Personal learning environment
Personal learning environments (PLE) are systems that help learners take control of and manage their own learning. This includes providing support for learners to:
- set their own learning goals
- manage their learning, both content and process
- communicate with others in the process of learning
Technically, the PLE represents the integration of a number of "Web 2.0" technologies like blogs, Wikis, RSS feeds, Twitter, Facebook, etc. around the independent learner. Using the term "e-learning 2.0," Stephen Downes describes the PLE as: "... one node in a web of content, connected to other nodes and content creation services used by other students. It becomes, not an institutional or corporate application, but a personal learning center, where content is reused and remixed according to the student's own needs and interests. It becomes, indeed, not a single application, but a collection of interoperating applications—an environment rather than a system".
A PLE puts the individual learner at the center, connecting him or her to information and communities that: "... provide personal spaces, which belong to and are controlled by the user, [and also provide] a social context by offering means to connect with other personal spaces for effective knowledge sharing and collaborative knowledge creation"  Using the term "Social Learning 2.0," Anderson and Dron reinforce this emphasis on community, conceptualizing it in terms of "groups," "networks" and "collectives" (2007) and thereby achieve learning goals.
Examples of PLE systems are CLIX, Moodle, and iGoogle. A learner may add widgets (e.g. from the ROLE Widget Store Chrome Web Store or Google Apps Marketplace) to manage content. The concept of the PLEs has been taken up and developed further within the European collaborative project Responsive Open Learning Environments. ROLE is exploring the psycho-pedagogical  as well as the technical challenges  presented by a PLE solution and is charged with overcoming them. The underpinning ethos of ROLE is openness and responsiveness. ROLE supports openness by designing a ROLE Reference implementation - infrastructure that supports assembled widget bundles with communication channels, authentication and authorization mechanisms, services for activity tracking and analysis and access to psycho-pedagogical user profiles. Users are free to access, join, develop and extend the system. This system is interoperable across software systems and technology. Responsiveness to learners’ needs is ensured, quick and individual (e.g. answer, recommendation, individually adapted content, elements or tools) and relates to the learner’s individual needs, preferences and wishes. An independent group in the US has created a preliminary consortium for the PLE and is currently looking for a group of motivated representatives to create a panel to better define standards and procedures of implementing a PLE.
The virtual learning environment emerges from the traditional concept of learning. It has brought major difference in the learning.
- US preliminary consortium for PLE
- European collaborative project Responsive Open Learning Environments
- Van Harmelen, H., "Design trajectories: four experiments in PLE implementation", Interactive Learning Environments, 1744-5191, Volume 16, Issue 1, 2008, Pages 36 – 46
- Downes, S. "E-learning 2.0", National Research Council of Canada, October 17, 2005.
- Cahtti, A, "Personal Environments Loosely Joined", Mohamed Amine Chatti's ongoing research on Technology Enhanced Learning blog, 2 Jan 2007, inspected on 10 Oct 2010
- Anderson, T, "On Groups, Networks and Collectives", Virtual Canuck Blog, April 30, 2007, inspected on October 10, 2010
- more about in: Fruhmann, K; Nussbaumer, A; Albert D. (2010): A Psycho-Pedagogical Framework for Self-Regulated Learning in a Responsive Open Learning Environment. In Proceedings of the International Conference eLearning Baltics Science (eLBa Science 2010), 1–2 July 2010, Rostock, Germany.
- more about in: Nussbaumer,A; Albert,D; Kirschermann, U (2010). Technology-mediated Support for Self-regulated Learning in Open Responsive Learning Environments. Proceedings of the EDUCON Conference 2011. Jordan, 2011.
- Anderson, Terry (2006), PLE's versus LMS: Are PLEs ready for Prime time?, Virtual Canuck, Blog
- Ahmet Soylu, Felix Mödritscher, Fridolin Wild, Patrick De Causmaecker, Piet Desmet (2012). Mashups by Orchestration and Widget-based Personal Environments: Key Challenges, Solution Strategies, and an Application. Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 46(4), 383-428.
- Attwell, Graham (2006). Personal Learning Environments, Blog-Entry., retrieved 22:17, 5 October 2010.
- Attwell, Graham (2007). Personal Learning Environments for creating, consuming, remixing and sharing, Blog-Entry., retrieved 22:17, 5 October 2010.
- Attwell Graham (2007), Personal Learning Environments - the future of eLearning?, eLearning Papers 2(1), ISSN 1887-1542, January 2007.
- Blackall, Leigh (2005). Die LMS die! You too PLE!, Blog
- Chatti, Mohamed Amine (2007), Towards a Personal Learning Environment Framework, Blog
- Chatti, Mohamed Amine (2007). Personal Environments Loosely Joined, retrieved 22:17, 25 April 2007.
- Chatti, Mohamed Amine (2007). LMS vs. PLE, retrieved 22:17, 25 April 2007.
- Downes, Stephen (2007). Personal Learning, Talk
- Farmer, James (2006). The Inevitable Personal Learning Environment Post, Blog.
- FitzGerald, Sean, Creating your Personal Learning Environment
- Hiebert, Jeremy (2003). Designing for Educators or Students? Blog
- Jafari, Ali; Patricia McGee, and Colleen Carmean (2006). Managing Courses, Defining Learning: What Faculty, Students, and Administrators Want, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 41, no. 4 (July/August 2006): 50-71.
- Martin, Michele (2007). My Personal Learning Environment, Blog, retrieved 22:17, 25 April 2007
- Lubensky, Ron (2006). The present and future of Personal Learning Environments (PLE), Blog
- Personal Learning environments (2008), Special Issue, elearning-papers 9
- Torres, L., Gonzalez, H., Ojeda, J., & Monguet, J. (2010). "PLEs from virtual ethnography of Web 2.0". In The PLE Conference 2010. Barcelona. http://pleconference.citilab.eu.
- van Harmelen, M. (2006). Personal Learning Environments. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'06), IEEE.
- Vuorikari, R. (2005). Can personal digital knowledge artefacts' management and social networks enhance learning? European SchoolNet, EUN Consortium, Brussels.
- Wheeler, Steve (2010) Learning with 'e's: Anatomy of a PLE
- Wheeler, Steve (2010) Learning with 'e's: Physiology of a PLE
- Wilson, Scott (2006). PLEX, Experiences in building a composite application, Slides