Per mille

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Per mille
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"‰" redirects here. Not to be confused with %, indicating parts per hundred, or with , indicating parts per ten thousand.

A per mille[1][2][3] (from Latin per mīlle, "in each thousand"[4]), also spelled per mil,[4][1][5][6][2][7] per mill,[4][2][5][6][7][8] permil,[4] permill,[4] or permille[3] is a sign indicating parts per thousand. Per mil should not be confused with parts per million (ppm).

The sign is written , which looks like a percent sign (%) with an extra zero in the divisor. It is included in the General Punctuation block of Unicode characters: U+2030 per mille sign (HTML: ‰ ‰).[3] It is accessible in Windows using ALT+0137.

A railroad distance sign in the Czech Republic. The 20‰ grade is equivalent to 2%.

The term occurs so rarely in English that major dictionaries do not agree on the spelling or pronunciation even within a single dialect of English[9] and some major dictionaries such as Macmillan[10] and Longman[11] do not even contain an entry. The term is more common in other European languages where it is used in contexts, such as blood alcohol content, that are usually expressed as a percentage in English-speaking countries.


Examples of common use include:

  • expressing costs for print and online advertisements which are commonly sold at cost per mille (CPM); this is the common unit for all banner and display advertising
  • frequently used by email service providers to denominate the cost for 1,000 emails delivered as a cost per mille (CPM)

Related units[edit]


  1. ^ a b Cambridge Dictionary Online. "per mille". Cambridge University Press (Cambridge), 2014. Accessed 31 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Oxford Dictionaries: The British & World Dictionary. "per mille" Accessed 1 Aug 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Unicode. "General Punctuation". 2014. Accessed 5 Aug 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "per mil, adv." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2005.
  5. ^ a b eReference. "per mil". Houghton Mifflin. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  6. ^ a b Oxford Dictionaries: The American Dictionary. "per mill". Accessed 1 Aug 2014.
  7. ^ a b Collins English Dictionary. "per mill or per mil". 2014. Accessed 1 Aug 2014.
  8. ^ Collins American English Dictionary. "per mill". 2014. Accessed 1 Aug 2014.
  9. ^ See entries above
  10. ^ Macmillan Dictionary. "No result". Accessed 1 Aug 2014.
  11. ^ Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. "No result". Accessed 1 Aug 2014.