Peripherin 2

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Peripherin 2 (retinal degeneration, slow)
Symbols PRPH2 ; AOFMD; AVMD; CACD2; DS; PRPH; RDS; RP7; TSPAN22; rd2
External IDs OMIM179605 MGI102791 HomoloGene273 GeneCards: PRPH2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PRPH2 206625 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5961 19133
Ensembl ENSG00000112619 ENSMUSG00000023978
UniProt P23942 P15499
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000322 NM_008938
RefSeq (protein) NP_000313 NP_032964
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
42.66 – 42.69 Mb
Chr 17:
46.91 – 46.92 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Peripherin-2 is a protein, that in humans is encoded by the PRPH2 gene.[1][2] Peripherin-2 is found in the rod and cone cells of the retina of the eye. Defects in this protein result in one form of retinitis pigmentosa, an incurable blindness.

Mutations in the PRPH2 gene are associated with Vitelliform macular dystrophy.


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four transmembrane helices. Tetraspanins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility.

Peripherin 2 (sometimes referred to as peripherin/RDS or simply RDS) is a cell surface glycoprotein found in the outer segment of both rod and cone photoreceptor cells. It is located in the rim regions of the flattened disks that contain rhodopsin, which is the protein that is responsible for initiation of visual phototransduction upon reception of light. Peripherin 2 may function as an adhesion molecule involved in stabilization and compaction of outer segment disks or in the maintenance of the curvature of the rim. This protein is essential for disk morphogenesis.[2]

Clinical significance[edit]

Defects in this gene are associated with both central and peripheral retinal degenerations. Some of the various phenotypically different disorders are autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, progressive macular degeneration, macular dystrophy and retinitis pigmentosa digenic.[2]


  1. ^ Farrar GJ, Kenna P, Jordan SA, Kumar-Singh R, Humphries MM, Sharp EM, Sheils DM, Humphries P (Jan 1992). "A three-base-pair deletion in the peripherin-RDS gene in one form of retinitis pigmentosa". Nature 354 (6353): 478–480. doi:10.1038/354478a0. PMID 1749427. 
  2. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: PRPH2 peripherin 2 (retinal degeneration, slow)". 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Berditchevski F (2002). "Complexes of tetraspanins with integrins: more than meets the eye". J. Cell. Sci. 114 (Pt 23): 4143–51. PMID 11739647. 
  • Boesze-Battaglia K, Goldberg AF (2002). "Photoreceptor renewal: a role for peripherin/rds". Int. Rev. Cytol. International Review of Cytology 217: 183–225. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(02)17015-X. ISBN 978-0-12-364621-7. PMID 12019563. 
  • Farrar GJ; Kenna P; Jordan SA et al. (1992). "Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: a novel mutation at the peripherin/RDS locus in the original 6p-linked pedigree". Genomics 14 (3): 805–807. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80193-4. PMID 1427912. 
  • Jordan SA; Farrar GJ; Kumar-Singh R et al. (1992). "Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP; RP6): cosegregation of RP6 and the peripherin-RDS locus in a late-onset family of Irish origin". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 50 (3): 634–9. PMC 1684267. PMID 1539599. 
  • Travis GH; Christerson L; Danielson PE et al. (1991). "The human retinal degeneration slow (RDS) gene: chromosome assignment and structure of the mRNA". Genomics 10 (3): 733–739. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90457-P. PMID 1679750. 
  • Kajiwara K; Hahn LB; Mukai S et al. (1992). "Mutations in the human retinal degeneration slow gene in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa". Nature 354 (6353): 480–483. doi:10.1038/354480a0. PMID 1684223. 
  • Davies K (1991). "Human genetics. Mapping the way forward". Nature 353 (6347): 798–799. doi:10.1038/353798a0. PMID 1944554. 
  • Connell G; Bascom R; Molday L et al. (1991). "Photoreceptor peripherin is the normal product of the gene responsible for retinal degeneration in the rds mouse". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (3): 723–726. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.3.723. PMC 50885. PMID 1992463. 
  • Travis GH; Brennan MB; Danielson PE et al. (1989). "Identification of a photoreceptor-specific mRNA encoded by the gene responsible for retinal degeneration slow (rds)". Nature 338 (6210): 70–73. doi:10.1038/338070a0. PMID 2918924. 
  • Reig C; Serra A; Gean E et al. (1996). "A point mutation in the RDS-peripherin gene in a Spanish family with central areolar choroidal dystrophy". Ophthalmic Genet. 16 (2): 39–44. doi:10.3109/13816819509056911. PMID 7493155. 
  • Feist RM, White MF, Skalka H, Stone EM (1994). "Choroidal neovascularization in a patient with adult foveomacular dystrophy and a mutation in the retinal degeneration slow gene (Pro 210 Arg)". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118 (2): 259–60. PMID 7519821. 
  • Gorin MB; Jackson KE; Ferrell RE et al. (1995). "A peripherin/retinal degeneration slow mutation (Pro-210-Arg) associated with macular and peripheral retinal degeneration". Ophthalmology 102 (2): 246–55. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(95)31029-9. PMID 7862413. 
  • Grüning G; Millan JM; Meins M et al. (1994). "Mutations in the human peripherin/RDS gene associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa". Hum. Mutat. 3 (3): 321–323. doi:10.1002/humu.1380030326. PMID 8019570. 
  • Kikawa E; Nakazawa M; Chida Y et al. (1994). "A novel mutation (Asn244Lys) in the peripherin/RDS gene causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa associated with bull's-eye maculopathy detected by nonradioisotopic SSCP". Genomics 20 (1): 137–139. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1142. PMID 8020945. 
  • Farrar GJ; Kenna P; Jordan SA et al. (1993). "Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: a novel mutation at the peripherin/RDS locus in the original 6p-linked pedigree". Genomics 15 (2): 466. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1095. PMID 8449524. 
  • Nichols BE; Sheffield VC; Vandenburgh K et al. (1993). "Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy of the fovea caused by a point mutation in codon 167 of the RDS gene". Nat. Genet. 3 (3): 202–207. doi:10.1038/ng0393-202. PMID 8485574. 
  • Wells J; Wroblewski J; Keen J et al. (1993). "Mutations in the human retinal degeneration slow (RDS) gene can cause either retinitis pigmentosa or macular dystrophy". Nat. Genet. 3 (3): 213–218. doi:10.1038/ng0393-213. PMID 8485576. 
  • Keen TJ, Inglehearn CF (1997). "Mutations and polymorphisms in the human peripherin-RDS gene and their involvement in inherited retinal degeneration". Hum. Mutat. 8 (4): 297–303. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1996)8:4<297::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 8956033. 
  • Felbor U, Schilling H, Weber BH (1997). "Adult vitelliform macular dystrophy is frequently associated with mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene". Hum. Mutat. 10 (4): 301–309. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)10:4<301::AID-HUMU6>3.0.CO;2-J. PMID 9338584.