|- City -|
View of Perm
Location of Perm Krai in Russia
|City Day||June 12|
|Administrative status (as of December 2011)|
|Federal subject||Perm Krai|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of krai significance of Perm|
|Administrative center of||Perm Krai, Permsky District, city of krai significance of Perm|
|Municipal status (as of August 2012)|
|Urban okrug||Perm Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Perm Urban Okrug, Permsky Municipal District|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area||799.68 km2 (308.76 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||991,162 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||13th|
|Density||1,239/km2 (3,210/sq mi)|
|Time zone||YEKT (UTC+05:00)|
|Founded||May 15, 1723|
|City status since||October 29, 1781|
|Previous names||Yagoshikha (Yegoshikha) (until 1781),
Perm (until 1940),
Molotov (until October 2, 1957)
|Dialing code(s)||+7 342|
|Perm on WikiCommons|
Perm (Russian: Пермь; IPA: [pʲɛrmʲ]; Komi-Permyak: Перем, Perem; Komi: Перым, Perym) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov (Russian: Мо́лотов [ˈmolətəf]).
According to the 2010 Census, Perm's population is 991,162, down from 1,001,653 recorded in the 2002 Census and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census. As of the 2010 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Administrative and municipal status
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Education
- 8 Climate
- 9 Sports
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Twin towns and sister cities
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The name Perm is of fenno-ugriche etymology, likely of Uralic (Komi or Veps) origin. Komi is a member of the Permic group of Fenno-Ugriche Uralic languages, which is also named for Perm. Likewise, the geologic period of the Permian takes its name from the toponym in Finnish or Vepsian language "Perämaa", means "Far away Land".
The city is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain. The Kama is the main tributary of the Volga River and one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Ural Mountains access to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Kama divides the city into two parts: the central part and the right bank part. The city stretches for 70 kilometers (43 mi) along the Kama and 40 kilometers (25 mi) across it. The city street grid parallels the Kama River, traveling generally east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city where it crosses them.
Another distinguishing feature of the city's relief is the large quantity of small rivers and brooks. The largest of them are the Mulyanka, the Yegoshikha, the Motovilikha (all are on the left bank of Kama River), and the Gayva (on the right bank).
Perm has a continental climate with warm summers and long, cold winters.
Perm was first mentioned as the village of Yagoshikha (Ягошиха) in 1647; however, the history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar Peter the Great. Vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major center of the Ural region, Yekaterinburg.
In the 19th century, Perm became a major trade and industrial center with a population of more than 20,000 people in the 1860s, with several metallurgy, paper, and steamboat producing factories, including one owned by a British entrepreneur. In 1870, an opera theater was opened in the city, and in 1871 the first phosphoric factory in Russia was built. In 1916, Perm State University—a major educational institution in modern Russia—was opened.
After the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitions factories. On December 25, 1918, the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev (who acknowledged the authority of the Omsk Government of Aleksandr Kolchak), took Perm. On July 1, 1919, the city was retaken by the Red Army.
In the 1930s, Perm grew as a major industrial city with aviation, shipbuilding, and chemical factories built during that period. During the Great Patriotic War (World War II), Perm was a vital center of artillery production in the Soviet Union. During the cold war, Perm became a closed city.
The city is a major administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center. The leading industries include machinery, defence, oil production (about 3% of Russian output), oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, timber and wood processing and the food industry.
Since 2004, in the city of Perm functioned modern Russia's first Muslim Cossack unit.
The Jewish community
The first Jews who arrived in Perm were demobilized soldiers from the imperial army who were allowed, after completing their service, to settle outside the pale of settlement and, in 1861, there were 194 Jews in Perm. Over the years the community grew larger, and at the beginning of the 20th century, there were 1,000 Jews living in the city with their own synagogue on Kungurskaya Street (now Komsomolsky Avenue) and school for boys. After the Revolution of 1917 the building of the synagogue and community property were confiscated and were not returned until 1922.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many Jews emigrated from the city. The first rabbi to arrive in the city after the collapse was David Vajs, who arrived in 1996. He was then replaced with Rabbi Eliyagy Habi in 2001.
On March 9, 2013, two unidentified assailants threw a rock and a Molotov cocktail through a window of the Jewish Community Center. A small area was set on fire, but a security guard extinguished it. Jewish community leaders ascribed the incident to incitement in the local media the previous week, related to stories about a new Torah scroll for the community 
Administrative and municipal status
Perm is the administrative center of the krai and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Permsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Perm—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Perm is incorporated as Perm Urban Okrug.
For administrative purposes, Perm is divided into seven city districts:
|City District||Population (2010 Census)|
Perm has the largest industrial output among cities in the Urals, ahead of Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk and Ufa, although Perm has a smaller population than these. 35% of Perm Oblast's industry is located in Perm. The largest industries in the city are electric power engineering, oil and gas refining, machine building, chemicals and petrochemicals, forestry processing, printing and food industry.
Several major industrial companies are located in Perm. Engine-makers Perm Motors and Aviadvigatel are among the major players of the Russian aircraft industry. Rocket engine company Proton-PM will mass-produce the RD-191 engine for the upcoming Angara rocket family. In electric engineering, Morion JSC and Perm Scientific and Industrial Group, along with Perm Electrical Engineering Plant are the leading companies. JSC KAMKABEL is Russia's largest exporter of cables and wires. Oil-refining and natural gas processing are also among the city's leading industries. The largest companies in this sector are LUKoil-Perm Ltd., and LUKoilPernefteprodukt Ltd.
Perm is an important railway junction on the Trans-Siberian Railway with lines radiating to Central Russia, the north part of the Urals, and the far east of Russia. Perm has two big railway stations - historical Perm-I and modern Perm-II. The Kama River is an important link in the unifying deep-water system of the European part of Russia. The river connects the city with European waterways. It is possible to ship cargo from the Kama river area to the sea ports of the White, Baltic, Azov, Black, and Caspian seas without reloading.
Perm is served by the international airport Bolshoye Savino, 16 km (9.9 mi) southwest.
Proposed metro system
The Perm Metro is a planned construction of a metro system which has been considered. The first plans date back to the 1970s. A feasibility study was compiled in 1990 but economic difficulties during the decade prevented its final planning and construction. The plans were revitalized in the early 2000s, but a lack of funding hampered the project and plans were once again put on hold. Light rail has also been considered.
The Perm Opera and Ballet House is one of the best in Russia. There are many other theaters in Perm, including the Drama Theater, the Puppet Theater, the Theater for Young Spectators, the Theater "Stage Molot", and the Theater "Near Bridge".
Among the cities museums and galleries, the Perm State Art Gallery is recognized for its outstanding collections of art, including paintings from the 15th- to 18th-century art movements, and wooden sculptures from the region. It is housed in a notable early 19th-century structure, once an orthodox cathedral. The spire of the museum towers over the rest of Perm, as it is situated on the Komsomolsky Prospect. Perm is receiving attention from the development of the new Museum of Contemporary Art, PERMM (ru) which came into existence officially in March 2009.
Perm is a scientific center; some of the scientific institutes are combined in the Perm Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Perm is a home to several major universities including Perm State University, Perm State Technical University, Perm State Teachers' Training University, Perm State Medical Academy, Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy, Perm State Agricultural Academy, The Institute of Art and Culture, Perm State Choreographic School, Perm branch of state university Higher school of economics and others. There are also three military schools in Perm.
|Climate data for Perm|
|Record high °C (°F)||4.3
|Average high °C (°F)||−9.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−12.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.2
|Record low °C (°F)||−44.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||44
|Snowfall cm (inches)||46
|Avg. rainy days||2||2||4||10||17||17||16||19||20||16||7||4||134|
|Avg. snowy days||27||20||16||5||1||0||0||0||1||7||18||24||145|
|Average humidity (%)||85||81||74||66||61||68||71||77||81||83||85||85||76|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||37.2||79.1||151.9||198.0||275.9||291.0||285.2||226.3||132.0||65.1||36.0||21.7||1,799.4|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)|
|Amkar Perm||Football||1994||Russian Premier League||1st||Zvezda Stadium|
|Zvezda 2005 Perm||Football||1994||Women's Supreme League||1st||Zvezda Stadium|
|Oktan Perm||Football||1958||Russian Second Division||3rd||Neftyanik Stadium|
|Molot-Prikamye Perm||Ice Hockey||1948||Higher Hockey League||2nd||Universal Sports Palace Molot|
|Prikamye Perm||Volleyball||1983||Volleyball Super League||1st||Sukharev Sports Complex|
|Permskie Medvedi||Handball||1999||Handball Super League||1st||Permskie Medvedi Sports Complex|
|Parma Perm Krai||Basketball||2012||Supreme Basketball League||3rd||Sukharev Sports Complex|
The following people were either born in Perm or made names for themselves while residing there.
- Viktor Astafyev, short story writer
- Tatiana Borodina, opera soprano
- Sergei Diaghilev, ballet impresario
- Maria Gutarov, Impressionist painter
- Alexandra Kosteniuk, 2008 Women's World Chess Champion
- Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak, writer
- Nikolay Moiseyev, astronomer
- Andronic Nikolsky (Andronik), the first Bishop of Kyoto, Japan
- Fyodor Petrov, Soviet artillery designer
- Natasha Poly, supermodel
- Alexander Stepanovich Popov, physicist; widely regarded in Russia as the inventor of radio
- Mikhail Shuisky, opera singer
- Arkadiy Shvetsov, aircraft engine designer
- Nikolay Slavyanov, inventor of an early method of arc welding
- Peter Berngardovich Struve, political economist, philosopher, and editor
- Maxim Trankov, pairs figure skater
- Yuri Trutnev, Minister of Natural Resources of Russia
- Andrey Voronikhin, architect and painter
- Konstantin Zyryanov, association football player
The Nobel-prize-winning writer Boris Pasternak lived in Perm for a time, and it figures in his novel Doctor Zhivago under the fictional name "Yuriatin" where Yuri sees Lara again in the public library.
Twin towns and sister cities
Perm is twinned with:
- Louisville, Kentucky, United States, 1994
- Oxford, United Kingdom, 1995
- Qingdao, China
- Shenzhen, China
- Duisburg, Germany, since 2007
- Law #416-67
- Law #2038-446
- Law #1868-402
- Official website of the Head of Perm (Russian)
- (Russian)Пермская Городская Дума
- "Áàçà äàííûõ ïîêàçàòåëåé ìóíèöèïàëüíûõ îáðàçîâàíèé". gks.ru.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official website of Perm. History.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
- Russian Federation - International Codes - The Phone Book from BT, Retrieved 2014-04-12
- Gramota.ru. #18475
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Jones, Finn-Olaf (July 22, 2011). "A Bilbao on Siberia's Edge?". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Religion; Visit Perm online; accessed .
- "Global Anti-Semitism: Selected Incidents Around the World in 2013". adl.org.
- Industry Perm City Administration
- English version City of Perm. Department of Industrial Policy, Investment and Entrepreneurship
- Transport infrastructure — Perm regional server.
-  Perm' Metro Project; article (includes map); Urban Rail online; accessed .
- "Барыкина Л. Пермяки высадились на Манхэттене//Ведомости от 25.01.2008". Vedomosti.ru. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- "Perm Museums' Plan Dubbed the 'New Bilbao'". The Moscow Times.
- Kishkovsky, Sophia (2009-05-28). "Modern Dance and Art Bring a Burst of Color to a Gray City". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Perm State University". Psu.ru. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- "Заставка - Пермский государственный технический университет". Pstu.ru. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- Perm State Academy Of Medicine[dead link]
- Site developed by Perm RCI PSTU. "Perm State Ballet college". Balletschool.perm.ru. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- "Государственный университет - Высшая школа экономики". Hse.perm.ru. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Climatological Information for Perm, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "Oxford's International Twin Towns". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 2013-08-17. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- 友好城市 (Friendly cities), 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 2008-03-22. (Translation by Google Translate.)
- 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List), 2011-01-20. (Translation by Google Translate.)
- 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges), 2011-09-13. (Translation by Google Translate.)
- "Cities Twinned with Duisburg". 2009 Duisberg City Council. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
- "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". © 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28.[dead link]
- Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №416-67 от 28 февраля 1996 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пермского края», в ред. Закона №328-ПК от 7 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Пермской области и Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа». Вступил в силу с момента опубликования. Опубликован: "Звезда", №38, 12 марта 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #416-67 of February 28, 1996 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #328-PK of June 7, 2014 On Amending Various Laws of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of the moment of publication.).
- Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №2038-446 от 11 февраля 2005 г. «Об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального образования "Город Пермь" Пермского края», в ред. Закона №499-ПК от 16 октября 2009 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Пермской области и Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования (12 марта 2005 г.), за исключением отдельных положений, вступивших в силу в иные сроки. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №41, 2 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #2038-446 of February 11, 2005 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Perm" of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #499-PK of October 16, 2009 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of the day which is ten days following the day of the official publication (March 12, 2005), with the exception of certain clauses, which took effect on different dates.).
- Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №1868-402 от 1 декабря 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципальных образований Пермского района Пермского края», в ред. Закона №273-ПК от 14 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Пермской области, Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа, Пермского края». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бюллетень Законодательного Собрания и администрации Пермской области", №1, II часть, 27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #1868-402 of December 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Status to the Municipal Formations of Permsky District of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #273-PK of December 14, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Perm Oblast, Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, Perm Krai. Effective as of the day which is ten days following the day of the official publication.).
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- Official website of Perm (Russian)
- Official website of the Perm City Duma (Russian)
- Street View of Perm
- Perm Chamber of Commerce and Industry
- The Western Ural Photographic Album
- Virtual museum of Romanov in Perm
- History of Perm
- The city of Perm - The poem of the town
- Article about Perm Ballet
- S. Kishkovsky "Modern Dance and Art Bring a Burst of Color to a Gray City"
- Unofficial website of Perm
- Perm City Guide (English Version)
- Perm State University
- Perm State Technical University
- Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy
- Perm State Choreographic School