A persistent identifier (PI) is a long-lasting reference to a digital object—a single file or set of files. Noted persistent identifier systems include: Archival Resource Keys (ARKs), Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), Persistent Uniform Resource Locators (PURLs), Uniform Resource Names (URNs), and Extensible Resource Identifiers (XRIs).
- Hakala, Juha (2010) Persistent identifiers – an overview, Technology Watch Report (TWR): Standards in Metadata and Interoperability, 13 Oct (Accessed 20 March 2012)
- Hans-Werner Hilse and Jochen Kothe, Implementing Persistent Identifiers: Overview of concepts, guidelines and recommendations. London / Amsterdam: Consortium of European Libraries and European Commission on Preservation and Access, 2006. ISBN 90-6984-508-3.
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