Peru national football team
(The White and Red)
|Association||Peruvian Football Federation|
|Head coach||Sergio Markarián|
|Most caps||Roberto Palacios (128)|
|Top scorer||Teófilo Cubillas (26)|
|Home stadium||Estadio Nacional|
|FIFA ranking||39 5|
|Highest FIFA ranking||19 (July 2013)|
|Lowest FIFA ranking||91 (September 2009)|
|Highest Elo ranking||12 (June 1978)|
|Lowest Elo ranking||75 (May 1994)|
| Peru 0–4 Uruguay
(Lima, Peru; November 1, 1927)
| Peru 9–1 Ecuador
(Bogotá, Colombia; August 11, 1938)
| Brazil 7–0 Peru
(Santa Cruz, Bolivia; June 26, 1997)
|Appearances||4 (First in 1930)|
|Best result||Round 2, 1970 & 1978|
|Appearances||34 (First in 1927)|
|Best result||Winners, 1939 and 1975|
|CONCACAF Gold Cup|
|Appearances||1 (First in 2000)|
|Best result||Third (shared), 2000|
The Peru national football team represents Peru in international football competition and is managed by the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF). The team competes against the other nine members of FIFA's CONMEBOL confederation. The Peruvian team's performance has been inconsistent, although it enjoyed successful periods in the 1930s and 1970s.
Founded in 1927, the Peru national football team plays its home matches primarily at the Estadio Nacional in Lima. The team has won the Copa América twice, qualified for four FIFA World Cup tournaments, and participated in one Olympic tournament. Its traditional rival is Chile, but there is also a prominent rivalry with Ecuador. The classic uniform colors are white and red, the colors of the national flag, which is why the Peruvian team is commonly known as la Blanquirroja (Spanish for "the white-and-red").
Early in its history, Peru participated in the inaugural FIFA World Cup tournament and enjoyed victories in the 1938 Bolivarian Games and the 1939 Copa América, when it was led by Teodoro Fernández, Juan Valdivieso, and Alejandro Villanueva. Peruvian football's successful period in the 1970s brought it to world recognition, with players such as Héctor Chumpitaz, Hugo Sotil, and Teófilo Cubillas. This team qualified for three FIFA World Cups and won the Copa América in 1975.
Peru's 1982 World Cup participation was its last to date, and it has not since won a major tournament or qualified for the World Cup. In late 2008, the team was temporarily suspended from international participation by FIFA because of allegations of corruption involving government sport authorities and the FPF. Peru appointed Uruguayan Sergio Markarián as its head coach in 2010 and, after achieving third place at the 2011 Copa América, was unable to qualify for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
- 1 History
- 2 Uniform
- 3 Stadium
- 4 Supporters
- 5 Rivalries
- 6 Competitive records
- 7 Players
- 8 Managers
- 9 Fixtures and records
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Football was introduced to Peru in the nineteenth century by British immigrants and Peruvians returning from England. As early as 1859, Lima's British community founded the Lima Cricket Club, a sports club dedicated to the practice of cricket, hockey, tennis, and football.[A] These sports found approval from the Peruvian elite, who saw in their practice signs of modernity and good health, as well as a way to promote values such as discipline, competition, and optimism. However, these early developments in sports were halted by the outbreak of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883).
After the war, new "popular diversions, arts, and food ways found widespread acceptance" in Peru's coastal society. In Lima, football became "a popular sport promoted by bosses for the cohesion of their workers and to a daily practice on empty lots in popular urban barrios". In the adjacent port of Callao and other commercial zones, "British advisors, engineers, and other technicians" (including sailors) played the sport among themselves and with local workers.[B] Sports rivalries between locals and foreigners arose in Callao, and between elites and workers in Lima. Over time, as foreigners departed, this became a rivalry between Callao and Lima. Due to these factors, including the sport's rapid development among the urban poor of Lima's La Victoria district (thanks to the foundation of Alianza Lima in 1901), Peru formed the strongest footballing culture in the Andean region.
In 1912, the Peruvian Football League tournament was organized for the first time, and was held every year until team disputes discontinued it in 1921. Consequently, the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF)[C] was created in the following year and, in 1926, assumed the management of the Peruvian Football League. The FPF joined the South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) in 1925, but due to financial problems it only formed a national football team in 1927, which debuted in that year's South American Championship.
During the 1930s, Peruvian football lived its first golden era. Starting with Ciclista Lima in 1926, Peruvian clubs toured throughout Latin America. One of these tours (Alianza Lima's undefeated journey through Chile in 1935) saw the formation of the Rodillo Negro, led by players Alejandro Villanueva, Juan Valdivieso, and Teodoro Fernández. Sports historian Richard Witzig wrote that these players "formed a soccer triumvirate unsurpassed in the world at that time". After a fair performance at the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930, Peru and the Rodillo Negro awed audiences at the 1936 Summer Olympics, won the inaugural Bolivarian Games in 1938, and finished the decade as South American champions.
Subsequent years proved lackluster for the Peruvian team. According to historian David Goldblatt, "despite all the apparent preconditions for footballing growth and success, Peruvian football disappeared". He attributed this situation to the repression taken against "social, sporting and political organization among the urban and rural poor" during the 1940s and 1950s. In this period, Peru was generally "in the middle of the standings" at South American Championships and barely missed the Sweden 1958 World Cup, after being defeated by Brazil (which went on to win the competition).
A series of victories in the late 1960s, culminating in the qualification for the Mexico 1970 World Cup, brought Peru to another golden era. Peru reached the quarterfinals, where it was knocked out by eventual winners Brazil, and earned the first FIFA Fair Play Trophy. Peru won its second Copa América in 1975 and qualified for two consecutive World Cup tournaments: in Argentina 1978, the team reached the second round, while in Spain 1982, it did not get past the first stage. Peru's early elimination ended a period when its "flowing football was admired across the globe".
Following its failed qualification for the Mexico 1986 World Cup, renewed expectations for Peru were centered on a young generation of Alianza Lima players known colloquially as "The Colts" (Spanish: Los Potrillos).[D] However, on December 8, 1987, an aircraft returning most of Alianza's team and coaching staff from Pucallpa (in the Peruvian Amazon) to Lima crashed into the Pacific Ocean, leaving among the dead several national team players (including rising sensation Luis Escobar and goalkeeper José González Ganoza) and coach Marcos Calderón. Peru's ensuing hiatus, ending last in both the 1990 and 1994 World Cup qualifiers, experienced a slight recovery at the end of the decade. After earning fourth place at the 1997 Copa América, it only missed qualification for the France 1998 World Cup due to a worse goal difference than Chile. Afterwards, Peru won the 1999 Kirin Cup (sharing the title with Belgium) and placed third at the 2000 CONCACAF Gold Cup, but failed to secure qualification for the South Korea/Japan 2002 and Germany 2006 tournaments.
Much of the blame for Peru's performance was placed on FPF president Manuel Burga. In 2008, the Peruvian government charged Burga with corruption and considered his re-election illegal. In response, FIFA suspended Peruvian Football League officials and referees, the national football team, and prevented Peru from hosting the 2009 South American Youth Championship. After the Peruvian Institute of Sport (IPD) agreed to discuss matters and reach an agreement with the FPF, with IPD President Arturo Woodman avoiding direct communications with Burga, FIFA president Sepp Blatter lifted the bans and restrictions. The following year, Peru missed qualification for the South Africa 2010 World Cup by ending last in CONMEBOL's World Cup qualifiers. This poor performance contributed to Peru ending the year as the confederation's lowest ranked team. Afterwards, despite achieving third place at the 2011 Copa América and attaining its highest FIFA position (19) in July 2013, Peru again missed qualification for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
Peru's national colors are red and white. The team's first uniform was made for the 1927 South American Championship and consisted of white shorts and a shirt with red vertical stripes. For the 1930 FIFA World Cup, an all-white kit with a red collar was chosen. A third uniform was made for the 1935 South American Championship, with the addition of a horizontal red stripe. Designed for the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics, Peru's current uniform features a red stripe crossing the chest diagonally from the left shoulder to the right hip, in the front, and vice-versa, in the back.
According to sports historian Jaime Pulgar-Vidal Otálora, Peru's first uniform was similar to that of Alianza Lima, whose kits were influenced by the jockey uniforms used in Peruvian President Augusto B. Leguía's stables. The only difference between the kits was the color of the jersey's vertical stripes, which were blue for Alianza and red for the national side. Pulgar-Vidal Otálora argues that Peru's first uniform was probably directly influenced by Leguía, pointing out that the kit was later changed after he was overthrown in 1932. The team's second uniform, worn at the 1930 FIFA World Cup, was an alternate kit used only because Paraguay had already registered a similar uniform design.
Pulgar-Vidal Otálora claims that Peru's uniform acquired its current design from a tradition of adding a red diagonal stripe to distinguish teams playing with white jerseys. In 2010, the ESPN television network placed Peru's 1978 jersey first in a list of the "Best World Cup jerseys of all time", praising its "simple yet strikingly effective piece of design". That same year, Christopher Turpin (NPR's executive producer of All Things Considered) also praised the 1970 design, claiming that "[t]o this day, I still think it's the beautiful game's most beautiful shirt".
Peru's uniform has been manufactured by eight separate companies. In 1978, Adidas became the first official manufacturer. During the 1980s, Peru had contracts with Penalty (1981–1982), Adidas (1983–1985), Calvo Sportwear (1987), and Power (1989–1991). In the 1990s and 2000s, Peru contracted with Diadora (1991–1992), local manufacturer Polmer (1993–1995), Umbro (1996–1997), and had a long-term contract with local company Walon Sport (1998–2010). Since 2010, Umbro has again produced the national team kits.
|Peru national football team kit evolution|
The Estadio Nacional is a 45,000-spectator stadium located in Lima that acts as the traditional home of the Peruvian team and the national stadium of Peru. The first national stadium, a wooden structure with a 6,000-spectator capacity, was donated by Lima's British community to celebrate Peru's centenary of independence from Spain; it was inaugurated on July 24, 1923. Under the regime of General Manuel Odría, the stadium was reconstructed, expanded, and officially re-inaugurated on October 27, 1952, with the current spectator capacity. The present stadium is the result of a renovation process conducted under the government of Alan García; it was re-inaugurated on July 24, 2011.
A unique feature of the stadium is the Miguel Dasso Tower, named in honor of the main advocate of the stadium's first renovation. Located on the building's northern side, the tower had luxury boxes which overtime fell into disuse until the tower's renovation in 2004. The arena was also the only national stadium in CONMEBOL to have artificial turf, installed to improve its aesthetic appeal for the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship, and was one of Peru's four "FIFA Star II" (the highest certification granted to artificial pitches) stadiums.
Renovations completed in 2011 brought major changes to the Estadio Nacional, including an overhaul of the artificial turf in favor of natural bermudagrass. The building's exterior is now covered by thousands of plaques made from a zinc aluminium alloy, and another tower was constructed on the southern side of the stadium to host a restaurant. Additional improvements include a modern exterior and interior multi-colored illumination system, two giant LED screens, individual spectator seats, and 375 private suites.
The national team occasionally selects other stadiums as its home venue. Outside the "desert-like coastal region" where Lima is situated, the thin atmosphere at the high-altitude Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega in Cusco and the balmy Amazonic climate of the Estadio Max Augustín in Iquitos provide strategic advantages against certain rivals. Other common alternate venues for the national team include Alianza's Estadio Alejandro Villanueva and Universitario's Estadio Monumental "U", both located in the Peruvian capital.
During the 19th century, football in Peru "was markedly English, played by members of the expatriate community and the Anglophile elite on grass pitches in clubs that were physically separated from the daily reality of Lima". Matters changed in the early 20th century as football became "a form of popular culture with autonomous characteristics of organization and practice". The Peruvian state, under the government of Augusto B. Leguía, institutionalized the sport into national culture by promoting and organizing its development. In the 21st century, football is the most popular sport in Peru, captivating the populace's "fervor, enthusiasm, and passion".
Peruvian fans commonly encourage the national squad with the popular sports chant ¡Arriba Perú!. Fans have also traditionally expressed their support for club teams, football players, and the national side through música criolla, an early popular music genre from Peru. By the 1930s, with the advent of mass media, música criolla enjoyed "national and international recognition" to the point that it became "a symbol of national culture" for Peru. The national team's popular anthem is Peru Campeón, a polka criolla glorifying Peru's qualification to the Mexico 1970 World Cup.
Supporters of Peru are infamously known for the Estadio Nacional disaster, considered as one of the most terrible in football history, which occurred on May 24, 1964, during a 1964 Summer Olympics qualifying match between the youth (under-20) squads of Peru and Argentina. Problems were sparked after Uruguayan referee Angel Payos disallowed a goal from Peru, which would have tied the score, alleging "rough play" from the Peruvians. Two spectators jumped into the field to attack the referee while a "fusillade of objects" were thrown on the pitch from the stands. Police responded by throwing tear gas into the crowd, causing a stampede that was worsened by the stadium's locked gates. The death toll amounted to 315 spectators and more than 500 were injured in the chaos.
Peru maintains prominent football rivalries with Chile and Ecuador. They have a favorable record against Ecuador and a negative record against Chile. The first time Peru faced both its rivals in an official tournament was during the 1939 South American Championship held in Lima; Peru won both matches. In the FIFA World Cup, Peru's first confrontation against both rivals happened during the Argentina 1978 World Cup qualifiers, in which Peru directly eliminated Ecuador and Chile after defeating them in Lima and securing away draws.
The rivalry between Chile and Peru is popularly known as the Clásico del Pacífico (Pacific Derby). CNN World Sport editor Greg Duke considers it to be among the top ten football rivalries in the world. Chile and Peru also traditionally vie for the rank of fourth-best national team in South America (behind Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay); however, unlike Peru, Chile has never won a major international competition. Both nations further dispute the origin of the football move known as the bicycle kick, with Peruvians naming it chalaca and Chileans calling it chilena.
Historical border conflicts are behind the football rivalry between Ecuador and Peru. In 1995, after the Cenepa War, CONMEBOL even contemplated altering that year's Copa América group stage to prevent both sides from facing each other. Ecuadorian fans consider "losses to Colombia or Peru [as] an excuse to lament Ecuador's inability to establish itself as an international soccer power". During the Brazil 2014 World Cup qualifiers, Ecuador's captain Walter Ayoví declared that "these matches have always had something additional, a thorough rivalry. We are going to play for the pride of representing the country, its colors, because these games have always been a kind of derby".
FIFA World Cup
Peru has participated in 14 World Cup qualifiers and 4 World Cup finals. In the qualifiers, the squad has a record of 31 wins, 28 draws, and 54 losses, with 118 goals in favor and 159 against. In the finals, the team holds a record of 4 wins, 3 draws, and 8 losses, with 19 goals in favor and 31 against. Luis de Souza Ferreira scored Peru's first tournament goal on July 14, 1930, in a match against Romania. Teófilo Cubillas is the team's top World Cup scorer with 10 goals in 13 games.
As one of the 13 national sides who accepted the invitation to the inaugural World Cup, Peru was placed in Group 3 with Romania and hosts Uruguay. With a mere 300 spectators, Peru's match against Romania holds the record of lowest attendance in a World Cup game. Peru lost (1–3) in a violent game where, in the second half, a fight broke out and a Peruvian was the first player sent off in a World Cup.[E] A few days later, Peru and Uruguay played the inaugural match of the Estadio Centenario. The Peruvians were lauded by the spectators for their defense and the impressive ability of forward José María Lavalle; Peru lost by one goal to the eventual champions, who defeated their subsequent opponents by scoring at least 4 goals per game.
The Peruvian squad next participated in the Mexico 1970 World Cup finals, having eliminated Bolivia and Argentina in the qualifiers.[F] They were placed in Group 4 with West Germany, Bulgaria, and Morocco. In the first game, Peru's "psychological reaction" to the 1970 Ancash earthquake caused the team to quickly concede two goals to Bulgaria. However, as Brian Glanville stated, "the elusive dribbling of Cubillas, the powerful breaks from the back four of Héctor Chumpitaz, the running of [Hugo] Sotil and [Alberto] Gallardo, turned the tide"; Peru won 3–2. The team proceeded to the quarterfinals as group runner-up after defeating Morocco (3–0) and losing to West Germany (1–3); there, Peru were eliminated by Brazil (2–4) in "a spectacular and effervescent game, a game in which both sides delighted in attack and scorned caution", in which both sides displayed "a feast of open play and goals".
After eliminating Chile and Ecuador in the qualifiers, Peru participated in the Argentina 1978 World Cup finals as part of Group 4 with Scotland, Iran, and the Netherlands. With a midfield identified "as the best in the world" by Argentine sports magazine El Gráfico, Peru advanced to the second round as group leaders after defeating Scotland (3–1) and Iran (4–1) and drawing with the Netherlands (0–0). The second round was divided into two groups, and Peru's results placed it in Group B with Poland, Brazil, and Argentina. After losing to Brazil (0–3) and Poland (0–1), Peru was practically "out of contention" despite having one more game to play against Argentina. This last match proved controversial because the Peruvians lost by a margin (0–6) that allowed the hosts to reach the final instead of Brazil. Rumors circulated that the match had been fixed,[G] but nothing was ever proved.
Following another successful campaign, eliminating Colombia and favorites Uruguay (the 1980 Mundialito winners) in the qualifiers, Peru participated in the Spain 1982 World Cup finals as part of Group 1 with Italy, Poland, and Cameroon. Prior to the competition, Peru embarked on a practice tour that included victories against Hungary (1–2) in Budapest and France (0–1) in Paris, a tie with Algeria (1–1) in Algiers, and, upon returning home, a victory over Romania (2–0). In the World Cup finals, Peru's opening match against Cameroon ended a scoreless draw. Against Italy, Peru "put on a mix of solid defending and spectacular attacking" that resulted in a draw (1–1) against the eventual champions. Peru only needed another draw to advance in the tournament, and it managed to maintain a favorable scoreless first half against Poland, but a "mixup in the midfield" and a "tired defense" during the second half led to Peru's defeat (1–5) and early elimination.
|Peru's FIFA World Cup record|
|FIFA World Cup||FIFA World Cup qualification||Top scorer(s) (goals)||Manager|
|1930||Round 1||10th||2||0||0||2||1||4||Qualified as invitees||Souza Ferreira (1)||Bru|
|1938||Did not enter||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|1958||Did not qualify||2||0||1||1||1||2||Terry (1)||Orth|
|1970||Round 2||6th||4||2||0||2||9||9||4||2||1||1||7||4||Cubillas (6)||Didi|
|1974||Did not qualify||3||1||0||2||3||4||Sotil (2)||Scarone|
|1978||Round 2||8th||6||2||1||3||7||12||6||3||2||1||13||3||Cubillas (5)||Calderón|
|1982||Round 1||20th||3||0||2||1||2||6||4||2||2||0||5||2||La Rosa (3)||Tim|
|1986||Did not qualify||8||3||2||3||10||9||Navarro (3)||Challe|
|1990||4||0||0||4||2||8||del Solar, González (1)||Pepe|
Palacios, del Solar (1)
Pizarro, Solano (2)
|2006||18||4||6||8||20||28||Farfán (7)|| Autuori,
|2010||18||3||4||11||11||34||Fano (3)||del Solar|
|2018||To be determined||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
Peru has participated in 31 Copa América tournaments (the first in 1927), played as hosts six times (1927, 1935, 1939, 1953, 1957, 2004), and won it twice (1939 and 1975). The team has a record of 49 victories, 32 draws, and 55 losses, with 199 goals in favor and 222 against. Demetrio Neyra scored Peru's first tournament goal on November 13, 1927, in a match against Bolivia. The team boasts three top scorers—Teodoro Fernández (7 goals, 1939), Eduardo Malásquez (3 goals, 1983), and Paolo Guerrero (5 goals, 2011), three hat-trick scorers—Teodoro Fernández (1939 and 1941), Miguel Loayza (1959), and Paolo Guerrero (2011), and two "Best Player" recipients—Teodoro Fernández (1939) and Teófilo Cubillas (1975).
The Peruvian team's first continental title was achieved in the 1939 South American Championship, after a string of undefeated victories against Ecuador (5–2), Chile (3–1), Paraguay (3–0), and Uruguay (2–1). Peru had 13 goals in favor and 4 against. It became the fourth nation to win the South American championship, after Uruguay, Brazil, and Argentina, and the first team from western South America to obtain the title.
The national side won its second continental title in the 1975 Copa América, the first time the tournament was played by all ten CONMEBOL members and the first time the competition was held without a fixed venue. Peru ended the first stage as leader of Group 2, eliminating Chile and Bolivia. In the semifinals, Peru defeated Brazil (1–3) in Belo Horizonte but lost in Lima (0–2), forcing a CONMEBOL-sponsored "choice of card" which determined Peru the winner. In the two-legged final between Colombia and Peru, both teams won their respective home games (1–0 in Bogota and 2–0 in Lima), forcing a play-off in Caracas which the Peruvians won by a goal.
|Peru's South American Championship/Copa América record|
|South American Championship (1916–1967)||Copa América (since 1975)|
|Year||Pos||Pld||W||D||L||GF||GA||Top scorer(s) (goals)||Manager||Year||Round||Pos||Pld||W||D||L||GF||GA||Top scorer(s) (goals)||Manager|
|1916–1926||Did not enter||1975||Finals||1st||9||6||1||2||14||7||Oblitas, Ramírez (3)||Calderón|
Neyra, Montellanos (1)
|1929||4th||3||0||0||3||1||12||Lizarbe (1)||Borrelli||1983||Semifinals||3rd||6||2||3||1||7||6||Malásquez (3)||Tan|
|1935||3rd||3||1||0||2||2||5||Montellanos, Fernández (1)||Carbajo||1987||Round 1||6th||2||0||2||0||2||2||La Rosa, Reyna (1)||Cuéllar|
|1937||6th||5||1||1||3||7||10||Villanueva, Fernández (2)||Denegri||1989||Round 1||8th||4||0||3||1||4||7||Hirano (2)||Pepe|
|1939||1st||4||4||0||0||13||4||Fernández (7)||Greenwell||1991||Round 1||8th||4||1||0||3||9||9||Hirano, del Solar (2)||Company|
|1941||4th||4||1||0||3||5||5||Fernández (3)||Arrillaga||1993||Quarterfinals||7th||4||1||2||1||4||5||del Solar (3)||Popović|
|1942||5th||6||1||2||3||5||10||Fernández (2)||Fernández||1995||Round 1||10th||3||0||1||2||2||2||Hurtado, Palacios (1)||Company|
|1945–1946||Withdrew||1997||Semifinals||4th||6||3||0||3||5||11||Hidalgo, Cominges (2)||Ternero|
|1947||5th||7||2||2||3||12||9||Gómez, Guzmán (3)||Arana||1999||Quarterfinals||6th||4||2||1||1||7||6||Holsen (2)||Oblitas|
|1949||3rd||7||5||0||2||20||13||Castillo (4)||Fernández||2001||Quarterfinals||8th||4||1||1||2||4||8||Pajuelo, del Solar,
Holsen, Lobatón (1)
|1955||3rd||5||2||2||1||13||11||Gómez Sánchez (6)||Valdivieso||2004||Quarterfinals||7th||4||1||2||1||7||6||Solano (2)||Autuori|
|1953||5th||6||3||1||2||4||6||Gómez Sánchez (2)||Fernández||2007||Quarterfinals||7th||4||1||1||2||5||8||Pizarro (2)||Uribe|
|1956||6th||5||0||1||4||6||11||Drago (2)||Fernández||2011||Semifinals||3rd||6||3||1||2||8||5||Guerrero (5)||Markarián|
|1957||4th||6||4||0||2||12||9||Terry (5)||Orth||2015||To be determined|
|1959||Did not enter||2019|
Peru's senior side participated in one Olympic football tournament, during the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, Germany. The squad had a record of two victories, scoring eleven goals and conceding five. Teodoro Fernández scored Peru's first tournament goal on August 6, 1936, in a match against Finland. Fernández is also the team's top scorer, with a total of six goals in two games, and Peru's only hat-trick scorer at the Olympics.
Qualification for the tournament was determined at the 1935 South American Championship held in Lima. Uruguay won with an undefeated run and Argentina earned second place; nevertheless, both sides declined to participate in the Olympics because of economic problems. Peru, which placed third after defeating Chile, thus became South America's representative.
The Peruvian players were subsequently selected from Alianza Lima's Rodillo Negro (which had an undefeated tour in Chile in late 1935), reinforced from the starting eleven of Sport Boys (winners of the 1935 Peruvian Primera División) and Universitario de Deportes. In Berlin, Peru began the competition by eliminating Finland (7–3), with goals from Teodoro Fernández and Alejandro Villanueva. In the quarterfinals, Peru faced Austria, then popularly known as the Wunderteam, coached by Jimmy Hogan.[H] The game ended with a 2–2 draw in regular time, but Peru scored twice and won the match (4–2) in extra time. Peru would have faced Poland in the semifinals, but decisions outside the field of play led to its withdrawal from the competition.[I]
The following players have been called to Peru's national team in the last 12 months.
- INJ Player withdrew from the squad due to an injury.
- WD Player withdrew from the squad due to personal reason.
CONMEBOL has described Peru as traditionally exhibiting an "elegant, technical and fine football style" and praised it as "one of the most loyal exponents of South American football talent". Sports historians and analysts invariably concur that Teófilo Cubillas, an attacking midfielder and striker popularly known as "The Kid" (in Spanish: El Nene), is the most remarkable player to have represented the team.
Peru's first football idols were Teodoro Fernández, Alejandro Villanueva, and Juan Valdivieso. Fernández, better known by his moniker Lolo, was "a pure goal scorer who would take on entire defenses". His partner on the attack, Villanueva, was a ball-control master who "would leave his opponents gasping with his magical fakes, keen vision and adept passing ability". At the back, goalkeeper Valdivieso, nicknamed "The Magician" (in Spanish: El Mago), was "a specialist in stopping penalty kicks" who also "had an impeccable sense of timing and balance, as well as phenomenal athletic ability and courage in goal".
Other notable players, described by CONMEBOL as "true artists of the ball", include forwards Pedro Pablo León and Hugo Sotil, defender Héctor Chumpitaz, and midfielders Roberto Challe, César Cueto, and Roberto Palacios. Argentine sports magazine El Gráfico described Cueto, Cubillas, and José Velásquez as "the best [midfield] in the world" in 1978. Historian Richard Witzig lists Chumpitaz among the "Best Players of the Modern Era" and praises him as "a strong reader of the game with excellent ball skills and distribution, [who] marshaled a capable defense to support Peru's attack".
In 1972, Cubillas, Chumpitaz, Sotil, and Julio Baylón were called up to the South America XI squad that faced the Europe XI at Basle, Switzerland. In the match, a commemorative game for the benefit of homeless children, Cubillas scored the first goal in a 0–2 win for South America. Sotil, Chumpitaz, and Cubillas again participated with the South America XI squad in 1973, this time facing the Europe XI at Barcelona's Nou Camp in a charity match for the benefit of world poverty. Chumpitaz played as South America's captain. The game, which ended 4–4 on regular time and with each of the Peruvians scoring a goal, was won by South America in a penalty shoot-out (6–7).
Peru's first two managers were from Uruguay. The first, Pedro Olivieri, was chosen to coach Peru in the 1927 South American Championship because of his prior experience managing the Uruguay national football team. The second, Julio Borelli, spent a few years as a referee in Peru (even arbitrating the first Peruvian Clásico, the derby between Alianza Lima and Universitario) prior to becoming Peru's coach in the 1929 South American Championship.
The Peruvians' first FIFA World Cup manager (and third head coach), Francisco Bru, had previously played at FC Barcelona and served as Spain's first national team manager. Other managers that have led Peru in the World Cup include Brazilian Valdir Pereira (appointed for Mexico 1970), Peruvian Marcos Calderón (appointed for Argentina 1978), and Brazilian Elba de Pádua Lima (appointed for Spain 1982).
Owing to their records and achievements, Marcos Calderón and Englishman Jack Greenwell are considered by sports analysts and historians as the best managers of the Peru national football team. Greenwell led Peru through an undefeated eight-game run, winning the 1938 Bolivarian Games and the 1939 South American Championship in the process. Calderón led Peru to glory at the 1975 Copa América and qualified the national side to the 1978 FIFA World Cup.
Other tournament-winning managers include Peruvians Juan Carlos Oblitas and Freddy Ternero, and Uruguayan Sergio Markarián, each having led Peru to victory in the Kirin Cup competition in 1999, 2005, and 2011, respectively.
Fixtures and records
Since 1927, Peru has played 545 matches, including friendlies, and has a positive record against national teams from the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, and Central America. Peru's biggest win, a 9–1 victory against Ecuador, took place on August 11, 1938, at the Bolivarian Games held in Colombia. The team's biggest defeat, a 7–0 loss to Brazil, occurred on June 26, 1997, at the Copa América held in Bolivia. Peru was the first recipient of the FIFA Fair Play Trophy, awarded in the 1970 World Cup, for being the only team that received no yellow or red cards.
Roberto Palacios has the most appearances with the national team, having played 122 times between 1992 and 2007. Héctor Chumpitaz, with 105 appearances, is second, and Jorge Soto, with 101 appearances, is third. For goalkeepers, Oscar Ibañez holds the most appearances with 50 caps, followed by Miguel Miranda (47 caps) and Ramón Quiroga (40 caps). Teófilo Cubillas is the team's top goalscorer with 26 goals in 81 appearances. Teodoro Fernández is second, but he holds a higher goal per appearance average with 24 goals in 32 appearances. In third place is Nolberto Solano, who has 20 goals in 89 appearances. Claudio Pizarro scored Peru's fastest goal during a match against Mexico on August 20, 2003; he also scored the second fastest goal and Luis Ramírez the third.
- Peru national football team indiscipline scandals
- Peru women's national football team
- Peru national under-17 football team
- Peru national under-20 football team
- Peru national beach soccer team
- Peru national futsal team
- Peruvian Primera División
- Sport in Peru
- The Lima Cricket and Football Club might also be the oldest club practicing association football in the Americas.
- During these games in Callao, the Peruvians possibly invented the move known as the chalaca (meaning "from Callao"), or bicycle kick.
- The acronym FPF comes from the organization's Spanish name, Federación Peruana de Futbol.
- Sociologists Aldo Panfichi and Victor Vich argue that Los Potrillos "became the hope of the entire country", and fans expected them to help Peru qualify for the Italy 1990 World Cup.
- According to FIFA, the player was defender Plácido Galindo, but forward Souza Ferreira and other sources contend that it was midfielder Mario de las Casas.
- The 1970 World Cup qualifying match between Peru and Bolivia in La Paz is infamously remembered for being fixed by Argentina in favor of Bolivia. Match referee Sergio Chechelev annulled a valid goal from Peru without any justification. Years later, Chechelev admitted that Argentina had paid him to favor Bolivia.
- The unproven allegations were that Peruvian goalkeeper Ramón Quiroga (who was born in Argentina) feared hatred from his birthplace, that Peru simply did not want Brazil to reach the final, and that a government deal between Peru and Argentina arranged the result.
- Although an amateur side with no players that represented them in the 1934 FIFA World Cup, Austria's 1936 Olympic side is also considered part of the Wunderteam by sports historians and FIFA. This favors the idea that the Wunderteam was primarily a strategic creation of coaches Jimmy Hogan and Hugo Meisl.
- After the game against Peru, the Austrian delegation protested the result claiming that Peruvian fans invaded the pitch. Despite the nationality of the spectators was never confirmed and crowd control was the responsibility of the Nazi soldiers, a FIFA committee presided by Jules Rimet ordered a behind closed doors replay; in response, Peruvian President Óscar R. Benavides withdrew the country's entire Olympic delegation. Historian Richard Witzig maintains that only the International Federation of Football History & Statistics has condemned the actions taken against Peru in Berlin, and that FIFA (which has upheld the validity of Peru's Olympic victory over Austria, but not listed Fernández among the tournament's top scorers) blames the International Olympic Committee for the controversial decision made against Peru.
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- "Evaluará FIFA Cuestionadas Canchas Artificiales en Perú" (in Spanish). El Universal.mx. 9 March 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "No más sintético: el Estadio Nacional ya luce césped natural" (in Spanish). El Comercio.pe. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
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- "Sporting Cristal inicia el torneo en el horno de Iquitos" (in Spanish). Peru.com. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "La selección también jugará en Matute" (in Spanish). Peru21.pe. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
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- Lennox 2009, p. 61.
- "101 Facts". FIFA Magazine. June/July 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peru national football team.|
1938 (First title)
|South American Champions
1939 (First title)
|South American Champions
1975 (Second title)
|Kirin Cup Champions
1999 (First title, shared)
|Kirin Cup Champions
2005 (Second title, shared)
|Kirin Cup Champions
2011 (Third title, shared)