Permanente Metals

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Permanente Metals Company (PMC) managed the Richmond Shipyards, owned by Henry J. Kaiser. These four of the Kaiser Shipyards were known for the construction of Liberty ships.[1]

The company was also a major producer of magnesium during World War II. To make use of its major product, powdered magnesium, PMC also developed and supplied an incendiary bomb mixture of magnesium powder, asphalt, gasoline and others components (known as 'goop', with similar characteristics to napalm); 17,000 tons of 'goop'-filled bombs were used in World War II (approximately 8% of the total tonnage of incendiaries that were dropped during that conflict).[2] Permanente ranked 42nd among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.[3]



  1. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 176-91, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  2. ^ Wilson, p.2.
  3. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619


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