Periphas (Attic king)
In Greek mythology, Periphas (Greek: Περίφας, gen. Περίφας) was a legendary king of Attica who Zeus turned into an eagle. Aside from a passing reference in Ovid's Metamorphoses, the only known source for this story is the second century AD or later Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis.
The story as told by Antoninus Liberalis is as follows. In a time, before Cecrops, who was traditionally recorded to be the first king of Athens, the earth born (autochthon) Periphas ruled over Attica. He was a pious priest of Apollo, to whom Periphas made many sacrifices, and he was a just king, whose "fair judgments" were numerous. Periphas was above reproach and his rule was accepted willingly by all. But Periphas was so loved by his people that they paid him the honors which belonged to Zeus alone, building temples to Periphas and calling him Zeus Soter ("Saviour"), and Epopsios ("Overlooker of All") and Meilichios ("Gracious"). Being indignant Zeus was determined to strike Periphas with a thunderbolt and consume Periphas and his entire household by fire, but because Periphas had been so faithful, Apollo asked Zeus to spare Periphas, and Zeus agreed. So instead Zeus came down into the house of Periphas, found Periphas in the arms of his wife Phene, and turned Periphas into an eagle. Because Phene begged Zeus to make her a bird also, as a companion for Periphas, Zeus turned her into a vulture. And Zeus made Periphas the king of all birds, placed him as guard over his sacred sceptre, and to Phene, the vulture, he granted that she become a good omen for men in all endeavors.
- Antoninus Liberalis, The Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis: A Translation with Commentary, Edited and translated by Francis Celoria, Psychology Press, 1992. ISBN 9780415068963
- Cook, Arthur Bernard 1904, "The European Sky-god II" in Folklore, 15, pp. 369–426.
- Cook, Arthur Bernard 1925, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, Volume 2, Part 2, Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 9781108021319.
- Smith, William; A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. William Smith, LLD. William Wayte. G. E. Marindin. Albemarle Street, London. John Murray. 1890. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.