|Target disease||Bordetella pertussis|
|Legal status||℞ Prescription only|
|ATC code||J07 J07|
|(what is this?)|
Estimates of acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy range from 84% to 85% in preventing typical whooping cough. Acellular vaccine containing at least 3 protective antigens was shown to be of higher or similar efficacy to the previously-used whole cell pertussis vaccine, however the efficacy of the acellular vaccine declines faster. Despite widespread vaccination, pertussis has persisted in vaccinated populations and is one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases. The recent resurgence in pertussis infections is put down to a combination of waning immunity and new mutations in the pathogen that existing vaccines are unable to effectively control.
As of 2009 there were four acellular TDaP/Tdap vaccines licensed for use in USA: Infanrix and DAPTACEL – for children, Boostrix and ADACEL – for adolescents and adults.
|Vaccine||Producer||Licensed for||Pertussis toxin (PT), μg||Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), μg||Pertactin (PRN), μg||Fimbriae (FIM), μg|
|Infanrix||GlaxoSmithKline||6 weeks to 7 years||25||25||8||–|
|Boostrix||GlaxoSmithKline||older than 10 years||8||8||2.5||–|
|DAPTACEL||Sanofi Pasteur||6 weeks to 7 years||10||5||3||5|
|ADACEL||Sanofi Pasteur||11 to 64 years||2.5||5||3||5|
Local reactions, such as fever, redness and swelling at the injection site, and soreness and tenderness where the shot was given, are not uncommon in children and adults. These minor local and systemic adverse reactions are much less common with acellular DTaP vaccine; however, a determination of more rare adverse effects can only be made when additional data are available following extended use of DTaP.
Administration in Pregnancy
As of 2012, pertussis vaccination is recommended during every pregnancy in the U.S.A.
Pertussis vaccine is usually administered as a component of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines. There are several types of DTP vaccines. The first vaccine against pertussis was developed in the 1930s. It included whole-cell killed Bordetella pertussis bacteria. Until the beginning of the 1990s it was used as a part of the DTwP vaccine for the immunization of children. It, however, contained pertussis endotoxin (surface lipooligosaccharide) and produced side effects.
New acellular pertussis vaccines were developed in the 1980s, which included only a few selected pertussis antigens (toxins and adhesins). Acellular vaccines are less likely to provoke side affects. They became a part of DTaP vaccines for children. In 2005, two new vaccine products were licensed for use in adolescents and adults that combine the tetanus and diphtheria toxoids with acellular pertussis vaccine. These (Tdap) vaccines contain reduced amounts of pertussis antigens compared to DTaP vaccines.
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