|— City —|
|Nickname(s): Circus Capital of the World|
|Founder||William N. Hood|
|• Mayor||Jim R. Walker (R)|
|• Total||5.18 sq mi (13.42 km2)|
|• Land||5.11 sq mi (13.23 km2)|
|• Water||0.07 sq mi (0.18 km2) 1.35%|
|Elevation||650 ft (198 m)|
|• Estimate (2011)||11,320|
|• Density||2,234.2/sq mi (862.6/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0441047|
On June 23, 1972, Martin J. McNally hijacked American Airlines Flight 119 from St. Louis to Tulsa. After receiving a ransom of $502,500 he jumped out of the back of a Boeing 727 in what was the 9th copycat hijacking of D.B. Cooper style of hijackings. The entire ransom as well as a weapon were found near Peru. A fingerprint led to his arrest. The money had been found in a 45-pound sealed canvas mail bag by local farmer Lowell Elliott while working in his soybean farm. Another farmer Ronald Miller discovered a Spitfire submachine gun in his corn field when a blade hit it while applying liquid nitrogen.
In 1913 Peru Indiana suffered a massive flood, the worst of its time. Between March 24, 1913 and March 27, 1913, 6 feet of rain fell on Peru, and sent the Wabash and Mississinewa river water rushing down its streets at speeds of 20mph, tearing everything on its path. Before the flood of 1913, Peru was a busy town, full of activity, jobs, with its 15,000 inhabitants, 100 factories, a trolley service, railroads, a new hospital (Duke's), circus (which employed 1000 people on the road), a new concrete bridge (largest of its kind in the world at the time). The total loss for Peru is estimated at $3,000,000 (1913 figures). Many people died including many of the circus animals.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.18 square miles (13.42 km2), of which, 5.11 square miles (13.23 km2) is land and 0.07 square miles (0.18 km2) is water. Peru is the largest town or city in Miami County, and is the site of the tribal headquarters of the Miami Nation.
2010 census 
As of the census of 2010, there were 11,417 people, 4,791 households, and 2,961 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,234.2 inhabitants per square mile (862.6 /km2). There were 5,704 housing units at an average density of 1,116.2 per square mile (431.0 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 93.1% White, 2.5% African American, 1.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population.
There were 4,791 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 38.2% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.96.
The median age in the city was 39 years. 24.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.1% were from 25 to 44; 27% were from 45 to 64; and 15.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female.
2000 census 
As of the census of 2000, there were 12,994 people, 5,410 households, and 3,397 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,815.5 people per square mile (1,085.9/km²). There were 5,943 housing units at an average density of 1,287.7 per square mile (496.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.71% White, 2.95% African American, 1.52% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, and 1.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.32% of the population.
There were 5,410 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.2% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,668, and the median income for a family was $39,440. Males had a median income of $31,631 versus $20,440 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,497. About 9.5% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.
"Circus Capital of the World" 
Peru was the winter headquarters for several famous circuses, including Ringling Brothers, Hagenbeck-Wallace, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, and others. The International Circus Hall of Fame is located in Peru, Indiana. Annually during the third weekend of July, the Peru Amateur Circus holds performances for the whole week, ending with a Circus City Festival and Parade. All of the performers are amateurs, ranging in age from 7 to 21 years. Peru is also the home of the world's only remaining manufacturer of steam calliopes.
Notable residents 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2010)|
- B. J. Penn (U.S. Navy), briefly served as United States Secretary of the Navy in 2009
- Cole Porter, songwriter; Porter was born in Peru, and buried at Mt. Hope Cemetery
- Kyle Macy, former University of Kentucky All-America and former NBA player, former Morehead State University head coach; Macy was raised in Peru and graduated from Peru High School
- Ole Olsen, comedian
- Carol Lou Woodward, pianist
- David J. North, Hollywood screenwriter; credits include NCIS (TV series), Rizzoli & Isles, and the Late Show with David Letterman. North was raised in Peru and graduated from Peru High School in 1998
- Emmett Kelly, World Famous Circus Clown.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Stephens, John H. (1896). "Peru". History of Miami County. Peru, Indiana: The John H. Stephens Publishing House.
- Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.57.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Adkins, Kreig A. Peru: Circus Capital of the World ISBN 139780738560717
- Barry, Rey (1968). ""Kind Rasputin"". "The Daily Progress (Charlottesville, Virginia, USA)". http://www.freewarehof.org/manahans.html. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- "Cole Porter Is Dead; Songwriter Was 72". The New York Times. 1964. Retrieved September 21, 2011. Text "cite web" ignored (help)