Perrier's sifaka

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Perrier's sifaka[1]
Propithecus perrieri 001.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Indriidae
Genus: Propithecus
Species: P. perrieri
Binomial name
Propithecus perrieri
Lavauden, 1931
Propithecus perrieri range map.svg
Perrier's sifaka range

Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus perrieri) is a sifaka endemic to Madagascar. It was once formerly a subspecies of diademed sifaka[3] and is considered one of the 25 most endangered primates in the world.[4]

Description[edit]

It has a length of 85 to 92 centimeters, of which 42-46 centimeters are tail.[5] Its pelage is almost entirely black[5] covering everywhere on their body except for their face and ears. They have small forward facing eyes. The species have masses ranging from 3.7 to 6.0 kg. They have minimal sexual dimorphism, however females are slightly larger mass on average.[6]

Distribution[edit]

Perrier's sifaka has a very limited range in northeastern Madagascar between the Irodo River to the north and the Lokia River to the south.[5] The species' geographic range is concentrated on the Analamerana Special Reserve managed by Madagascar National Parks and in the Andrafiamena Protected Area managed by the NGO Fanamby.[7] Its presence in the Ankarana National Park has been reported a few decades ago but could unfortunately not be confirmed in the last decade.[7]

2012 updated fine scale Perrier's sifaka distribution [7]

Its habitat consists of dry deciduous and semi-humid forest.[5] Groups of this species have a home range of about one hectare.

Diet[edit]

The diet of Perrier's sifaka resembles that of other sifakas, consisting of fruit, leaves, flowers, buds, petioles, and seeds. Sifakas are naturally suited for this herbivorous diet because they have long gastrointestinal tracts and enlarged cecums.[8] Groups of sifaka do not show any aggression towards other groups when feeding, let alone come into contact with each other.[9] Sifakas in general show seasonal variation in diet. During the wet season, Perrier's sifakas contribute most of their feeding time, about 70 to 90 percent of it, to fruits and seeds, but in the dry season most of the species feeding time is spent on leaves and flowers.[8]

Behavior[edit]

Perrier's sifakas use vocalizations to communicate including warning calls and have even been observed to make a sound described as sneezing.[6]

Social Structure[edit]

Sifakas have groups between 2 and 6 individuals.[5] Dispersal of sex is unbiased, which is uncommon among most species. Aggression between groups is extremely low as well as the overall encounter rates between groups. Society is largely matriarchal and females have feeding priority.[8] Mating habits have not been thoroughly studied yet.[6]

Life Cycle[edit]

The reproductive cycle is bound to the season and sifakas reproduce either every year or every two years. Infants have a slow growth rate given the large abundance of food on Madagascar, but dental development is just the opposite. A hypothesis has been put forth that this is to reduce the dependency period of the offspring and increase the chance of survival for the mother, who does not have to expend energy and time to raise her offspring. Most females do not place much effort into individual offspring, as half of sifaka infants die before the age of one.[8] Infants become dependent at the age of 2 and reach sexual maturity at the age of 4 for females and at the age of 5 for males. Males use genital swelling to communicate that they are ready for sex.[6]

Conservation status[edit]

Perrier's sifaka is one of the most endangered primates due to the limited distribution and low population density.[7][10] A recent conservation plan for the Perrier's sifaka has been developed following the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC) Lemur Red List reassessment meeting in Antananarivo in 2012.[11][12] While selective logging still seems to be one of the main threads in Analamerana special reserve, deforestation for slash and burn agriculture and for charcoal production is predominant in Andrafiamena protected area.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. (2014). "Propithecus perrieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  3. ^ Christoph Schwitzer, Olivier Arnoult, Berthe Rakotosamimanana. "An international conservation and research programme for Perrier’s sifaka (Propithecus perrieri Lavauden, 1931) in northern Madagascar". Lemur News Vol. 11, 2006. Lemur News. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  4. ^ Mittmeier, R. et al. (2005) "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2004-2006"
  5. ^ a b c d e Garbutt, Nick (2007). Mammals of Madagascar, A Complete Guide. pp. 189–191. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Facts about Perrier's Sifaka (Propithecus perrieri)". Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d Salmona J, Jan F, Rasolondraibe E, Zaranaina R, Saïd Ousseni D, Mohamed-Thani I, Rakotonanahary A, Ralantoharijaona T, Kun-Rodrigues C, Carreira M, Wohlhauser S, Ranirison P, Zaonarivelo JR, Rabarivola JC, Chikhi L (2013). "Survey of the critically endangered Perrier’s sifaka (Propithecus Perrieri) across most if its distribution range. Lemur News 17:9–12". Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c d Irwin, Mitchell. "Ecologically Enigmatic Lemurs: The Sifakas of the Eastern Forests (Propithecus candidus, P. diadema, P. edwardsi, P. perrieri, and P. tattersalli)". Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  9. ^ Shawn Lehman, Mireya Mayor. "Dietary Patterns in Perrier’s Sifakas (Propithecus diadema perrieri): A Preliminary Study". Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  10. ^ Banks MA, Ellis ER, Wright PC (2007) Global population size of a critically endangered lemur, Perrier’s sifaka. Animal Conservation 10:254–262
  11. ^ Salmona J, Zaonarivelo JR, Banks MA (2013) Analamerana and Andrafiamena, site-based action plan for Perrier’s sifaka conservation. In: Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Davies N, Johnson SE, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis EE, Rajaobelina S (eds) Lemurs of Madagascar: a strategy for their conservation 2013–2016. Bristol, UK: IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, and Conservation International. p, p 140–141
  12. ^ Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Davies N, Johnson S, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis Jr EE, Rajaobelina S (2013). "Lemurs of Madagascar A Strategy for their Conservation 2013–2016. IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, and Conservation International, Bristol, UK". Retrieved 3 April 2014. 

External links[edit]