Persian calligraphy

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Persian calligraphy (Persian: خوشنویسی فارسی‎) is the calligraphy of the Persian writing system. It is one of the most revered arts throughout Persian history.

History[edit]

Example showing Nastaʿlīq's proportion rules.[1]

History of Nas’taliq[edit]

Chalipa panel, Mir Emad.
Persian Calligraphy on the Taj Mahal
Calligraphy of Persian poems on large pishtaq
Persian calligraphy

After the introduction of Islam in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to Persian and developed the contemporary Persian alphabet. The Arabic alphabet has 28 characters. An additional four letters were added by Iranians [2], which resulted in the 32 letters currently present in the Persian alphabet.

Around one thousand years ago, Ibn Muqlah (Persian: ابن مقله بيضاوی شيرازی‎) and his brother created six genres of Iranian calligraphy, namely "Tahqiq", "Reyhan", "Sols", "Naskh", "Toqi" and "Reqa". These genres were common for four centuries in Persia. In the 7th century (Hijri calendar), Hassan Farsi Kateb combined "Naskh" and "Reqah" styles and invented a new genre of Persian calligraphy, named "Ta'liq". In the 14th century, Mir Ali Tabrizi combined two major scripts of his time i.e. Naskh and Taliq and created the most attractive Persian Calligraphy style, "Nas’taliq"[2]. In past 500 years Iranian calligraphy called Nastaʿlīq (also anglicized as Nastaleeq; Persian: نستعلیقnastaʿlīq) is one of the main script styles used in writing the Perso-Arabic script, and is traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.

History of cursive Nas'taliq[edit]

Morteza Gholi Khan Shamlou and Mohammad Shafi Heravi created a new genre called cursive Nastaʿlīq Shekasteh Nastaʿlīq in the 17 th century. Almost a century later, a Abdol-Majid Taleqani, who was a prominent artist at the time, brought this genre to its highest level. This calligraphy style is based on the same rules as Nas’taliq. However, it has a few significant differences: it provides more flexible movements and it is slightly more stretched and curved. Yadollah Kaboli is one of the most prominent contemporary calligraphers within this style.

Contemporary Persian calligraphy[edit]

In 1950, the Iran's Association of Calligraphers was founded by Hossein Mirkhani, Ali Akbar Kaveh, Ebrahim Bouzari, Hassan Mirkhani and Mehdi Baiani. For an overview of persian calligraphy's development within Afghanistan, see "Calligraphy during last two centuries in Afghanistan" (1964), by Azizuddin Vakili.

Modernist movement[edit]

Zendeh Roudi, Jalil Rasouli, Parviz Tanavoli, and Masih Zad use Persian calligraphy and Rumi poetry in dress designing.

Genres[edit]


Most notable figures[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]