|Target disease||Bordetella pertussis|
|ATC code||J07 J07|
|(what is this?)|
Estimates of acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy range from 84% to 85% in preventing typical whooping cough. Acellular vaccine containing at least 3 protective antigens was shown to be of higher or similar efficacy to the previously-used whole cell pertussis vaccine, however the efficacy of the acellular vaccine declines faster. Despite widespread vaccination, pertussis has persisted in vaccinated populations and is one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases. The recent resurgence in pertussis infections is put down to a combination of waning immunity and new mutations in the pathogen that existing vaccines are unable to effectively control.
As of 2009 there were four acellular TDaP/Tdap vaccines licensed for use in USA: Infanrix and DAPTACEL – for children, Boostrix and ADACEL – for adolescents and adults.
|Vaccine||Producer||Licensed for||Pertussis toxin (PT), μg||Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), μg||Pertactin (PRN), μg||Fimbriae (FIM), μg|
|Infanrix||GlaxoSmithKline||6 weeks to 7 years||25||25||8||–|
|Boostrix||GlaxoSmithKline||older than 10 years||8||8||2.5||–|
|DAPTACEL||Sanofi Pasteur||6 weeks to 7 years||10||5||3||5|
|ADACEL||Sanofi Pasteur||11 to 64 years||2.5||5||3||5|
Local reactions, such as fever, redness and swelling at the injection site, and soreness and tenderness where the shot was given, are not uncommon in children and adults. These minor local and systemic adverse reactions are much less common with acellular DTaP vaccine; however, a determination of more rare adverse effects can only be made when additional data are available following extended use of DTaP.
Administration in Pregnancy
As of 2012, pertussis vaccination is recommended during every pregnancy in the U.S.A.
Pertussis vaccine is usually administered as a component of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines. There are several types of DTP vaccines. The first vaccine against pertussis was developed in the 1930s. It included whole-cell killed Bordetella pertussis bacteria. Until the beginning of the 1990s it was used as a part of the DTwP vaccine for the immunization of children. It, however, contained pertussis endotoxin (surface lipooligosaccharide) and produced side effects.
New acellular pertussis vaccines were developed in the 1980s, which included only a few selected pertussis antigens (toxins and adhesins). Acellular vaccines are less likely to provoke side affects. They became a part of DTaP vaccines for children. In 2005, two new vaccine products were licensed for use in adolescents and adults that combine the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids with acellular pertussis vaccine. These (Tdap) vaccines contain reduced amounts of pertussis antigens compared to DTaP vaccines.
- "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pertussis". Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- Zhang L, Prietsch SOM, Axelsson I, Halperin SA (2012). "Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in children". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001478. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001478.pub5. PMID 22419280.
- Allen, A. (2013). "The Pertussis Paradox". Science 341 (6145): 454–455. doi:10.1126/science.341.6145.454.
- Mooi et al. (Feb 2013). "Pertussis resurgence: waning immunity and pathogen adaptation - two sides of the same coin.". Epidemiology and Infection (Oxford University Press): 1–10. doi:10.1017/S0950268813000071.
- van der Ark et al. (Sep 2012). "Resurgence of pertussis calls for re-evaluation of pertussis animal models.". Expert Reviews 11 (9). doi:10.1586/erv.12.83.
- Cherry, J. D. (2009). "How Can We Eradicate Pertussis". Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 634. pp. 41–51. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79838-7_4. ISBN 978-0-387-79837-0.
- "Noninfluenza Vaccination Coverage Among Adults — United States, 2012". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 63 (05): 95–102. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Cherry, J. D. (2013). "Pertussis: Challenges Today and for the Future". In Heitman, Joseph. PLoS Pathogens 9 (7): e1003418. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003418. PMC 3723573. PMID 23935481.
- Patel SS, Wagstaff AJ (Aug 1996). "Acellular pertussis vaccine (Infanrix-DTPa; SB-3). A review of its immunogenicity, protective efficacy and tolerability in the prevention of Bordetella pertussis infection". Drugs 52 (2): 254–275. doi:10.2165/00003495-199652020-00010. PMID 8841742.
- Karen R. Broder, Margaret M. Cortese, John K. Iskander et al (March 24, 2006). "Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)". CDC. Retrieved 18 December 2013.