Permanent Court of Arbitration

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Permanent Court of Arbitration
Cour permanente d'arbitrage
Permanent Court of Arbitration - Cour permanente d'arbitrage.svg
Seal of the court
Established 1899
Country Worldwide, 115 state parties
Location The Hague, Netherlands
Authorized by Hague Peace Conference
Website www.pca-cpa.org

The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. It was established in 1899 at the first Hague Peace Conference. The PCA encourages the resolution of disputes that involve states, state entities, intergovernmental organizations, and private parties by assisting in the establishment of arbitration tribunals and facilitating their work. The PCA is different from the International Court of Justice which is housed in the same building, the Peace Palace in The Hague.

History[edit]

The court was established in 1899 as one of the acts of the first Hague Peace Conference, which makes it the oldest institution for international dispute resolution.

The creation of the court is set out under Articles 20 to 29 of the 1899 Hague Convention for the pacific settlement of international disputes, which was a result of the first Hague Peace Conference. At the second Hague Peace Conference, the earlier Convention was revised by the 1907 Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes. The Conference was convened at the initiative of Czar Nicolas II of Russia "with the object of seeking the most objective means of ensuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and lasting peace, and above all, of limiting the progressive development of existing armaments." The most concrete achievement of the Conference was the establishment of the PCA: the first global mechanism for the settlement of disputes between states. The 1899 Convention was revised at the second Hague Peace Conference in 1907.

State parties[edit]

Parties of the Permanent Court of Arbitration
  according to the convention of 1907
  according to convention of 1899
  not party

As of February 2012, 115 countries are party to one or both of these founding Conventions of the PCA.[1]

State party
1899 convention
1907 convention
 
28-10-2011
15-06-1907
 
01-04-1960
21-02-1997
04-09-1900
26-01-1910
 
30-06-2008
 
26-02-2012
04-06-1962
04-04-1962
04-09-1900
07-10-1910
 
21-01-2003
 
16-09-2005
15-06-1907
26-10-1910
15-06-1907
06-03-1914
04-09-1900
10-06-2000
30-08-1961
30-08-1961
04-01-1956
04-01-1956
01-08-1961
01-08-1961
19-08-1960
09-07-1994
15-06-1907
18-01-1998
21-11-1904
26-01-1910
15-06-1907
17-03-1997
25-03-1961
25-03-1961
 
20-07-1999
08-10-1991
 
15-06-1907
22-04-1912
 
12-11-1993
 
01-01-1993
04-09-1900
26-01-1910
15-06-1907
07-09-1958
03-07-1907
 
 
04-11-1968
20-06-1907
26-01-1910
 
04-10-1997
 
01-09-2003
30-07-2003
 
02-04-1973
 
 
09-06-1922
04-09-1900
06-12-1910
04-09-1900
26-01-1910
04-04-1901
 
15-06-1907
14-05-1911
 
25-01-1998
15-06-1907
03-04-1910
01-12-1961
30-01-1962
04-09-1900
26-01-1910
08-12-1955
08-12-1955
29-07-1950
 
04-09-1900
 
31-08-1970
30-10-1970
 
06-07-2002
 
17-06-1962
04-09-1900
 
06-10-1900
11-02-1912
 
27-01-1992
 
11-06-2006
 
21-02-2000
 
14-09-2003
04-06-1992
04-06-1992
18-07-1955
18-07-1955
 
12-08-2001
14-02-1968
14-04-1968
 
02-09-1996
 
23-09-1994
 
09-01-2005
12-07-1901
04-11-1912
17-11-1991
17-02-2001
 
07-10-2009
 
06-05-2002
 
07-09-1968
03-08-1970
 
17-04-1901
26-01-1910
 03-06-2006
 
 
04-06-2001
04-09-1900
26-01-1910
10-02-1959
13-04-2010
15-06-1907
14-02-1910
 
16-02-1987
04-09-1900
18-11-1910
05-08-1950
 
15-06-1907
10-11-1911
15-06-1907
24-06-1933
15-06-1907
 
 
26-05-1922
 
14-07-2010
04-09-1900
12-06-1911
 
02-12-2005
04-09-1900
30-04-1912
07-03-1955
07-03-1955
19-04-2011
 
20-01-2002
01-08-1977
30-09-1977
05-06-2006
05-06-2006
 
11-09-1993
 
01-01-1993
01-10-1996
29-03-2004
 
21-12-1998
04-09-1900
17-05-1913
09-02-1955
 
 
02-12-1966
 
27-12-1992
 
25-12-1970
04-09-1900
26-01-1910
29-12-1900
11-07-1910
04-09-1900
11-05-1910
 
17-12-2004
12-06-1907
 
 
30-04-1966
04-04-1962
04-04-1962
 
06-11-2008
04-09-1900
26-01-1910
04-09-1900
12-10-1970
17-06-1907
 
15-06-1907
 
29-12-2011
27-02-2012
 
31-12-1999
19-09-1984
 

Organization[edit]

Seat of the PCA: The Peace Palace ("Vredespaleis"), The Hague.
PCA courtroom.

The PCA is not a “court in the conventional understanding of that term, but an administrative organization with the object of having permanent and readily available means to serve as the registry for purposes of international arbitration and other related procedures, including commissions of enquiry and conciliation.”[2] It is a permanent framework available to assist temporary arbitral tribunals or commissions. The judges or arbitrators that hear cases are officially called "Members" of the Court.

The PCA is housed in the Peace Palace in The Hague, which was built specially for the Court in 1913 with an endowment from Andrew Carnegie. From 1922 on, the building also housed the distinctly separate Permanent Court of International Justice, which was replaced by the International Court of Justice in 1946.

The public at large is usually more familiar with the International Court of Justice than with the Permanent Court of Arbitration, partly because of the closed nature of cases handled by the PCA and due to the small number of cases dealt with between 1946 and 1990. The PCA's caseload has, however, increased since then.[3]

The PCA administers cases arising out of international treaties (including bilateral and multilateral investment treaties) and other agreements to arbitrate. The cases conducted by the PCA span a wide range of legal issues, including disputes over territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment (investor-state arbitrations), and matters concerning international and regional trade.

Hearings are rarely open to the public and sometimes even the decision itself is kept confidential at the request of the parties. Many decisions and related documents are available on the PCA website.

Cases[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Member States
  2. ^ Shabtai Rosenne, “The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 and International Arbitration: Reports and Documents”, T.M.C. Asser Press (2001), page xxi.
  3. ^ Sir Kenneth Keith ONZ QBE QC, "Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration" in Timothy L.H. McCormack & Cheryl Saunders, ed., Sir Ninian Stephen: A Tribute, Miegunnyah Press (2007), p. 174. See also Permanent Court of Arbitration 106th Annual Report, p.1, available at http://www.pca-cpa.org/upload/files/03%202006%20Summary%20Report%20FINAL%20en.pdf
  4. ^ Judge George H. Aldrich, "The Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal" in P. Hamilton et al., ed., The Permanent Court of Arbitration: International Arbitration and Dispute Resolution, Kluwer Law International (1999), p. 208.
  5. ^ award on PCA website
  6. ^ award on PCA website

Further reading[edit]

Hudson, Manley O. (June 1943). "Chapter 1. The Permanent Court of Arbitration". The Permanent Court of International Justice 1920-1942 (A Treatise). New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 3–36 Sections 1–32.  The relevant chapter includes information about a number of cases referred to the Permanent Court of Arbitration.

External links[edit]