Adult mouth showing full set of permanent teeth
Permanent teeth or adult teeth are the second set of teeth formed in diphyodont mammals. In old world simians (including humans), there are thirty-two permanent teeth, consisting of six maxillary and six mandibular molars, four maxillary and four mandibular premolars, two maxillary and two mandibular canines, four maxillary and four mandibular incisors.
The first permanent tooth usually appears in the mouth at around six years of age, and the mouth will then be in a transition time with both primary (or deciduous dentition) teeth and permanent teeth during the mixed dentition period until the last primary tooth is lost or shed.
The first of the permanent teeth to erupt are the permanent first molars, right behind the last 'milk' molars of the primary dentition. These first permanent molars are important for the correct development of a permanent dentition. Up to the age of thirteen years, twenty-eight of the thirty-two permanent teeth will appear.
The full permanent dentition is completed much later during the permanent dentition period. The four last permanent teeth, the third molars, usually appear between the ages of 17 and 25 years; they are considered wisdom teeth.
It is possible to have extra, or "supernumerary," teeth. This phenomenon is called hyperdontia and is often erroneously referred to as "a third set of teeth." These teeth may erupt into the mouth or remain impacted in the bone. Hyperdontia is often associated with syndromes such as cleft lip and palate, trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner's syndrome.
- American Dental Association, Permanent tooth eruption chart at http://www.ada.org/sections/publicResources/pdfs/chart_eruption_perm.pdf
- lllustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, and Anatomy, Bath-Balogh and Fehrenbach, Elsevier, 2011, page 191-192
- American Dental Association, Tooth eruption: The permanent teeth at http://www.ada.org/sections/scienceAndResearch/pdfs/patient_58.pdf
- Jordan, Joseph A. Regezi & James J. Sciubba; Richard C. K. (2003). Oral pathology : clinical pathologic correlations (4th ed. ed.). St. Louis: Saunders. ISBN 978-0721698052.
- Permanent dentition - Adult teeth chart Morphology permanent teeth.
- Ash, Major M. and Stanley J. Nelson, 2003. Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion. 8th edition.
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