1972, p. 426
  6. ^ a b Cox 2004, p. 27
  7. ^ a b Kneen, Rogers & Simpson, 1972, p. 263. Columns 2 and 4 are sourced from this reference unless otherwise indicated.
  8. ^ a b c Rochow 1966, p. 4
  9. ^ Pottenger & Bowes 1976, p. 138
  10. ^ Askeland, Fulay & Wright 2011, p. 806
  11. ^ Born & Wolf 1999, p. 746
  12. ^ Lagrenaudie 1953
  13. ^ Rochow 1966, pp. 23, 25
  14. ^ Burakowski & Wierzchoń 1999, p. 336
  15. ^ Olechna & Knox 1965, pp. A991‒92
  16. ^ Stoker 2010, p. 62
  17. ^ Chang 2002, p. 304. Chang speculates that the melting point of francium would be about 23 °C.
  18. ^ New Scientist 1975; Soverna 2004; Eichler, Aksenov & Belozeroz et al. 2007; Austen 2012
  19. ^ Hunt 2000, p. 256
  20. ^ Sisler 1973, p. 89
  21. ^ Hérold 2006, pp. 149–150
  22. ^ a b McQuarrie & Rock 1987, p. 85
  23. ^ Christensen 2012, p. 14
  24. ^ Gschneidner 1964, pp. 292‒93.
  25. ^ Qin et al. 2012, p. 258
  26. ^ Hopcroft, Nix & Kenny 2010, p. 236
  27. ^ Greaves et al. 2011, p. 826
  28. ^ Brassington et al. 1980
  29. ^ Martienssen & Warlimont 2005, p. 100
  30. ^ Witczak 2000, p. 823
  31. ^ Marlowe 1970, p. 6;Slyh 1955, p. 146
  32. ^ Klein & Cardinale 1992, pp. 184‒85
  33. ^ Appalakondaiah et al. 2012, pp. 035105‒6
  34. ^ Sundara Rao 1950; Sundara Rao 1954; Ravindran 1998, pp. 4897‒98
  35. ^ Lindegaard & Dahle 1966, p. 264
  36. ^ Leith 1966, pp. 38‒39
  37. ^ Gupta et al. 2005, p. 502
  38. ^ Wiberg 2001, p. 143
  39. ^ Cverna 2002, p.1
  40. ^ Cordes & Scaheffer 1973, p. 79
  41. ^ Hill & Holman 2000, p. 42
  42. ^ Tilley 2004, p. 487
  43. ^ Russell & Lee 2005, p. 466
  44. ^ Orton 2004, pp. 11–12
  45. ^ Zhigal'skii & Jones 2003, p. 66: 'Bismuth, antimony, arsenic and graphite are considered to be semimetals ... In bulk semimetals ... the resistivity will increase with temperature ... to give a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ...'
  46. ^ Jauncey 1948, p. 500: 'Nonmetals mostly have negative temperature coefficients. For instance, carbon ... [has a] resistance [that] decreases with a rise in temperature. However, recent experiments on very pure graphite, which is a form of carbon, have shown that pure carbon in this form behaves similarly to metals in regard to its resistance.'
  47. ^ Reynolds 1969, pp. 91–92
  48. ^ a b Wilson 1966, p. 260
  49. ^ Wittenberg 1972, p. 4526
  50. ^ Habashi 2003, p. 73
  51. ^ Desai, James & Ho 1984, p. 1160; Matula 1979, p. 1260
  52. ^ Choppin & Johnsen 1972, p. 351
  53. ^ Schaefer 1968, p. 76; Carapella 1968, p. 30
  54. ^ Glazov, Chizhevskaya & Glagoleva 1969 p. 86
  55. ^ Kozyrev 1959, p. 104
  56. ^ Chizhikov & Shchastlivyi 1968, p. 25
  57. ^ Bogoroditskii & Pasynkov 1967, p. 77; Jenkins & Kawamura 1976, p. 88
  58. ^ Rao & Ganguly 1986
  59. ^ Mott & Davis 2012, p. 177
  60. ^ a b Edwards & Sienko 1983, p. 691
  61. ^ Anita 1998
  62. ^ Parish 1977, pp. 34, 48, 112, 142, 156, 178
  63. ^ a b Emsley 2001, p. 12
  64. ^ Russell 1981, p. 628
  65. ^ Herzfeld 1927; Edwards 2000, pp. 100–103
  66. ^ Edwards 1999, p. 416
  67. ^ Edwards & Sienko 1983, p. 695
  68. ^ Edwards et al. 2010
  69. ^ Bailar et al. 1989, p. 742
  70. ^ Hiller & Herber 1960, inside front cover; p. 225
  71. ^ Beveridge et al. 1997, p. 185
  72. ^ a b Young & Sessine 2000, p. 849
  73. ^ Bailar et al. 1989, p. 417
  74. ^ Metcalfe, Williams & Castka 1966, p. 72
  75. ^ Chang 1994, p. 311
  76. ^ Pauling 1988, p. 183
  77. ^ Mann et al. 2000, p. 2783
  78. ^ Chedd 1969, pp. 24–25
  79. ^ Adler 1969, pp. 18–19
  80. ^ Hultgren 1966, p. 648
  81. ^ Bassett et al. 1966, p. 602
  82. ^ Rochow 1966, p. 34
  83. ^ Martienssen & Warlimont 2005, p. 257
  84. ^ Sidorov 1960
  85. ^ Brasted 1974, p. 814
  86. ^ Atkins 2006 et al., pp. 8, 122–23
  87. ^ Rao 2002, p. 22
  88. ^ Wickleder, Pley & Büchner 2006; Betke & Wickleder 2011
  89. ^ Cotton 1994, p. 3606
  90. ^ Keogh 2005, p. 16
  91. ^ Raub & Griffith 1980, p. 167
  92. ^ Nemodruk & Karalova 1969, p. 48
  93. ^ Sneed 1954, p. 472; Gillespie & Robinson 1959, p. 407
  94. ^ Zuckerman & Hagen 1991, p. 303
  95. ^ Sanderson 1967, p. 178
  96. ^ Iler 1979, p. 190
  97. ^ Sanderson 1960, p. 162; Greenwood & Earnshaw 2002, p. 387
  98. ^ Mercier & Douglade 1982
  99. ^ Douglade & Mercier 1982
  100. ^ Wiberg 2001, p. 764
  101. ^ Wickleder 2007, p. 350
  102. ^ Bagnall 1966, pp. 140−41
  103. ^ Berei & Vasáros 1985, pp. 221, 229
  104. ^ Wiberg 2001, p. 795
  105. ^ Lidin 1996, pp. 266, 270; Brescia et al. 1975, p. 453
  106. ^ Greenwood & Earnshaw 2002, p. 786
  107. ^ Furuseth et al. 1974
  108. ^ Holtzclaw, Robinson & Odom 1991, pp. 706–07; Keenan, Kleinfelter & Wood 1980, pp. 693–95
  109. ^ Kneen, Rogers & Simpson 1972, p. 278
  110. ^ Heslop & Robinson 1963, p. 417
  111. ^ Rochow 1966, pp. 28–29
  112. ^ Smith 1921, p. 295; Sidgwick 1950, pp. 605, 608; Dunstan 1968, pp. 408, 438
  113. ^ Bagnall 1966, pp. 108, 120; Lidin 1996, passim
  114. ^ Dunstan 1968, pp. 312, 408
  115. ^ Georgievskii 1982, p. 58
  116. ^ Lide & Frederikse 1998, p. 14–6
  117. ^ Hem 1985, p. 7
  118. ^ Perkins 1998, p. 350
  119. ^ Sanderson 2012
  120. ^ Brown et al. 2009, p. 137
  121. ^ Bresica et al. 1975, p. 137
  122. ^ a b Russell & Lee 2005, p. 246
  123. ^ Russell & Lee 2005, p. 244–5
  124. ^ Donohoe 1982, pp. 191–196; Russell & Lee 2005, pp. 244–247
  125. ^ Stoye 2014
  126. ^ Witt 1991; Endicott 1998
  127. ^ Benedict et al. 1946, p. 19
  128. ^ Noddack 1934, p. 653
  129. ^ Sacks 2001, p. 205: 'This story was told by Glenn Seaborg when he was presenting his recollections at a conference in November 1997.'
  130. ^ Dalhouse University 2015; White et al. 2015
  131. ^ a b DuPlessis 2007, p. 133
  132. ^ Gösele & Lehmann 1994, p. 19
  133. ^ Chen, Lee & Bosman 1994
  134. ^ a b Kovalev et al. 2001, p. 068301-1
  135. ^ Mikulec, Kirtland & Sailor 2002
  136. ^ Bychkov 2012, pp. 20–21; see also Lazaruk et al. 2007
  137. ^ Slezak 2014
  138. ^ Wiberg 2001, p. 758; see also Fraden 1951
  139. ^ Oliver 2001, p. 204
  140. ^ Sacks 2001, pp. 204–205
  141. ^ a b Cerkovnik & Plesničar 2013, p. 7930
  142. ^ Emsley 1994, p. 1910
  143. ^ a b Wiberg 2001, p. 497
  144. ^ Cross, Saunders & Prinzbach; Chemistry Views 2015
  145. ^ Sun, Xu & Gao 2013; Anthony 2013
  146. ^ Nakao 1992


  • Adler D 1969, 'Half-way elements: The technology of metalloids', book review, Technology Review, vol. 72, no. 1, Oct/Nov, pp. 18–19
  • Anita M 1998, 'Focus: Levitating Liquid Boron', American Physical Society, viewed 14 December 2014
  • Anthony S 2013, 'Graphene aerogel is seven times lighter than air, can balance on a blade of grass', ExtremeTech, April 10, accessed 8 February 2015
  • Appalakondaiah S, Vaitheeswaran G, Lebègue S, Christensen NE & Svane A 2012, 'Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and elastic properties of black phosphorus,' Physical Review B, vol. 86, pp. 035105‒1 to 9, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.86.035105
  • Askeland DR, Fulay PP & Wright JW 2011, The science and engineering of materials, 6th ed., Cengage Learning, Stamford, CT, ISBN 0-495-66802-8
  • Atkins P, Overton T, Rourke J, Weller M & Armstrong F 2006, Shriver & Atkins' inorganic chemistry, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN 0-7167-4878-9
  • Austen K 2012, 'A factory for elements that barely exist', NewScientist, 21 Apr, p. 12, ISSN 1032-1233
  • Bagnall KW 1966, The chemistry of selenium, tellurium and polonium, Elsevier, Amsterdam
  • Bailar JC, Moeller T, Kleinberg J, Guss CO, Castellion ME & Metz C 1989, Chemistry, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, ISBN 0-15-506456-8
  • Bassett LG, Bunce SC, Carter AE, Clark HM & Hollinger HB 1966, Principles of chemistry, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
  • Benedict M, Alvarez LW, Bliss LA, English SG, Kinzell AB, Morrison P, English FH, Starr C & Williams WJ 1946, 'Technological control of atomic energy activities', "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists," vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 18–29
  • Berei K & Vasáros L 1985, 'Astatine compounds', in Kugler & Keller
  • Betke U & Wickleder MS 2011, 'Sulfates of the refractory metals: Crystal structure and thermal behavior of Nb2O2(SO4)3, MoO2(SO4), WO(SO4)2, and two modifications of Re2O5(SO4)2', Inorganic chemistry, vol. 50, no. 3, pp 858–872, doi:10.1021/ic101455z
  • Beveridge TJ, Hughes MN, Lee H, Leung KT, Poole RK, Savvaidis I, Silver S & Trevors JT 1997, 'Metal–microbe interactions: Contemporary approaches', in RK Poole (ed.), Advances in microbial physiology, vol. 38, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 177–243, ISBN 0-12-027738-7
  • Bogoroditskii NP & Pasynkov VV 1967, Radio and electronic materials, Iliffe Books, London
  • Booth VH & Bloom ML 1972, Physical science: a study of matter and energy, Macmillan, New York
  • Born M & Wolf E 1999, Principles of optics: Electromagnetic theory of propagation, interference and diffraction of light, 7th ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-64222-1
  • Brassington MP, Lambson WA, Miller AJ, Saunders GA & Yogurtçu YK 1980, 'The second- and third-order elastic constants of amorphous arsenic', Philosophical Magazine Part B, vol. 42, no. 1., pp. 127–148, doi:10.1080/01418638008225644
  • Brasted RC 1974, 'Oxygen group elements and their compounds', in The new Encyclopædia Britannica, vol. 13, Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, pp. 809–824
  • Brescia F, Arents J, Meislich H & Turk A 1975, Fundamentals of chemistry, 3rd ed., Academic Press, New York, p. 453, ISBN 978-0-12-132372-1
  • Brinkley SR 1945, Introductory general chemistry, 3rd ed., Macmillan, New York
  • Brown TL, LeMay HE, Bursten BE, Murphy CJ & Woodward P 2009, Chemistry: The Central Science, 11th ed., Pearson Education, New Jersey, ISBN 978-0-13-235-848-4
  • Burakowski T & Wierzchoń T 1999, Surface engineering of metals: Principles, equipment, technologies, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, ISBN 0-8493-8225-4
  • Bychkov VL 2012, 'Unsolved Mystery of Ball Lightning', in Atomic Processes in Basic and Applied Physics, V Shevelko & H Tawara (eds), Springer Science & Business Media, Heidelberg, pp. 3–24, ISBN 978-3-642-25568-7
  • Carapella SC 1968a, 'Arsenic' in CA Hampel (ed.), The encyclopedia of the chemical elements, Reinhold, New York, pp. 29–32
  • Cerkovnik J & Plesničar B 2013, 'Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Hydrogen Trioxide (HOOOH), Chemical Reviews, vol. 113, no. 10), pp. 7930–7951, doi:10.1021/cr300512s
  • Chang R 1994, Chemistry, 5th (international) ed., McGraw-Hill, New York
  • Chang R 2002, Chemistry, 7th ed., McGraw Hill, Boston
  • Chedd G 1969, Half-way elements: The technology of metalloids, Doubleday, New York
  • Chen Z, Lee T-Y & Bosman G 1994, 'Electrical Band Gap of Porous Silicon', Applied Physics Letters, vol. 64, p. 3446, doi:10.1063/1.111237
  • Chizhikov DM & Shchastlivyi VP 1968, Selenium and selenides, translated from the Russian by EM Elkin, Collet's, London
  • Choppin GR & Johnsen RH 1972, Introductory chemistry, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts
  • Christensen RM 2012, 'Are the elements ductile or brittle: A nanoscale evaluation,' in Failure theory for materials science and engineering, chapter 12, p. 14
  • Cordes EH & Scaheffer R 1973, Chemistry, Harper & Row, New York
  • Cotton SA 1994, 'Scandium, yttrium & the lanthanides: Inorganic & coordination chemistry', in RB King (ed.), Encyclopedia of inorganic chemistry, 2nd ed., vol. 7, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 3595–3616, ISBN 978-0-470-86078-6
  • Cox PA 2004, Inorganic chemistry, 2nd ed., Instant notes series, Bios Scientific, London, ISBN 1-85996-289-0
  • Cross RJ, Saunders M & Prinzbach H 1999, 'Putting Helium Inside Dodecahedrane', Organic Letters, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 1479–1481, doi:10.1021/ol991037v
  • Cverna F 2002, ASM ready reference: Thermal properties of metals, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, ISBN 0-87170-768-3
  • Dalhouse University 2015, 'Dal chemist discovers new information about elemental boron', media release, 28 January, accessed 9 May 2015
  • Deming HG 1952, General chemistry: An elementary survey, 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York
  • Desai PD, James HM & Ho CY 1984, Electrical resistivity of aluminum and manganese, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1131–1172, doi:10.1063/1.555725
  • Donohoe J 1982, The Structures of the Elements, Robert E. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, ISBN 0-89874-230-7
  • Douglade J & Mercier R 1982, 'Structure cristalline et covalence des liaisons dans le sulfate d'arsenic(III), As2(SO4)3', Acta Crystallographica Section B, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 720–723, doi:10.1107/S056774088200394X
  • Dunstan S 1968, Principles of chemistry, D. Van Nostrand Company, London
  • Du Plessis M 2007, 'A Gravimetric Technique to Determine the Crystallite Size Distribution in High Porosity Nanoporous Silicon, in JA Martino, MA Pavanello & C Claeys (eds), Microelectronics Technology and Devices–SBMICRO 2007, vol. 9, no. 1, The Electrochemical Society, New Jersey, pp. 133–142, ISBN 978-1-56677-565-6
  • Eby GS, Waugh CL, Welch HE & Buckingham BH 1943, The physical sciences, Ginn and Company, Boston, 1943
  • Edwards PP & Sienko MJ 1983, 'On the occurrence of metallic character in the periodic table of the elements', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 691–696, doi:10.1021ed060p691
  • Edwards PP 1999, 'Chemically engineering the metallic, insulating and superconducting state of matter' in KR Seddon & M Zaworotko (eds), Crystal engineering: The design and application of functional solids, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 409–431
  • Edwards PP 2000, 'What, why and when is a metal?', in N Hall (ed.), The new chemistry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, pp. 85–114
  • Edwards PP, Lodge MTJ, Hensel F & Redmer R 2010, '...a metal conducts and a non-metal doesn't', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 368, pp. 941–965, doi:10.1098rsta.2009.0282
  • Eichler R, Aksenov NV, Belozerov AV, Bozhikov GA, Chepigin VI, Dmitriev SN, Dressler R, Gäggeler HW, Gorshkov VA, Haenssler F, Itkis MG, Laube A, Lebedev VY, Malyshev ON, Oganessian YT, Petrushkin OV, Piguet D, Rasmussen P, Shishkin SV, Shutov, AV, Svirikhin AI, Tereshatov EE, Vostokin GK, Wegrzecki M & Yeremin AV 2007, 'Chemical characterization of element 112,' Nature, vol. 447, pp. 72–75, doi:10.1038/nature05761
  • Endicott K 1998, 'The Trembling Edge of Science', Dartmouth Alumini Magazine, April, accessed 8 May 2015
  • Emsley 1994, 'Science: Surprise legacy of Germany's Flying Bombs', New Scientist, no. 1910, January 29
  • Emsley J 2001, Nature's building blocks: An A–Z guide to the elements, ISBN 0-19-850341-5
  • Fraden JH 1951, 'Amorphous antimony. A lecture demonstration in allotropy', Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 34–35, doi: 10.1021/ed028p34
  • Furuseth S, Selte K, Hope H, Kjekshus A & Klewe B 1974, 'Iodine oxides. Part V. The crystal structure of (IO)2SO4', Acta Chemica Scandinavica A, vol. 28, pp. 71–76, doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.28a-0071
  • Georgievskii VI 1982, 'Biochemical regions. Mineral composition of feeds', in VI Georgievskii, BN Annenkov & VT Samokhin (eds), Mineral nutrition of animals: Studies in the agricultural and food sciences, Butterworths, London, pp. 57–68, ISBN 0-408-10770-7
  • Gillespie RJ & Robinson EA 1959, 'The sulphuric acid solvent system', in HJ Emeléus & AG Sharpe (eds), Advances in inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry, vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, pp. 386–424
  • Glazov VM, Chizhevskaya SN & Glagoleva NN 1969, Liquid semiconductors, Plenum, New York
  • Glinka N 1965, General chemistry, trans. D Sobolev, Gordon & Breach, New York
  • Gösele U & Lehmann V 1994, 'Porous Silicon Quantum Sponge Structures: Formation Mechanism, Preparation Methods and Some Properties', in Feng ZC & Tsu R (eds), Porous Silicon, World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 17–40, ISBN 981-02-1634-3
  • Greaves GN, Greer AL, Lakes RS & Rouxel T 2011, 'Poisson's ratio and modern materials', Nature Materials, vol. 10, pp. 823‒837, doi:10.1038/NMAT3134
  • Greenwood NN & Earnshaw A 2002, Chemistry of the elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-3365-4
  • Gschneidner KA 1964, 'Physical properties and interrelationships of metallic and semimetallic elements,' Solid State Physics, vol. 16, pp. 275‒426, doi:10.1016/S0081-1947(08)60518-4
  • Gupta A, Awana VPS, Samanta SB, Kishan H & Narlikar AV 2005, 'Disordered superconductors' in AV Narlikar (ed.), Frontiers in superconducting materials, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 502, ISBN 3-540-24513-8
  • Habashi F 2003, Metals from ores: an introduction to extractive metallurgy, Métallurgie Extractive Québec, Sainte Foy, Québec, ISBN 2-922686-04-3
  • Hem JD 1985, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, paper 2254, 3rd ed., US Geological Society, Alexandria, Virginia
  • Hampel CA & Hawley GG 1976, Glossary of chemical terms, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York
  • Hérold A 2006, 'An arrangement of the chemical elements in several classes inside the periodic table according to their common properties', Comptes Rendus Chimie, vol. 9, pp. 148–153, doi:10.1016/j.crci.2005.10.002
  • Herzfeld K 1927, 'On atomic properties which make an element a metal', Phys. Rev., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 701–705, doi:10.1103PhysRev.29.701
  • Heslop RB & Robinson PL 1963, Inorganic chemistry: A guide to advanced study, Elsevier, Amsterdam
  • Hill G & Holman J 2000, Chemistry in context, 5th ed., Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, ISBN 0-17-448307-4
  • Hiller LA & Herber RH 1960, Principles of chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York
  • Holtzclaw HF, Robinson WR & Odom JD 1991, General chemistry, 9th ed., DC Heath, Lexington, ISBN 0-669-24429-5
  • Hopcroft MA, Nix WD & Kenny TW 2010, 'What is the Young's modulus of silicon?', Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 229‒238, doi:10.1109/JMEMS.2009.2039697
  • Chemistry Views 2012, 'Horst Prinzbach (1931 – 2012)', Wiley-VCH, accessed 28 February 2015
  • Hultgren HH 1966, 'Metalloids', in GL Clark & GG Hawley (eds), The encyclopedia of inorganic chemistry, 2nd ed., Reinhold Publishing, New York
  • Hunt A 2000, The complete A-Z chemistry handbook, 2nd ed., Hodder & Stoughton, London
  • Iler RK 1979, The chemistry of silica: solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties, and biochemistry, John Wiley, New York, ISBN 978-0-471-02404-0
  • Jauncey GEM 1948, Modern physics: A second course in college physics, D. Von Nostrand, New York
  • Jenkins GM & Kawamura K 1976, Polymeric carbons—carbon fibre, glass and char, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
  • Keenan CW, Kleinfelter DC & Wood JH 1980, General college chemistry, 6th ed., Harper & Row, San Francisco, ISBN 0-06-043615-8
  • Keogh DW 2005, 'Actinides: Inorganic & coordination chemistry', in RB King (ed.), Encyclopedia of inorganic chemistry, 2nd ed., vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 2–32, ISBN 978-0-470-86078-6
  • Klein CA & Cardinale GF 1992, 'Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of CVD diamond', in A Feldman & S Holly, SPIE Proceedings, vol. 1759, Diamond Optics V, pp. 178‒192, doi:10.1117/12.130771
  • Kneen WR, Rogers MJW & Simpson P 1972, Chemistry: Facts, patterns, and principles, Addison-Wesley, London
  • Kovalev D, Timoshenko VY, Künzner N, Gross E & Koch F 2001, 'Strong Explosive Interaction of Hydrogenated Porous Silicon with Oxygen at Cryogenic Temperatures', Physical Review Letters, vol. 87, pp. 068301–1–06831-4, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.068301
  • Kozyrev PT 1959, 'Deoxidized selenium and the dependence of its electrical conductivity on pressure. II', Physics of the solid state, translation of the journal Solid State Physics (Fizika tverdogo tela) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, vol. 1, pp. 102–110
  • Kugler HK & Keller C (eds) 1985, Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic chemistry, 8th ed., 'At, Astatine', system no. 8a, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 3-540-93516-9
  • Lagrenaudie J 1953, 'Semiconductive properties of boron' (in French), Journal de chimie physique, vol. 50, nos. 11–12, Nov-Dec, pp. 629–633
  • Lazaruk SK, Dolbik AV, Labunov VA & Borisenko VE 2007, 'Combustion and Explosion of Nanostructured Silicon in Microsystem Devices', Semiconductors, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1113–1116, doi:10.1134/S1063782607090175
  • Leith MM 1966, Velocity of sound in solid iodine, MSc thesis, University of British Coloumbia. Leith comments that, '... as iodine is anisotropic in many of its physical properties most attention was paid to two amorphous samples which were thought to give representative average values of the properties of iodine' (p. iii).
  • Lide DR & Frederikse HPR (eds) 1998, CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics, 79th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, ISBN 0-849-30479-2
  • Lidin RA 1996, Inorganic substances handbook, Begell House, New York, ISBN 1-56700-065-7
  • Lindegaard AL and Dahle B 1966, 'Fracture phenomena in amorphous selenium', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 262‒66, doi:10.1063/1.1707823
  • Mann JB, Meek TL & Allen LC 2000, 'Configuration energies of the main group elements', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 2780–2783, doi:10.1021ja992866e
  • Marlowe MO 1970, Elastic properties of three grades of fine grained graphite to 2000°C, NASA CR‒66933, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Facility, College Park, Maryland
  • Martienssen W & Warlimont H (eds) 2005, Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data, Springer, Heidelberg, ISBN 3-540-30437-1
  • Matula RA 1979, 'Electrical resistivity of copper, gold, palladium, and silver,' Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1147–1298, doi:10.1063/1.555614
  • McQuarrie DA & Rock PA 1987, General chemistry, 3rd ed., WH Freeman, New York
  • Mendeléeff DI 1897, The Principles of Chemistry, vol. 2, 5th ed., trans. G Kamensky, AJ Greenaway (ed.), Longmans, Green & Co., London
  • Mercier R & Douglade J 1982, 'Structure cristalline d'un oxysulfate d'arsenic(III) As2O(SO4)2 (ou As2O3.2SO3)', Acta Crystallographica Section B, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1731–1735, doi:10.1107/S0567740882007055
  • Metcalfe HC, Williams JE & Castka JF 1966, Modern chemistry, 3rd ed., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York
  • Mikulec FV, Kirtland JD & Sailor MJ 2002, 'Explosive Nanocrystalline Porous Silicon and Its Use in Atomic Emission Spectroscopy', Advanced Materials, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 38–41, doi:10.1002/1521-4095(20020104)14:1<38::AID-ADMA38>3.0.CO;2-Z
  • Moss TS 1952, Photoconductivity in the Elements, London, Butterworths
  • Mott NF & Davis EA 2012, 'Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials', 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN 978-0-19-964533-6
  • Nakao Y 1992, 'Dissolution of Noble Metals in Halogen-Halide-Polar Organic Solvent Systems', Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, no. 5, pp. 426–427, doi:10.1039/C39920000426
  • Nemodruk AA & Karalova ZK 1969, Analytical chemistry of boron, R Kondor trans., Ann Arbor Humphrey Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • New Scientist 1975, 'Chemistry on the islands of stability', 11 Sep, p. 574, ISSN 1032-1233
  • Noddack I 1934, 'On element 93', Angewandte Chemie, vol. 47, no. 37, pp. 653–655, doi:10.1002/ange.19340473707
  • Olechna DJ & Knox RS 1965, 'Energy-band structure of selenium chains', Physical Review, vol. 140, pp. A986‒A993, doi:10.1103/PhysRev.140.A986
  • Orton JW 2004, The story of semiconductors, Oxford University, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-853083-8
  • Parish RV 1977, The metallic elements, Longman, London
  • Pauling L 1988, General chemistry, Dover Publications, NY, ISBN 0-486-65622-5
  • Perkins D 1998, Mineralogy, Prentice Hall Books, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, ISBN 0-02-394501-X
  • Pottenger FM & Bowes EE 1976, Fundamentals of chemistry, Scott, Foresman and Co., Glenview, Illinois
  • Qin J, Nishiyama N, Ohfuji H, Shinmei T, Lei L, Heb D & Irifune T 2012, 'Polycrystalline γ-boron: As hard as polycrystalline cubic boron nitride', Scripta Materialia, vol. 67, pp. 257‒260, doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2012.04.032
  • Rao CNR & Ganguly P 1986, 'A new criterion for the metallicity of elements', Solid State Communications, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 5–6, doi:10.1016/0038-1098(86)90659-9
  • Rao KY 2002, Structural chemistry of glasses, Elsevier, Oxford, ISBN 0-08-043958-6
  • Raub CJ & Griffith WP 1980, 'Osmium and sulphur', in Gmelin handbook of inorganic chemistry, 8th ed., 'Os, Osmium: Supplement,' K Swars (ed.), system no. 66, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 166–170, ISBN 3-540-93420-0
  • Ravindran P, Fast L, Korzhavyi PA, Johansson B, Wills J & Eriksson O 1998, 'Density functional theory for calculation of elastic properties of orthorhombic crystals: Application to TiSi2', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 4891‒4904, doi:10.1063/1.368733
  • Reynolds WN 1969, Physical properties of graphite, Elsevier, Amsterdam
  • Rochow EG 1966, The metalloids, DC Heath and Company, Boston
  • Rock PA & Gerhold GA 1974, Chemistry: Principles and applications, WB Saunders, Philadelphia
  • Russell JB 1981, General chemistry, McGraw-Hill, Auckland
  • Russell AM & Lee KL 2005, Structure-property relations in nonferrous metals, Wiley-Interscience, New York, ISBN 0-471-64952-X
  • Sacks O 2001, Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a chemical boyhood, Alfred A Knopf, New York, ISBN 0-375-40448-1
  • Sanderson RT 1960, Chemical periodicity, Reinhold Publishing, New York
  • Sanderson RT 1967, Inorganic chemistry, Reinhold, New York
  • Sanderson K 2012, 'Stinky rocks hide Earth's only haven for natural fluorine', Nature News, July, doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10992
  • Schaefer JC 1968, 'Boron' in CA Hampel (ed.), The encyclopedia of the chemical elements, Reinhold, New York, pp. 73–81
  • Sidgwick NV 1950, The chemical elements and their compounds, vol. 1, Clarendon, Oxford
  • Sidorov TA 1960, 'The connection between structural oxides and their tendency to glass formation', Glass and Ceramics, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 599–603, doi:10.1007BF00670116
  • Sisler HH 1973, Electronic structure, properties, and the periodic law, Van Nostrand, New York
  • Slezak 2014, 'Natural ball lightning probed for the first time', New Scientist, 16 January
  • Slough W 1972, 'Discussion of session 2b: Crystal structure and bond mechanism of metallic compounds', in O Kubaschewski (ed.), Metallurgical chemistry, proceedings of a symposium held at Brunel University and the National Physical Laboratory on the 14, 15 and 16 July 1971, Her Majesty's Stationery Office [for the] National Physical Laboratory, London
  • Slyh JA 1955, 'Graphite', in JF Hogerton & RC Grass (eds), Reactor handbook: Materials, US Atomic Energy Commission, McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 133‒154
  • Smith A 1921, General chemistry for colleges, 2nd ed., Century, New York
  • Sneed MC 1954, General college chemistry, Van Nostrand, New York
  • Sommer AH, ‘Alloys of Gold with alkali metals’, Nature, vol. 152, p. 215, doi:10.1038/152215a0
  • Soverna S 2004, 'Indication for a gaseous element 112,' in U Grundinger (ed.), GSI Scientific Report 2003, GSI Report 2004-1, p. 187, ISSN 0174-0814
  • Stoker HS 2010, General, organic, and biological chemistry, 5th ed., Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, Belmont CA, ISBN 0-495-83146-8
  • Stoye E 2014, 'Iridium forms compound in +9 oxidation state', Chemistry World, 23 October
  • Sun H, Xu Z & Gao C 2013, 'Multifunctional, Ultra-Flyweight, Synergistically Assembled Carbon Aerogels', Advanced Materials,, vol. 25, no. 18, pp. 2554–2560, doi:10.1002/adma.201204576
  • Sundara Rao RVG 1950, 'Elastic constants of orthorhombic sulphur,' Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 275–278, doi:10.1007/BF03170831
  • Sundara Rao RVG 1954, 'Erratum to: Elastic constants of orthorhombic sulphur', Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section A, vol. 40, no. 3, p. 151
  • Swalin RA 1962, Thermodynamics of solids, John Wiley & Sons, New York
  • Tilley RJD 2004, Understanding solids: The science of materials, 4th ed., John Wiley, New York
  • White MA, Cerqueira AB, Whitman CA, Johnson MB & Ogitsu T 2015, 'Determination of Phase Stability of Elemental Boron', Angewandte Chemie International Edition, doi:10.1002/anie.201409169
  • Wiberg N 2001, Inorganic chemistry, Academic Press, San Diego, ISBN 0-12-352651-5
  • Wickleder MS, Pley M & Büchner O 2006, 'Sulfates of precious metals: Fascinating chemistry of potential materials', Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine chemie, vol. 632, nos. 12–13, p. 2080, doi:10.1002/zaac.200670009
  • Wickleder MS 2007, 'Chalcogen-oxygen chemistry', in FA Devillanova (ed.), Handbook of chalcogen chemistry: new perspectives in sulfur, selenium and tellurium, RSC, Cambridge, pp. 344–377, ISBN 978-0-85404-366-8
  • Wilson JR 1965, 'The structure of liquid metals and alloys', Metallurgical reviews, vol. 10, p. 502
  • Wilson AH 1966, Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, Cambridge University, Cambridge
  • Witczak Z, Goncharova VA & Witczak PP 2000, 'Irreversible effect of hydrostatic pressure on the elastic properties of polycrystalline tellurium', in MH Manghnani, WJ Nellis & MF Nicol (eds), Science and technology of high pressure: Proceedings of the International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT-17), Honolulu, Hawaii, 25‒30 July 1999, vol. 2, Universities Press, Hyderabad, pp. 822‒825, ISBN 81-7371-339-1
  • Witt SF 1991, 'Dimethylmercury', Occupational Safety & Health Administration Hazard Information Bulletin, US Department of Labor, February 15, accessed 8 May 2015
  • Wittenberg LJ 1972, 'Volume contraction during melting; emphasis on lanthanide and actinide metals', The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 56, no. 9, p. 4526, doi:10.1063/1.1677899
  • Wulfsberg G 2000, Inorganic chemistry, University Science Books, Sausalito CA, ISBN 1-891389-01-7
  • Young RV & Sessine S (eds) 2000, World of chemistry, Gale Group, Farmington Hills, Michigan
  • Zhigal'skii GP & Jones BK 2003, Physical properties of thin metal films, Taylor & Francis, London, ISBN 0-415-28390-6
  • Zuckerman & Hagen (eds) 1991, Inorganic reactions and methods, vol, 5: The formation of bonds to group VIB (O, S, Se, Te, Po) elements (part 1), VCH Publishers, Deerfield Beach, Fla, ISBN 0-89573-250-5