Persian language in South Asia
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The Persian language, before the British colonized India, was the country's second official language (in Gorkanid official language) and was considered the language of culture and science. However, after colonization by the British, it was replaced with English in 1832.
Mughal Persian-speaking rulers influenced the spread of the Persian language in India in literature, poetry, culture, and science. With the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India, Persian reached its peak of development and was the official language of India. Like the great poets of Persia, Indians such as Bedil Dehlavi, Amir Khusrow Dehlavi, and Muhammad Iqbal also wrote poetry in Persian. Also the contribution of Persian of Indian Parsis, sufis, and writers including dictionaries that can collect valuable Persian culture Ebrahim Foroughi Qavam, culture Nndraj of Mohammed Pasha, noted.
For five centuries prior to the British colonization, Persian was widely used as a second language in South Asia. It was the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts in South Asia and became the sole "official language" under the Mughal emperors. During the Safavid rule over Iran, when (royal) patronage of Persian poets was curtailed, the centre of Persian culture and literature moved to the Mughal Empire. The Mughal emperors had the financial resources to employ a veritable army of Persian courtly poets, lexicographers, and other literati. Beginning in 1843, though, English gradually replaced Persian in importance in South Asia. Evidence of Persian's historical influence there can be seen in the extent of its influence on the languages of the South Asia, as well as the popularity that Persian literature still enjoys in that region. Use of Persian words is common in Pakistan and north India. Almost all languages of these areas have been influenced by Persian not only in literature but also in the speech of the common man. Persian exerted a strong influence on Urdu, Punjabi, and Sindhi in India and Pakistan. Other languages like Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Rajasthani and Bengali have many loanwords from Persian.
There are many stone carvings and plasters of Persian inscriptions in India. There are also thousands of handwritten books mostly from the time of Humayun, a Persian speaking Mughal emperor. Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them 15 years later. Humayun's return from Persia, accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture, as the Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language, and literature. There are many carved stones and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India from the time of Humayun.
Subsequently, in a very short time, Humayun was able to expand the Empire further, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar. His peaceful personality, patience, and non-provocative methods of speech earned him the title Insan-i Kamil (انسان کامل), among the Mughals.
Calligraphy of Persian poems (18th century)
- Clawson, Patrick (2004). Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6.
- Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations ... - Naimur Rahman Farooqi - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
FOR FURTHER READING:
Chopra, R. M., The Rise, Growth And Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, Iran Culture House, New Delhi, 2012.
- زبان فارسی در هندوستان — Persian Wikipedia
- "History of Persian or Parsi Language" — Iran Chamber Society
-  — soas.ac.uk
- Catalogue of Persian manuscripts in the library of the India office, Volume 1 (1903)