Persian Socialist Soviet Republic
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|Persian Socialist Soviet Republic
(Soviet) Republic of Gilan
|Languages||Gilaki · Persian|
|-||1920–1921||Mirza Koochak Khan|
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|-||Republic declared||May 1920|
|-||Russo-Persian Treaty||February 1921|
The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (widely known as the Soviet Republic of Gilan) was a short-lived Soviet republic in the Iranian province of Gilan that lasted from June 1920 until September 1921. It was established by Mirza Koochak Khan, a leader of the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan, and his Jangali (Foresters Movement) partisans, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army.
Background and history
The Jangal movement that had been started in 1914 was further boosted and gained gravity after the victory of the Bolsheviks in Russia. In May 1920 the Soviet Caspian Fleet led by Fedor Raskolnikov and accompanied by Sergo Orzhonikidze entered the Caspian port of Anzali. Formally this mission was declared to be only in pursuit of the Russian vessels and ammunition taken to Anzali by the White Russian counter-revolutionary General Denikin, who had been given asylum by British forces in Anzali. The British garrison in Anzali was soon evacuated without any resistance and the British forces retrieved to Manjil.
Faced with the conflict between his movement and the united British and central government forces, Kuchik Khan considered several choices. Mirza had previously considered seeking support from Bolsheviks when a year before he traveled on foot to Lankaran to meet with them but by the time he arrived in that city the Red forces had been forced to evacuate.
Amongst the Jangalis, there were many who felt that the Bolsheviks offered a real solution to the problems shared by both Russia and Iran, namely the domination of the upper-classes and the Imperial Court. Kuchik Khan's second-in-command, Ehsanollah Khan, had become a communist and an ardent advocate of an alliance with the Bolsheviks. Kuchik Khan, though hesitant and cautious towards such an idea due to both his religious and nationalist background, accepted and the Jangalis entered into an agreement with the Bolsheviks.
This cooperation with the Soviet revolutionaries was based on some conditions including the announcement of the Persian Socialist Soviet Republic under his leadership and lack of any direct intervention by the Soviets in the internal affairs of the republic. The Soviets agreed to support him with ammunition and soldiers. Mirza offered to pay for the ammunition but the Soviets refused any payments.
Formal declaration of the Republic
In May 1920, the Soviet Republic of Gilan, officially known as the Persian Socialist Soviet Republic, came into being. Of note is that the Republic did not redistribute land to poor peasants which was considered as a conservative position by the more radical forces of the Jangal movement. Therefore, soon disagreements arose between Mirza and his group of advisors on one side and the Soviets and the Iranian Communist Party (evolved from the Baku based Edalad (Justice) Party) on the other.
On June 9, 1920 Mirza Kuchik Khan left Rasht in protest and also to avoid military confrontation (which he had always avoided as much as possible, even while fighting with the central government forces) and opened the way for the Communist (Edalat) party to set a coup d’etat. The new administration, formally under Ehsanollah Khan but actually under the influence of Abukov (the Soviet Commissar) started a series of radical activities such as anti-religious propaganda, forcing money out of the rich landlords, etc.
Conservative elements characterized these measures as simply the latest features of longstanding Russian interference in the region, and the middle-class were antagonized by the level of violence, disrespect for property, and the Russian ties of the Jangali movement. The Republic also lost support from the general population due to the exceedingly high number of war refugees who began flooding the urban centers, thus posing a significant economic problem.
- Mohammad taghi Pir bazari - Finance commissioner
- Mir shams el din vaghari (Vagahr ol saltane) - Interial commissioner
- Seyyed Jafar Some'e sarai (Mohseni) - Foreign commissioner
- Mahmud Reza - Justice commissioner
- Abolghasem Rezazade (Fakhraei) - Trade commissioner
- Nasrollah Reza - Post & telegraph commissioner
- Mohammadali Gilak (Khomami) - Public benefits commissioner
- Ali Habibi - Police chief
- Dr. Mansur Bavar - Health head chief
- Mirza Shokrollah khan Tonekaboni (keyhan) - Research chief
- Amir taka - Head of war commission
Mirza's efforts to resolve the bloody disputes by sending a petition through a delegate of two of his men to Lenin did not result in a resolution. By 1921, and particularly after the agreement achieved between the Soviet Union and Britain, the Soviets decided not to further support the Soviet Republic of Gilan. Therefore, the Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship (1921) was then signed, ensuring peaceful relations between the two countries and resulting in the withdrawal of Soviet forces.
Reza Khan Mirpanj, who had initiated a successful coup d'état with Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee several days beforehand, then began reasserting central government control over Gilan and Mazandaran. The Soviet Republic of Gilan officially came to an end in September 1921. Mirza and his German friend Gauook (Hooshang) left alone in the Khalkhal Mountains, and died of frostbite. It is said that his body was decapitated by a local landlord and his head was displayed in Rasht to establish the government’s new hegemony over revolution and revolutionary ideas.
Historians have tried to analyze the factors that contributed to the demise of the Jangal movement. Some of the main studies including those by Gregor Yeghikian and Ebrahim Fakhrayi (Minister of Culture in Kuchik Khan's Cabinet of the Soviet Republic) suggest a role for both extremist actions taken by the Communist (Edalat) Party that provoked opposing religious sentiment among the public, and Mirza Kuchik Khan's religious and at times somewhat conservative views on collaboration with the Communist Party as possible factors.
It has been suggested also that the change of policy on the Soviet side regarding pursuing global revolution (as advocated by Trotsky) versus establishing and protecting the Soviet Union was the main reason for them to withdraw support from the Gilan Republic. The second option got more support and therefore Soviets signed a treaty with British in London (1921) which required them to retreat from Northern Iran. Correspondence between Theodore Rothstein the Soviet ambassador in Tehran and Mirza Koochak Khan clearly supports this view. As part of his peace making efforts, Rothstein had also sent a message to the Soviet officers among Ehsanollah Khan's one thousand strong force that had made its way towards Qazvin, not to obey his orders and as a result that campaign was defeated.
- George Lenczowski (1968). Russia and the West in Iran. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-0144-1.
- Nasrollah Fatemi (1952). Diplomatic History of Persia. Russell F. Moore. LCCN 52011977. ASIN B0007DXLE2.
- Ebrahim Fakhrayi, Sardar-e Jangal (The Commander of the Jungle), Tehran: Javidan, 1983.
- Gregor Yaghikiyan, Shooravi and jonbesh-e jangal (The Soviet Union and the Jungle Movement), Editor: Borzouyeh Dehgan, Tehran: Novin, 1984.
- Cosroe Chaqueri (1994), The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran, 1920-21, University of Pittsburgh Press, OCLC 831417921
- Brief summary of history with flag
- Socialist Republic of Gilan: The First Offensive Move of the October Revolution
- A letter from the Revolutionary War Council of the Persian Red Army to Leon Trotsky