Persuasion (1995 film)
Region 1 DVD cover
|Directed by||Roger Michell|
|Produced by||Fiona Finlay|
|Screenplay by||Nick Dear|
by Jane Austen
|Music by||Jeremy Sams|
|Edited by||Kate Evans|
|Distributed by||Sony Pictures Classics (USA)|
Persuasion is a 1995 period drama film directed by Roger Michell and based on Jane Austen's 1817 novel of the same name. The British actress Amanda Root stars as protagonist Anne Elliot, while Ciarán Hinds plays her romantic interest, Captain Frederick Wentworth. The film is set in 19th century England, nine years after Anne was persuaded by others to reject Wentworth's proposal of marriage. Persuasion follows the two becoming reacquainted with each other, as supporting characters and events threaten to interfere.
Filming of Persuasion occurred during an upswing in popularity for Austen's works – it was one of six such productions during the mid-1990s. The adaptation benefited from increased funding when the BBC partnered with the American company WGBH Boston and the French company Millesime. The larger budget allowed it to be filmed on location at various English locales featured in the novel, including Lyme Regis and Bath. The film was adapted by the writer Nick Dear, who considered the story "maturer" than Austen's other novels. He characterised it as one of realism and truthfulness, particularly in telling the story of two people separated and then reunited.
Persuasion originally aired on 16 April 1995 in the UK, broadcasting on the television channel BBC Two. That year, Austen's increasing popularity became apparent to Hollywood, leading Sony Pictures Classics to release the film in American cinemas on 27 September. While its broadcast had went largely unnoticed among critics, Persuasion 's American release attracted the attention of film critics. The adaptation received generally positive reviews, with many praising Root's performance and the production's faithfulness to the novel. Film scholars have observed significant changes from the source material, as well as class and gender themes.
The film opens between scenes cutting back and forth of a naval ship carrying Admiral Croft (John Woodvine), and a buggy carrying Mr. Shepherd (David Collings) and his daughter Mrs. Clay (Felicity Dean) to Kellynch Hall. Shepherd and Clay are accosted for debts owed by the residence's owner, Sir Walter Elliot (Corin Redgrave), while Croft discusses the end of the Napoleonic Wars with fellow men of the navy. Sir Walter, a vain foppish baronet, is faced with financial ruin unless he retrenches. Though he initially opposes the idea, he eventually agrees to temporarily move to Bath while the hall is let; this was thought of by Shepherd, family friend Lady Russell (Susan Fleetwood), and Sir Walter's second eldest daughter, the intelligent Anne (Amanda Root).
Anne is visibly upset after learning that the new tenant of Kellynch Hall will be Admiral Croft, who is the brother-in-law of Captain Frederick Wentworth (Ciarán Hinds), a man she was persuaded to reject nine years previously because of his lack of prospects and connections. Wentworth is now wealthy from serving in the navy during the Wars, and has returned to England to presumably find a wife. Later, Anne expresses to Lady Russell her unhappiness at her family's current financial predicament, and her past decision to reject the captain's proposal of marriage. Anne visits her other sister, the hypochondriac Mary (Sophie Thompson), who has married into a local farming family, the Musgroves. Anne patiently listens to the many various complaints confided in her by each of the Musgroves, which includes Mary's husband Charles, sisters-in-law Louisa (Emma Roberts) and Henrietta (Victoria Hamilton), and parents-in-law Mr. and Mrs. Musgrove (Roger Hammond and Judy Cornwell).
Captain Wentworth comes to dine with the Musgroves, but Anne avoids going when she volunteers to nurse Mary's injured son. The following morning at breakfast, Anne and Mary are suddenly met briefly by Wentworth, the first time he and Anne have seen each other since her rejection. Mary later tells Anne Wentworth thought Anne was so altered, he "would not have known you again". Wentworth becomes the focus of matrimony to Louisa and Henrietta, as the family is unaware of his and Anne's past relationship. Hurt and rejected by Anne's refusal years before, Wentworth appears to court Louisa, much to Anne's chagrin. Later, Wentworth learns from Louisa that Anne also was persuaded by Lady Russell to refuse Charles' offer of marriage, after which Charles instead proposed to Mary.
Anne, Wentworth, and the younger Musgroves go to Lyme to visit two of Wentworth's old naval friends, Captain Harville (Robert Glenister) and Captain Benwick (Richard McCabe). While there, Louisa rashly jumps off a staircase in the hopes Wentworth will catch her, sustaining a head injury. Afterwards, Anne goes to Bath to stay with her father and sister. Sir Walter and Elizabeth reveal they have repaired their relationship with a previously disreputable cousin, Mr. Elliot (Samuel West), the heir to the Elliot baronetcy and estate. Anne is introduced to him, and they realise they briefly saw each other in Lyme. Much to Lady Russell's pleasure, Mr. Elliot begins to court Anne, but she remains uncertain of his true character. Louisa having recovered and become engaged to Captain Benwick, Wentworth arrives in Bath and encounters Anne on several occasions, though their conversations are brief.
Anne learns from an old friend, Mrs. Smith (Helen Schlesinger), that Mr. Elliot is bankrupt and only interested in marrying Anne to help ensure his inheritance from her father and keep the baronet from possibly marrying Mrs. Clay to produce a male heir. Soon after, Wentworth overhears Anne talking with Captain Harville about the constancy of a woman's love, and writes her a letter declaring he still loves her. Anne quickly finds him and the two happily walk off down a street, arm in arm. That night at a party, Wentworth announces his intention to marry Anne, much to Mr. Elliot's consternation. The final scene shows Wentworth and Anne on a naval ship, happy to be together.
- Amanda Root as Anne Elliot
- Ciarán Hinds as Captain Frederick Wentworth
- Susan Fleetwood as Lady Russell
- Corin Redgrave as Sir Walter Elliot
- Fiona Shaw as Mrs. Croft
- John Woodvine as Admiral Croft
- Phoebe Nicholls as Elizabeth Elliot
- Samuel West as Mr. Elliot
- Sophie Thompson as Mary Musgrove
- Judy Cornwell as Mrs. Musgrove
- Simon Russell Beale as Charles Musgrove
- Felicity Dean as Mrs. Clay
- Roger Hammond as Mr. Musgrove
- Emma Roberts as Louisa Musgrove
- Victoria Hamilton as Henrietta Musgrove
- Robert Glenister as Captain Harville
- Richard McCabe as Captain Benwick
- Helen Schlesinger as Mrs. Smith
- Jane Wood as Nurse Rooke
- David Collings as Mr. Shepherd
- Darlene Johnson as Lady Dalrymple
- Cinnamon Faye as Miss Carteret
- Isaac Maxwell-Hunt as Henry Hayter
- Roger Llewellyn as Sir Henry Willoughby
- Sally George as Mrs. Harville
Conception and adaptation
The filming of Persuasion coincided with a sudden resurgence of Jane Austen adaptations, as it was one of six Austen productions released during the mid-1990s. The media dubbed the phenomenon "Austenmania". While it was common for a successful adaptation to lead to the production of others, this surge in Austen's popularity involved many simultaneous projects – Persuasion 's production, for instance, coincided with the TV serial Pride and Prejudice and the feature film Sense and Sensibility. Despite the surge, Andrew Higson and others argue there is little evidence that the various producers – who were employed by different companies – communicated when conceiving their adaptations.
The idea for a film version of the 1817 Austen novel Persuasion began with the English producer Fiona Finlay, who had wanted to create an adaptation for several years. The novel had last been adapted by ITV in a 1971 serial starring Ann Firbank. Finlay approached the writer Nick Dear about adapting the novel for television. Dear was chosen because Finlay enjoyed his contributions to theatre, particularly his play The Art Of Success about William Hogarth. Dear first suggested they try two of Austen's other works – Sense and Sensibility or Pride and Prejudice – but agreed to adapt Persuasion after reading it. Dear considered the novel – the author's last completed work – a maturer story than the others. Dear later wrote that Persuasion was superficially "a love story in the Cinderella mould," but it was also one of "realism and truthfulness," particularly in telling the story of two people separated and then reunited.
Dear spent two years working on a script. He found this task difficult for several reasons. Firstly, he needed to find a structure that would be faithful to the novel. Secondly, his protagonist barely spoke for the first half, and "therefore can't motor the action along as a central character conventionally does". Adapting Austen's wit was another challenge, as he could not use it "because it's almost all in the author's voice telling us about characters, with a certain wit or lightness that came from the characters themselves. It's a craft job, interpreting the novel for oneself and then finding a film language for it".
Previously a theatre and serial director, Roger Michell was chosen to direct Persuasion, in what was to be his first feature film. As a young child, Michell had been an admirer of Austen's, which set him apart from his male classmates. "I was the only boy in my class who took Austen as a special paper," he said. His attraction to Persuasion was based on his belief that it was Austen's most emotional and poignant novel, as well as her most autobiographical. He described the work as an "erotic love story which is full of sexual yearning". While directing, Michell sought to emphasise contrasts in Austen's story, seen for instance between "the chilly formality of Kellynch Hall and the warm, wet feel of Uppercross". The Royal Navy was another point of interest, as Wentworth and other officers would often have returned to society wealthy and full of stories. The director wished to depict the integration of cultures, as naval officers returned with "an informality of behaviour and language which was in marked contrast to what was there before".
The film's protagonist, Anne Elliot, was played by the English actress Amanda Root in her theatrical film debut. By her own admission, "every actress in England" read for the part. Having worked with the director previously on the 1993 TV serial The Buddha of Suburbia, Root won the role by writing him a letter to gain an audition. WGBH Boston, the American company co-producing the film, had wanted a better known actress for the part but agreed to Root's casting after seeing her screen test.
Root realised that while the novel's narrative style allowed Anne's thoughts to come through, the film adaptation had comparatively little dialogue. As a result, she "had to cover pages and pages of the story without uttering anything, much of the time. I couldn't even think about technique, I just had to keep looking at the book and then somehow radiate the feelings". They shot Persuasion in chronological order, which allowed Root to see "what a difference [her character's] sense of unhappiness can create," as by the end of the film Anne is "happier and looks better". Root considered the role to be much quieter than her experiences working with the Royal Shakespeare Company, which included her portrayal of Lady Macbeth.
The Irish actor Ciarán Hinds, who depicted Frederick Wentworth, commented that Austen "understands a man's heart and how delicate it can be sometimes". He also appreciated the fact that though Wentworth was a "competent leader of men in his profession," he was "socially inept" in Anne's presence. Susan Fleetwood, the actress who played Lady Russell, had also worked with Michell on The Buddha of Suburbia. She died soon after filming. Persuasion was her last film role.
Costume design and make-up
Michell attempted to be as faithful to the novel as possible, in particular avoiding what he felt was the "glossy, artificial feel" of other 19th-century depictions. The director explained, "I was desperately trying to make it feel like it could be happening in the next room. I tried to make it something which is absolutely about real people and not about dressing or hairstyles or carpet". Consequently, because he felt the realistic look of the age would make the film more dramatic, Michell chose to depict the actors without make-up, and disallowed them from looking too hygienic.
Root commented about the film's natural look in an interview, "I basically didn't wear any makeup [in the film], and my hair was obviously set in a very unflattering way... I suppose the lighting was quite harsh, as well. None of us looked good". She continued in a separate interview, "I wanted to make Anne Elliot a somewhat plain woman who was not really miserable but had found a way to be content somehow, and yet emotions are buzzing around her all the time". Root believes the film's realistic depiction of the age was a key aspect of the film's appeal.
The film's costume design was overseen by Alexandra Byrne, who created clothing that appeared "lived-in" and "realistic". Like Fleetwood, Byrne had also worked with Michell on The Buddha of Suburbia. It was her first time designing period costumes for film. During shooting, they often had to compete for costumes and props with the BBC production Pride and Prejudice, which was being filmed at the same time. Persuasion 's crew consequently had to send for replacement items from Italy and Australia. For her work in the film, Byrne won a BAFTA for Best Costume Design.
The costumes seen in Persuasion have garnered scholarly attention. Paulette Richards argues that the film's "unreliable" male characters, such as Sir Walter, are identified as such by the flamboyant nature of their clothing. This flamboyance is especially clear to modern viewers, who live in a culture where "real men" are expected to care little for their clothing. Conversely, the film's Wentworth is typically depicted in naval uniforms, which is a contrast to Bryan Marshall's version of the character in the 1971 adaptation. This uniform helps set Wentworth apart from most of the other male characters, allowing him to appear romantic but isolated.
As a BBC Two production, Persuasion originally received a budget of £750,000. The BBC proposed a collaboration with the American public television station WGBH Boston, a partnership that had also produced the American anthology television series Masterpiece Theatre as well as literary adaptations such as the serial Pride and Prejudice. Rebecca Eaton, executive producer of Masterpiece, approved the co-production as she had a preference for Persuasion out of all Austen's novels. The decision led to additional funding. Additionally, the French company Millesime co-produced the film in exchange for airing it on television in France. This decision further increased funding to £1,000,000, and Persuasion was shot on 35 mm film. Mobil Oil Corporation, as a sponsor of Masterpiece Theatre, also contributed to the film. Near the end of filming, Eaton noticed the growing "buzz" surrounding Austen and costume dramas in Hollywood. WGBH had never made a theatrical film before, but "decided to try its luck on the big screen". Sony Pictures Classics saw a cut of the adaptation and requested permission to show it in cinemas.
In comparison to its adaptations of the 1970s and 1980s, the BBC provided increased funding for many of its productions in the 1990s. Persuasion consequently benefited, allowing it to be filmed at on-site locations like Lyme and Bath, and in the south-eastern English countryside. The film was also shot on location in the English counties Gloucestershire, Somerset, and Wiltshire. Dear desired that the opening sequence be on board a Royal Navy ship of the period, but the only authentic vessel available was the retired HMS Victory. It was dry docked in Portsmouth and was available only for short periods, as the ship was meant for entertaining tourists. The final shot, in which Anne and Wentworth gaze into the ocean, was taken from the 1984 historical film The Bounty. The film's low budget also resulted in one of the opening shots, depicting Admiral Croft's ship on the ocean, being taken from The Bounty.
The diverse funding meant the production team had to field opinions from various sources. Millesime was unhappy with certain aspects of the story, for instance wanting the entire Lyme sequence removed because they considered it "too boring". WGBH gave the BBC detailed notes, which were then integrated into the script. One change concerned the ending. To display the climax when Anne and Wentworth finally approach each other with their feelings, two different scenes were shot, one in which they kiss and one in which they do not. Dear first wrote a scene closely modelled after Austen's ending: Anne reunites with Wentworth on the streets of Bath, and the two exchange words and hold hands. Eaton felt that after hours of waiting, audiences "would go nuts with frustration and irritation" if the two did not kiss. Eaton also thought that "a kiss would be an emotional pay-off". Michell agreed to compromise, opting to shoot one British version and one American version. The latter ending is reflected on the international poster, which shows the two protagonists embracing. Eaton later expressed regret that the adaptation was two hours rather than a "luscious" six-part miniseries.
Themes and analysis
Changes from source material
Literary scholars have noted some significant differences between the film and the source material. Sarah R. Morrison observes that the film's version of Anne articulates thoughts that the character would never say in the novel. Morrison cites Anne's adamant defence of her visit to Mrs. Smith in the film as an example, as "Austen's narrator makes it abundantly clear that Anne would never presume to dispute with her father upon such terms of absolute equality". The film's Anne also engages in actions not visible in the novel, such as her haste to stop Wentworth from leaving the concert. Morrison attributes these differences to the difficulty in adapting novel to film, particularly as the latter form lacks a narrator to convey Anne's inner thoughts.
The film also expands upon Austen's subtle characterisation by exaggerating the emotions of characters and certain scenes. For example, in the novel during an early party Anne offers to play the pianoforte like usual, this time slightly tearful but also "extremely glad to be employed" and "unobserved". Conversely, Dear's screenplay has Wentworth quickly giving up his seat to Anne and then dancing with the Musgrove sisters, furthering the contrast between the two groups. According to David Monaghan, Austen's novel displays a "relatively radical vision" of societal change, such as the rise of a professional class challenging the old order of landed gentry. Monaghan posits that this vision appealed to Dear and Michell, who used visuals and movement to emphasise this change. However, the two "deviate significantly" from the source material by depicting Anne and Wentworth as "single-mindedly oriented" to the future and thus 20th-century viewers' sensibilities.
The scholar Sue Parrill asserts Persuasion 's larger production budget, which allowed the crew to film at many on-site locations, "enabled the filmmakers to make fuller use of setting for symbolism and for creation of mood". The weather, for instance, is particularly important to Anne's state of mind in the novel. Persuasion 's opening scenes establish its historical context, as well as the financial predicament the Elliot family finds itself in. Indeed, by opening the film with a depiction of sailors Rachel Brownstein opines that the director is confronting a common complaint of Austen's works – her failure to mention the Napoleonic Wars. The juxtaposition between the navy and the Elliots also establishes their differences, with the former group discussing the fall of Napoleon and the latter group discussing the relevantly minor inconvenience of overspending their income.
Themes of class and gender
In his introduction to the published screenplay, Dear said he was in part attracted to adapt Persuasion because it depicted a "world in transition". To him, the novel showed "an old order fading away into decadence, and a new tribe, a meritocracy, coming to the fore". While directing, Roger Michell felt that the story included "the prototype of the postmodern family" – Anne's mother is dead, her father is bankrupt, and "the old social orders are breaking down".
Austen scholars have studied the film's intersection with class and social change. Of the many productions of Austen adaptations that appeared in the 1990s, Carole M. Dole notes Persuasion was the only one to "insistently draw attention to class issues," and "provide striking visual testimony to the workings of the British class system". The film, she adds, accomplishes this in part by focusing on the servants' faces, gauging their negative reactions to events. Richards agrees that Michell is "visually more aware" of the lower classes, adding that the film's inclusion of black servants alludes to the "colonial sources of wealth" supporting those superior in class and rank. Anne-Marie Scholz writes that the film and Emma Thompson's Sense and Sensibility both highlight the theme of class, but in different ways. Unlike Sense and Sensibility, Persuasion depicts general class divisions rather than just how the working class impacts the protagonists – the camera focuses on their faces and expressions, personifying them.
The film's theme of gender has also attracted scholarly attention. In Michell's opinion, Austen was a "proto-feminist" who possessed a "clear-sighted vision of the ways the world is tilted against women". As evidence, Michell cites a scene in which Anne discusses how songs and proverbs about women's fickleness were all written by men. Scholz argues that Anne's marginal status as a woman is linked to that of the servants; the parallel between class and gender is conveyed with Anne's trip to Uppercross in a cart containing animals. Julianne Pidduck adds that the director "pointedly foregrounds themes of class and gendered social constraint by juxtaposing the stuffy interiors of mannered society with the inviting, open horizons of the sea". As an example, Pidduck discusses Anne's stay in a gated residence in Bath, where she gazes out of an upper story window in search for Wentworth on the streets below. To her, Wentworth and the sea represent freedom and possibility.
The premiere of Persuasion occurred on 16 April 1995, Easter Day, when it was broadcast on the British television channel BBC Two. An estimated 3.8 million viewers watched the production. BBC Two aired it again on 25 December, Christmas Day. On 27 September 1995, it was released in American cinemas, where it was characterised as an "art-house" film, with a small niche audience. Persuasion earned $56,000 in its first week of release in New York, and grossed $150,000 in Los Angeles. The total US gross was $5,269,757. It was less financially successful than the popular Sense and Sensibility, which was released in cinemas several months after Persuasion.
Upon its release, Persuasion at first failed to attract many critical reviews. This changed when Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility were released in late 1995 to great success in the UK. Their popularity lifted Persuasion out of obscurity, as Austen's popularity became apparent among critics. Persuasion garnered highly positive reviews from major film critics, and critical review website Rotten Tomatoes has since calculated a rating of 83%, which refers to the percentage of positive reviews. Caryn James of The New York Times deemed it a "critic's pick," praising "a cast completely in sync with Austen's warm but piercing style". The Boston Globe highlighted Root's performance, calling it "a heart-stoppingly reticent yet glorious debut".
In a contribution for The Washington Post, Desson Howe said "there's a wonderful, unhurried delicacy about Persuasion...as if everyone concerned with the production knows that, if given time and patience, Austen's genius will emerge. Thanks to assured performances, exacting direction and, of course, inspired writing, it does, in subtle, glorious ways". Writing for Entertainment Weekly, critic Ken Tucker graded the film with an "A–", saying it "should enthral even those who haven't read" the novel. Tucker concluded that the film was "the sort of passionate yet precise comedy that reminds me why Austen remains such a vital writer". Susan Ostrov Weisser, a professor of nineteenth-century literature, called the film a "faithful parade of Austen's world", and praised Root as the film's "crown jewel" for playing a "fiercely intelligent, regretful, and frustrated Anne Elliot with subtlety and nuance". In 2008, James Rampton of The Independent rated it the fourth best Austen adaptation of all time.
|Award||Category||Recipients and nominees||Result|
|British Academy Television Awards||Best Costume Design||Alexandra Byrne||Won|
|Best Design||William Dudley and Brian Sykes||Won|
|Best Make Up||Jean Speak||Nominated|
|Best Original Television Music||Jeremy Sams||Nominated|
|Best Photography and Lighting (Fiction/Entertainment)||John Daly||Won|
|Best Single Drama||Fiona Finlay, Roger Michell and Nick Dear||Won|
|National Board of Review||Top Ten Movies||Persuasion||Won|
|Royal Television Society||Costume Design||Alexandra Byrne||Won|
|Production Design||William Dudley and Brian Sykes||Won|
|Team Award (Craft)||Persuasion||Won|
- Parrill 2002, p. 201.
- Parrill 2002, p. 5.
- Higson 2011, p. 133.
- Giddings & Selby 2001, p. 100.
- Parrill 2002, pp. 6–7.
- Higson 2011, p. 135.
- Parrill 2002, pp. 5–6.
- Cardwell 2014, p. 88.
- "Production Notes". Sony Pictures Classics. 25 September 1995. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Dear 1996.
- La Badie, Donald (10 November 1995). "Picture perfect 'Persuasion' film does justice to witty Jane Austen tale". The Commercial Appeal.
- Masters, Kim (10 December 1995). "Austen found; Hollywood rediscovers the 19th-century writer". The Washington Post.
- Stack, Peter (11 October 1995). "Art of `Persuasion' brings root to U.S.". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- "The Buddha of Suburbia Part 4 (1993)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Giddings & Selby 2001, p. 102.
- Botton, Sari (28 September 1995). "Straight from the Root". Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved 23 January 2015. (subscription required)
- Sheehan, Henry (30 October 1995). "Theater star taking root in first film". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Parrill 2002, p. 155.
- "Obituary: Susan Fleetwood". The Independent. 2 October 1995. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "The Buddha of Suburbia (1993) Production Credits". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Johnson, Sharon (5 January 1996). ""Persuasion" absolutely delightful production". The Patriot.
- Elley, Derek (6 June 1995). "Review: ‘Persuasion’". Variety. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- McIntyre, Gina (February 2011). "Rule Britannia!". Los Angeles Times Magazine. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Parrill 2002, p. 6.
- Giddings & Selby 2001, p. 103.
- "Television Craft | Costume Design in 1996". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Richards 2003, p. 114.
- Eaton 2013.
- Cardwell 2014, p. 89.
- Beam, Alex (5 January 1996). "'GBH's Hottest Writer: Austen". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 21 March 2015. (subscription required)
- Parrill 2002, p. 165.
- Closing credits (DVD). Persuasion: BBC Films. 1995.
- Wilmington, Michael (27 October 1996). "Adaptation of Austen's 'Persuasion' entertains seamlessly". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- Banks-Smith, Nancy (17 April 1995). "Powers of persuasion". The Guardian.
- Pearson, Allison (23 April 1995). "The fine art of `Persuasion'". The Independent.
- Morrison 1999.
- Stovel 2006, p. 188.
- Monaghan 2009, p. 129.
- Parrill 2002, pp. 165−66.
- Parrill 2002, pp. 166−67.
- Brownstein 2001, p. 18.
- Parrill 2002, p. 167.
- Rickey, Carrie (13 November 1995). "Jane Austen, a '90s kind of gal". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Dole 2001, p. 60.
- Dole 2007.
- Richards 2003, p. 117.
- Scholz 2013, p. 140.
- Pidduck 2000, p. 129.
- Greenfield & Troost 2001, p. 1.
- Collins 2001, p. 81.
- Higson 2011, pp. 97, 133–34.
- "Persuasion (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- "Persuasion". The Numbers. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Scholz 2013, pp. 135–36.
- James, Caryn (27 September 1995). "Persuasion (1995) Film Review". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Scholz 2013, p. 135.
- "Persuasion (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Carr, Jay (6 October 1995). "`Persuasion' Convinces". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 21 March 2015. (subscription required)
- Howe, Desson (20 October 1995). "`Persuasion': Worth Waiting For". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 March 2015. (subscription required)
- Tucker, Ken (6 October 1995). "Persuasion (1995)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Ostrov Weisser 2003, p. 241.
- Rampton, James (24 July 2008). "Bonnets and bustles: The best Austen adaptations". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Television Craft in 1996". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Awards for 1995". National Board of Review. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012.
- "RTS National Awards Archive" (PDF). Royal Television Society. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Works cited
- Brownstein, Rachel M. (2001). "Out of the Drawing Room, Into the Lawn". In Troost, Linda; Greenfield, Sayre N. Jane Austen in Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 13–21. ISBN 978-0-8131-9006-8.
- Cardwell, Sarah (2014). "Persuaded? The Impact of Changing Production Contexts on Three Adaptations of Persuasion". In Bignell, Jonathan; Lacey, Stephen. British Television Drama: Past, Present and Future. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 84–97. ISBN 978-1137327574.
- Collins, Amanda (2001). "Jane Austen, Film, and the Pitfalls of Postmodern Nostalgia". In Troost, Linda; Greenfield, Sayre N. Jane Austen in Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 79–89. ISBN 978-0-8131-9006-8.
- Dear, Nick (1996). "Introduction". In Dear, Nick; Austen, Jane. Persuasion: A Screenplay by Nick Dear. Methuen Drama. ISBN 0-413-71170-6.
- Dole, Carol M. (2001). "Austen, Class, and the American Market". In Troost, Linda; Greenfield, Sayre N. Jane Austen in Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 58–78. ISBN 978-0-8131-9006-8.
- Dole, Carol M. (Summer 2007). "Jane Austen and Mud: Pride & Prejudice (2005), British Realism, and the Heritage Film". Persuasions On-Line (Jane Austen Society of North America) 27 (2). Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- Eaton, Rebecca (2013). Making Masterpiece: 25 Years Behind the Scenes at Sherlock, Downton Abbey, Prime Suspect, Cranford, Upstairs Downstairs, and Other Great Shows. Viking. ISBN 978-0670015351.
- Giddings, Robert; Selby, Keith (2001). The Classic Serial on Television and Radio. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23598-7.
- Greenfield, Sayre N.; Troost, Linda V. (2001). "Watching Ourselves Watching". In Troost, Linda; Greenfield, Sayre N. Jane Austen in Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 1–12. ISBN 978-0-8131-9006-8.
- Higson, Andrew (2011). Film England: Culturally English Filmmaking Since the 1990s. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84885-454-4.
- Monaghan, David (2009). ""A Cheerful Confidence in Futurity": The Movement Motif in Austen's Novel and Dear/Michell's Film Adaptation of Persuasion". In Monaghan, David; Hudelet, Ariane; Wiltshire, John. The Cinematic Jane Austen: Essays on the Filmic Sensibility of the Novels. McFarland. pp. 129–47. ISBN 978-0786435067.
- Morrison, Sarah R. (Fall 1999). "Emma Minus Its Narrator: Decorum and Class Consciousness in Film Versions of the Novel". Persuasions On-Line (Jane Austen Society of North America) (3). Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- Ostrov Weisser, Susan (2003). Persuasion. Fine Creative Media. ISBN 978-1593081300.
- Parrill, Sue (2002). Jane Austen on Film and Television: A Critical Study of the Adaptations. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1349-2.
- Pidduck, Julianne (2000). "Of Windows and Country Walks: Frames of Space and Movement in 1990s Austen Adaptations". In You-Me Park, Rajeswari Sunder Rajan. The Postcolonial Jane Austen. Routledge. pp. 123–146. ISBN 0-415-23290-2.
- Richards, Paulette (2003). "Regency Romance Shadowing in the Visual Motifs of Roger Michell's Persuasion". In MacDonald, Gina; MacDonald, Andrew. Jane Austen on Screen. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–126. ISBN 0-521-79325-4.
- Scholz, Anne-Marie (2013). From Fidelity to History: Film Adaptations as Cultural Events in the Twentieth Century. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-0-85745-731-8.
- Stovel, Nora Foster (2006). "From Page to Screen: Dancing to the Altar in Recent Film Adaptations of Jane Austen’s Novels". Persuasions On-Line (Jane Austen Society of North America) (28). Retrieved 22 January 2015.