|Classification and external resources|
Basic structure of a peroxisome
Peroxisomal disorders represent a class of medical conditions caused by defects in peroxisome functions. This may be due to defects in single enzymes important for peroxisome function or in peroxins, proteins encoded by PEX genes that are critical for normal peroxisome assembly and biogenesis.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) include the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (PBD-ZSD) and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1). PBD-ZSD represents a continuum of disorders including infantile Refsum disease, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, and Zellweger syndrome. Collectively, PBDs are autosomal recessive developmental brain disorders that also result in skeletal and craniofacial dysmorphism, liver dysfunction, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and retinopathy.
PBD-ZSD is most commonly caused by mutations in the PEX1, PEX6, PEX10, PEX12, and PEX26 genes. This results in the over-accumulation of very long chain fatty acids and branched chain fatty acids, such as phytanic acid. In addition, PBD-ZSD patients show deficient levels of plasmalogens, ether-phospholipids necessary for normal brain and lung function.
RCDP1 is caused by mutations in the PEX7 gene, which encodes the PTS2 receptor. RCDP1 patients can develop large tissue stores of branched chain fatty acids, such as phytanic acid, and show reduced levels of plasmalogens.
|Zellweger syndrome||214100||PEX1, PEX2, PEX3, PEX5, PEX6, PEX12, PEX14, PEX26||Q87.82|
|Infantile Refsum disease||266510||PEX1, PEX2, PEX26||E80.3|
|Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy||202370||PEX5, PEX1, PEX10, PEX13, PEX26||E71.331|
|RCDP Type 1||215100||PEX7||Q77.3|
Enzyme and transporter defects
Peroxisomal disorders also include:
|Hyperoxaluria type 1||259900||AGXT||E80.311|
|Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency||264470||ACOX1||E80.313|
|D-bifunctional protein deficiency||261515||HSD17B4||E80.314|
|Dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase deficiency||222765||GNPAT||E80.315|
|α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency||604489||AMACR|
|RCDP Type 2||222765||DHAPAT||Q77.3|
|RCDP Type 3||600121||AGPS||Q77.3|
|Adult Refsum disease-1||266500||PHYH||G60.1|
Additional resources for patients and families
The mission of the ELA is to help and support families affected by leukodystrophy, to stimulate the development of research thanks to the ELA Foundation created in 2005, to raise public awareness, to develop its work at international level. ELA is thus a bridge between all forms of leukodystrophy and a family solidarity network.
The mission of The Global Foundation for Peroxisomal Disorders is to help children and families faced with a diagnosis of a Peroxisomal Biogenesis Disorder (in the Zellweger Spectrum of Disorders) and to assist family members and professionals through educational programs, research, and support services.
Rhizokids is dedicated to providing support for families affected by RCDP, promoting awareness of RCDP, and raising funds for RCDP research so that one day we will have a cure!
The United Leukodystrophy Foundation is dedicated to helping children and adults who have leukodystrophy and assisting the family members, professionals and support services that serve them. The ULF is committed to the identification, treatment and cure of all leukodystrophies through programs of education, advocacy, research and service.
Our mission is to promote, advance, and improve awareness of Zellweger syndrome and other peroxisomal disorders, to assist, support, and aid, financially or otherwise, individuals and families affected by Zellweger syndrome.
- Wanders, R. J. A.; Waterham, H. R. (2006). "Biochemistry of Mammalian Peroxisomes Revisited". Annual Review of Biochemistry 75: 295–332. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.74.082803.133329. PMID 16756494.
- Wanders, R.; Waterham, H. (2006). "Peroxisomal disorders: the single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 1763: 1707. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2006.08.010.
- Weller, S.; Gould, S. J.; Valle, D. (2003). "Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 4: 165–211. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.4.070802.110424. PMID 14527301.
- Steinberg, S.; Dodt, G.; Raymond, G.; Braverman, N.; Moser, A.; Moser, H. (2006). "Peroxisome biogenesis disorders". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 1763 (12): 1733. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2006.09.010.
- Steinberg, S.; Raymond, G.; Braverman, N.; Moser, A.; Pagon, H.; Adam, R.; Bird, T.; Dolan, C.; Fong, K.; Stephens, K. (1993). "Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders, Zellweger Syndrome Spectrum". PMID 20301621.
- Steinberg, S.; Chen, L.; Wei, L.; Moser, A.; Moser, H.; Cutting, G.; Braverman, N. (2004). "The PEX Gene Screen: molecular diagnosis of peroxisome biogenesis disorders in the Zellweger syndrome spectrum". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 83 (3): 252–263. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2004.08.008. PMID 15542397.
- Yik, W. Y.; Steinberg, S. J.; Moser, A. B.; Moser, H. W.; Hacia, J. G. (2009). "Identification of novel mutations and sequence variation in the Zellweger syndrome spectrum of peroxisome biogenesis disorders". Human Mutation 30 (3): E467–E480. doi:10.1002/humu.20932. PMC 2649967. PMID 19105186.
- Braverman, N.; Steel, G.; Obie, C.; Moser, A.; Moser, H.; Gould, S. J.; Valle, D. (1997). "Human PEX7 encodes the peroxisomal PTS2 receptor and is responsible for rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata". Nature Genetics 15 (4): 369–376. doi:10.1038/ng0497-369. PMID 9090381.
- World Health Organization (7 December 1997). Application of the international classification of diseases to neurology: ICD-NA.. World Health Organization. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-92-4-154502-0. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
- GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders, Zellweger Syndrome Spectrum
- Peroxisomal disorders at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)