|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2013)|
Perique // is a type of tobacco from Saint James Parish, Louisiana, known for its strong, powerful, and fruity aroma. When the Acadians made their way into this region in 1776, the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes were cultivating a variety of tobacco with a distinctive flavor. A farmer named Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local tobacco into what is now known as Perique in 1824 through the labor intensive technique of pressure-fermentation.
The tobacco plants are manually kept suckerless and pruned to exactly 12 leaves through their early growth. In late June, when the leaves are a dark, rich green and the plants are 24-30 inches (600 to 750 mm) tall, the whole plant is harvested in the late evening and hung to dry in a sideless curing barn. Once the leaves have partially dried but are still supple (usually less than 2 weeks in the barn), any remaining dirt is removed and the leaves are moistened with water and stemmed by hand. The leaves are then rolled into "torquettes" of approximately 1 pound (450 g) and packed into hickory whiskey barrels. The tobacco is kept under pressure using oak blocks and massive screw jacks, forcing nearly all the air out of the still-moist leaves. Approximately once a month the pressure is released, and each of the torquettes is worked by hand to permit a little air back into the tobacco. After a year of this treatment, the perique is ready for consumption, although it may be kept fresh under pressure for many years. Extended exposure to air degrades the particular character of perique. The finished tobacco is dark brown - nearly black - very moist with a fruity, slightly vinegary aroma. The fruity aroma is the result of hundreds of volatile compounds created by anaerobic fermentation of the tobacco. Many of these are responsible for the flavors of fruits and are often found in wine.
Often considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, perique is used as a component of various blended pipe tobaccos, as many people consider it too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the fresh and moist perique was also chewed, but none is now sold for this purpose. Fewer than 16 acres (65,000 m²) of this crop remain in cultivation. Most Louisiana perique is cultivated by farmers Percy and Grant Martin in Grande Pointe, Louisiana. Although at its peak Saint James Parish was producing around 20 tons of perique a year, output is now merely a few barrels. The perique used in pipe tobaccos now is the less expensive Acadian Perique, consisting of Kentucky Green River Burley (from various states) that is processed in the same manner as perique and blended with St. James grown tobacco. The Acadian perique is made by L.A. Poche. Although the process produces a strong, spicy tobacco, it is a different product from the original straight St. James perique grown on the Martin and Poche family farms.
Pierre Chenet's grand daughter, Coralie Decareau, married Celestin Poche in February, 1829, and the Poche family has been involved in the cultivation and processing of Perique tobacco through current times. There are currently only three farmers who grow tobacco commercially in Saint James Parish.
While traditionally a pipe tobacco (and still available from some specialist tobacconists), perique can also be found in Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company's perique cigarettes under the Natural American Spirit brand in an approximately 1 part to 5 blend with lighter tobaccos. These cigarettes are marketed in a black box (Perique Rich Robust) and in a gray box (Perique Rich.) Loose tobacco for rolling is sold by the same company in black pouches. Perique is also featured in the Mysterioso line of cigars made by the Connecticut Valley Tobacconist. Mysterioso is available with a genuine Connecticut shade wrapper, genuine aged Louisiana Perique, and Honduran tobacco. It is the only cigar in the world that uses a perique blend.
- "Tobacco Leaf - Seedsmen.org". Saveseeds.org. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
- "Volatile Constituents of Perique Tobacco". Leffingwell.com. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
- "Natural American Spirit". Nascigs.com. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
- "PADRON HANDMADE CIGARS 1-Connecticut Valley Tobacconist - Northern Generals Battleground Cigars". Cvtobacco.com. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
- Fuller, R. Reese (Spring 2003). Perique, the Native Crop. Louisiana Life.
- Poche, L. Aristee (2002). Perique tobacco: Mystery and history.