Persian vocabulary

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Persian belongs to the Indo-European language family, and many words in modern Persian usage ultimately originate from Proto-Indo-European. The language makes extensive use of word building techniques such as affixation and compounding to derive new words from roots. Persian has also had considerable contact with other languages, resulting in many borrowings.

Native word formation[edit]

Persian is very powerful in word building and versatile in ways a word can be built from combining affixes, stems, nouns and adjectives. Having many affixes to form new words (over a hundred), and the ability to build affixes and specially prefixes from nouns,[1] Persian language is also claimed to be[2][3][4][dead link][5][6][7][8] and demonstrated[9][10][11][12] as an agglutinative language since it also frequently uses derivational agglutination to form new words from nouns, adjectives, and verbal stems. New words are also extensively formed by compounding – two existing words combining into a new one, as is common in German, Sanskrit and hence most of the Indian languages. Professor Mahmoud Hessaby demonstrated that Persian can derive more than 226 million words.[10][11][12][13][14]

An example set of words derived from a present stem combined with some of available affixes:

Persian Components English Word class
dān دان dān دان Present stem of dānestan (to know) Verbal stem
dāneš دانش dān + -eš دان + ش knowledge Noun
dānešmand دانشمند dān + -eš + -mand دان + ش + مند Scientist Noun
dānešgāh دانشگاه dān + -eš + -gâh دان + ش + گاه university Noun
dānešgāhi دانشگاهی dān + -eš + -gāh + -i دان + ش + گاه + ی pertaining to university; scholar; scholarly Adjective
hamdānešgāhi هم‌دانشگاهی ham- + dān + -eš + -gāh + -i هم + دان + ش + گاه + ی university-mate Noun
dāneškade دانشکده dān + -eš + -kade دان + ش + کده faculty Noun
dānā دانا dān + -ā دان + ا wise, learned Adjective
dānāyi دانایی dān + -ā + -i دان + ا + ی wisdom Noun
nādān نادان nā- + dān نا + دان ignorant; foolish Adjective
nādāni نادانی nā- + dān + -i نا + دان + ی ignorance; foolishness Noun
dānande داننده dān + -ande دان + نده one who knows Adjective
dānandegi دانندگی dān + -ande + -gi دان + نده + گی knowing Noun

An example set of words derived from a past stem combined with some of available affixes:

Persian Components English Word class
did دید did دید Past stem of didan (to see) Verbal stem
did دید did دید sight; vision Noun
didan دیدن did + -an دید + ن to see Infinitive
didani دیدنی did + -an + -i دید + ن + ی worth seeing Adjective
didār دیدار did + -ār دید + ار visit; act of meeting Noun
didāri دیداری did + -ār + -i دید + ار + ی visional, of the sense of sight Adjective
dide دیده did + -e دید + ه seen; what seen Past participle; Noun
nādide ندیده nâ- + did + -e ن + دید + ه what unseen Noun
didgāh دیدگاه did + -gâh دید + گاه point of view Noun
didebān دیدبان dide + -bān دید + بان watchman Noun
didebāni دیدبانی dide + -bān + -i دید + بان + ی watchman-ship Noun

External influences[edit]

There are many loanwords in the Persian language, mostly coming from Arabic, English, French, and the Turkic languages.

Persian has likewise influenced the vocabularies of other languages, especially Arabic,[15] Indo-Iranian languages and Turkic languages. Many Persian words have also found their way into the English language.

Arabic influence[edit]

The Islamic conquest of Iran lasted for two centuries, from the 7th to the 9th CE. Arabic gradually was replaced with Pahlavi and as the Pahlavi books translated into Arabic by newly-converted Iranians, Arabic became the language of the intellectuals: Writers, poets and philosophers, as well as people in the administration chose to speak and write in Arabic.

During this period, many Arabic words were imported into the Persian language and many Persian words found their way into Arabic. Persian words of Arabic origin especially include Islamic terms. Arabic has had an extensive influence on the Persian lexicon, but it has not really affected the structure of the language. Although a considerable portion of the lexicon is derived from Arabic roots, including some of the Arabic plural patterns, the morphological process used to obtain these lexical elements has not been imported into Persian and it is not productive in the language.

These Arabic words have been imported and lexicalized in Persian. So, for instance, the Arabic plural form for ketāb (كتاب) ["book"] is kutub (كتب) obtained by the root derivation system. In Persian, the plural for the lexical word ketâb obtained by just adding the Persian plural morpheme (ketāb+hāketābhā كتاب‌ها). Any new Persian words, however, can only be pluralized by the addition of the plural morpheme since the Arabic root system is not a productive process in Persian.

In addition, since the plurals formed by the Arabic morphological system constitute only a small portion of the Persian vocabulary (about 5% in the Shiraz corpus), it is not necessary to include them in the morphology; they are instead listed in the dictionary as irregular forms.

On the other hand, among educated Persians, there have been sporadic efforts as far back as the 10th century to diminish the use of Arabic loanwords in their language. Both Pahlavi Shahs supported such efforts in the 20th century. Since the Revolution, a contrary tendency to increase the use of Arabic words in both spoken and written Persian has emerged among government leaders.

Turkic influence[edit]

Less noticeable, but also considerable are the Turkic forms (including Mongolian borrowings) that have entered the Persian language.[16] Throughout history, the Persian-speaking realm, including the Iranian plateau, was ruled by a succession of dynasties of Turkic origin, notably Ghaznavid, Seljuk, Timurid, Qajar, which have patronized Persian culture and literature. Even the Mongol Il-Khanate brought more Turkic speakers, who constituted the backbone of the Mongol armies, to the Iranian plateau. With the exception of certain official designations within the government, trade and military, many of the Turkic borrowings in Persian have a more informal, homely flavour,[17] and therefore, to many Persian native speakers these words do not feel like foreign: e.g. āqā 'mister', dowqolu 'twin', komak 'help', toman 'official currency of Iran' (but riāl < Portuguese), yābu 'pack nag', qeshlāq 'village; summer quarters', jelow 'front; bridle', qeychi 'scissors'.

French and other European influences[edit]

Over the past couple of centuries, Persian has borrowed many loanwords from European languages (mainly French). A lot of these loanwords were originally French and use French pronunciation, also other common words mainly come from English, Italian and German as well. The table below shows some examples of common French/Persian words.

Persian French English
duš douche shower
mersi merci thank you
gārson garçon waiter
mānto manteau women's coat
šofāž chauffage radiator
šomine cheminée fireplace
otobus autobus bus
keravāt cravate tie
sāk sac bag
pāpiyon papillon butterfly
Ālmān Allemagne Germany
māyo maillot swimming suit
žambon jambon ham

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Such as سگ (dog) in سگ‌مست (stoned, drunk) as well as خر (donkey) in خرمست and سیاه (black) in سیاه‌مست with the same meaning.
  2. ^ "Index archive". Mashad. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  3. ^ "فرهنگ و هنر ; فارسی زبانی عقیم، مقاله ای از دکتر باطنی". BBC. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  4. ^ http://www.lingoistica.com/articles/57/%D8%B2%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%86-%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%B3%DB%8C-%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B1%D9%88%D9%86-%DB%8C%D8%A7-%D8%B2%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%9F
  5. ^ "The Synchronic Data for the History of Azerbaijanian – Persian Language Contacts". CS. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  6. ^ http://www.sid.ir/fa/VEWSSID/J_pdf/34813894404.pdf
  7. ^ "همشهری آنلاین: اهمیت زبان فارسی در عصر دهکده جهانی". Hamshahrionline.ir. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  8. ^ Behnegarsoft.com. "خبرگزاری کتاب ايران (IBNA) - زبان فارسي زباني اشتقاقي است". Ibna.ir. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  9. ^ "زبان Ů Ř§ŘąŘłŰŒ ŮƒŘ§Ů…Ů„Ř§ ŮžŰŒŮˆŮ†ŘŻŰŒ Ůˆ ŘŞŘąŮƒŰŒ 30% ŮžŰŒŮˆŮ†ŘŻŰŒ(Ř§Ů„ŘŞŘľŘ§Ů‚ŰŒ) است!". Forum.hammihan.com. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  10. ^ a b http://www.hessaby.com/tavanaye_zaban.htm
  11. ^ a b "توانمندی زبان فارسی در برابر زبان تازی ( عربی )". Fareiran.com. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  12. ^ a b "Deutsch-Iranischer Sozial & Kultur Verein e.V". Iskv.org. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  13. ^ "جمعیة اللسان العربی الدولیة". Allesan.org. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  14. ^ http://ariarman.org/Persian_Arabian_Language.htm
  15. ^ "FĀRESĪYĀT – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. 1999-12-15. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  16. ^ Doerfer: G. Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen. Vols. I-IV. Wiesbaden 1963-1975
  17. ^ John R. Perry, "Persian in the Safavid Period", Pembroke Papers 1996 (4), pp. 269-283.