Peru national football team
(The White and Red)
|Association||Peruvian Football Federation|
|Head coach||Ricardo Gareca|
|Asst coach||Sergio Santín|
|Most caps||Roberto Palacios (128)|
|Top scorer||Teófilo Cubillas (26)|
|Home stadium||Estadio Nacional|
|FIFA ranking||63 1 (7 May 2015)|
|Highest FIFA ranking||19 (July 2013)|
|Lowest FIFA ranking||91 (September 2009)|
|Elo ranking||37 (31 March 2015)|
|Highest Elo ranking||12 (June 1978)|
|Lowest Elo ranking||75 (May 1994)|
| Peru 0–4 Uruguay
(Lima, Peru; 1 November 1927)
| Peru 9–1 Ecuador
(Bogotá, Colombia; 11 August 1938)
| Brazil 7–0 Peru
(Santa Cruz, Bolivia; 26 June 1997)
|Appearances||4 (First in 1930)|
|Best result||Top 8, 1970 (Quarterfinals) & 1978 (Round 2)|
|Appearances||29 (First in 1927)|
|Best result||Winners, 1939 and 1975|
|CONCACAF Gold Cup|
|Appearances||1 (First in 2000)|
|Best result||Third (shared), 2000|
The Peru national football team has represented Peru in international football since 1927. Organised by the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF),[A] it is one of the 10 members of FIFA's South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL). The Peruvian team's performance has been inconsistent; it enjoyed its most successful periods in the 1930s and the 1970s. It plays most of its home matches at the Estadio Nacional in Lima, the country's capital.
The Peru national team has won the Copa América twice and qualified for FIFA World Cup finals four times; it also participated in the 1936 Olympic football competition. It has longstanding rivalries with Chile and Ecuador. The team is well known for its white shirts adorned with a diagonal red stripe, Peru's national colours. This basic design has been used continuously since 1936, and gives rise to the team's common Spanish nickname, la Blanquirroja ("the white-and-red").
Peru took part in the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930 and enjoyed victories in the 1938 Bolivarian Games and the 1939 Copa América, with goalkeeper Juan Valdivieso and forwards Teodoro Fernández and Alejandro Villanueva playing important roles. Peruvian football's successful period in the 1970s brought it worldwide recognition; the team then included the formidable forward partnership of Hugo Sotil and Teófilo Cubillas, often regarded as Peru's greatest player, and defender Héctor Chumpitaz. This team qualified for three World Cups and won the Copa América in 1975.
The Peruvian team last reached the World Cup finals in 1982; it has since not qualified, and has not won any major tournament. FIFA temporarily suspended the country from international competition in late 2008 during the Peruvian government's investigations into alleged corruption within the FPF. Peru came third at the 2011 Copa América, but failed to qualify for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.
- 1 History
- 2 Colours
- 3 Stadium
- 4 Supporters
- 5 Rivalries
- 6 Competitive records
- 7 Players
- 8 Managers
- 9 Records and statistics
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Football was introduced to Peru in the 19th century by British immigrants and Peruvians returning from England. In 1859, members of the capital Lima's British community founded the Lima Cricket Club, Peru's first organization dedicated to the practice of cricket, rugby, and football.[B] These new sports became popular among the local upper-class over the following decades, but early developments were halted by the War of the Pacific against Chile from 1879 to 1883. After the war, Peru's coastal society embraced football as a modern innovation. The sport became a popular daily activity in Lima barrios, encouraged by bosses who wanted it to inspire solidarity and improved productivity among their workers. In the adjacent port of Callao and other commercial areas, British civilian workers and sailors played the sport among themselves and with locals.[C] Sports rivalries between locals and foreigners arose in Callao, and between elites and workers in Lima. Over time, as foreigners departed, this evolved into a rivalry between Callao and Lima. These factors, coupled with the sport's rapid growth among the urban poor of Lima's La Victoria district (where the Alianza Lima club was formed in 1901), led to Peru developing, according to historian Andreas Campomar, "some of the most elegant and accomplished football on the continent", and the strongest footballing culture in the Andean region.
The Peruvian Football League was formed in 1912 and held each year until it broke up in 1921 amid disputes between the member clubs. The Peruvian Football Federation (FPF) was created the following year and, in 1926, it reorganised the annual league competition. The FPF joined the South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) in 1925, and formed a national team in 1927—the delay was due to financial issues. The team debuted in the 1927 South American Championship, which the FPF hosted at the Estadio Nacional in Lima. Peru's first match was a 0–4 loss against Uruguay; their second was a 3–2 victory over Bolivia. Peru next took part in the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930, but was eliminated in the first stage.
The 1930s have been called Peruvian football's first golden era. During this decade, Peruvians traveled abroad in search of competition that would further develop their football. One notable travel was held in Europe between 1933 and 1934 by the Combinado del Pacífico, a squad composed of Chilean and Peruvian footballers,[D] which provided the South Americans with much-needed experience. Starting with Ciclista Lima in 1926, Peruvian clubs also toured Latin America, achieving numerous victories. During one of these tours—Alianza Lima's undefeated journey through Chile in 1935—a group of players emerged that became called the Rodillo Negro ("Black Roller"), led by forwards Alejandro Villanueva and Teodoro Fernández and goalkeeper Juan Valdivieso. Sports historian Richard Witzig described these three as "a soccer triumvirate unsurpassed in the world at that time", citing their combined innovation and effectiveness at both ends of the field. Peru and the Rodillo Negro awed crowds at the 1936 Summer Olympics, won the inaugural Bolivarian Games in 1938, and finished the decade as South American champions.
Subsequent years proved less successful for the team; according to historian David Goldblatt, "despite all the apparent preconditions for footballing growth and success, Peruvian football disappeared". He attributes this sudden decline to Peruvian authorities' repression of "social, sporting and political organisations among the urban and rural poor" during the 1940s and 1950s. Peru generally performed creditably at the South American Championships during this period, nevertheless, and only narrowly missed qualification for the Sweden 1958 World Cup finals, losing over two legs to eventual champions Brazil.
A series of successes during the late 1960s, culminating with qualification for the 1970 World Cup finals in Mexico, ushered in a second golden period for Peruvian football. The formidable forward partnership between Teófilo Cubillas and Hugo Sotil has been cited as a key factor in Peru's success during the 1970s. Peru reached the quarter-finals in 1970, losing to the tournament winners Brazil, and earned the first FIFA Fair Play Trophy; the team was, Richard Henshaw writes, "the surprise of the 1970 competition, showing flair and a high level of skill". Five years later, Peru was crowned South American champions for the second time when it won the 1975 Copa América (as the South American Championship was renamed that year). The team then qualified for two consecutive World Cup tournaments: it reached the second round in Argentina 1978, and was knocked out in the first group stage at the 1982 tournament in Spain. Peru's early elimination in 1982 ended a period when the side's "flowing football was admired across the globe".
Following the team's failure to qualify for the Mexico 1986 World Cup, renewed expectations for Peru were centred on a young generation of Alianza Lima players known colloquially as Los Potrillos ("The Colts").[E] The team entered a hiatus after the Alianza Lima air disaster of 8 December 1987, when a plane carrying most of Alianza's players and staff crashed into the Pacific Ocean. Only the pilot survived the crash; among the dead were the Peru manager, Marcos Calderón, and several Peru international players, including goalkeeper José González Ganoza and Luis Escobar, who was widely tipped as a future star forward. The team came last in both the 1990 and 1994 World Cup qualifiers. Peru afterward missed qualification for the France 1998 World Cup only on goal difference, won the 1999 Kirin Cup in Japan (sharing the title with Belgium), and placed third at the 2000 CONCACAF Gold Cup, which it contested as an invited guest team.
Since the turn of the century, the Peruvian team has dealt with internal problems and continuing difficulties in World Cup qualification.[F] When the Peruvian government charged Manuel Burga, the unpopular FPF president who was blamed by many in Peru for what they saw as the national team's underperformance since 2002, with corruption in late 2008 and declared his re-election illegal, FIFA suspended the Peru national team and Football League, citing political interference. These sanctions were lifted in December 2008 after the Peruvian Institute of Sport (IPD) agreed to negotiate with the FPF. Peru subsequently missed qualification for the finals of the South Africa 2010 World Cup and the Brazil 2014 World Cup, despite the team won the 2011 Kirin Cup (sharing the title with Japan and the Czech Republic), came third at the 2011 Copa América, and reached 19th in the July 2013 FIFA world rankings—its highest-ever position since the start of the rankings in December 1992. In early 2015, Burga was succeeded as FPF president by Edwin Oviedo. In March 2015, Ricardo Gareca was appointed as Peru's new manager.
The Peru national football team plays in red and white, the country's national colours. Its first-choice kit has been, since 1936, white shorts, white socks, and white shirts with a distinctive red "sash" crossing their front diagonally from the proper left shoulder to the right hip and returning on the back from the right hip to the proper left shoulder. This basic scheme has been only slightly altered over the years. It has won praise as one of world football's most attractive kit designs; Christopher Turpin, the executive producer of NPR's All Things Considered news show, lauded the 1970 iteration in 2010 as "the beautiful game's most beautiful shirt", also commenting that it "was retro even in 1970". The version worn in 1978 came first in a 2010 ESPN list of the "Best World Cup jerseys of all time", described therein as a "simple yet strikingly effective piece of design".
Peru's first kit, made for the 1927 South American Championship, comprised a white-and-red striped shirt, white shorts and black socks. Peru was compelled to use an alternative design in the 1930 World Cup because Paraguay had already registered a kit with white-and-red striped shirts. The Peruvians instead wore white shirts with a red collar, white shorts and black socks. For the 1935 South American Championship, a horizontal red stripe was added to the shirt. The following year, at the Berlin Olympics, the team adopted the red sash design it has retained ever since. According to historian Pulgar-Vidal Otálora, the idea for the diagonal red stripe came from school football matches in which coloured sashes worn over the shoulder would allow two teams wearing white shirts to play against each other.
The Peru national team has had eight official kit manufacturers. The first of these, Adidas, began supplying the team's kit in 1978. Peru have since had contracts with Penalty (1981–82), Adidas (1983–85), Calvo Sportwear (1987), Power (1989–91), Diadora (1991–92), local manufacturer Polmer (1993–95), Umbro (1996–97), and Peruvian company Walon Sport (1998–2010). Umbro have again produced the team's kit since 2010.
The traditional home of Peruvian football is the country's national stadium, the Estadio Nacional in Lima, which houses 45,000 spectators. The present ground is the Estadio Nacional's third incarnation, the result of renovations conducted under the Alan García administration; it was officially inaugurated on 24 July 2011, 88 years to the day after the original ground opened on the same site in 1923.
The original Estadio Nacional was a wooden structure with a capacity of 6,000, donated by members of Lima's British community to celebrate the centenary of Peru's independence from Spain. Following a campaign for the ground's renovation, headed by Miguel Dasso, president of the Sociedad de Beneficencia de Lima, it was rebuilt with a larger capacity under General Manuel A. Odría and opened for the second time on 27 October 1952. The stadium was last redeveloped in 2011; improvements included the construction of a plaque-covered exterior, a multicoloured illumination system added inside the ground, as well as two giant LED screens and 375 private suites.
A distinctive feature of the ground is the Miguel Dasso Tower on its northern side, which contains luxury boxes; it was most recently renovated in 2004. The Estadio Nacional has a natural bermudagrass pitch. It was, from 2005 to 2011, the only national stadium in CONMEBOL to have artificial turf, which was installed for the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship. The stadium was during this period one of Peru's four "FIFA Star II" grounds, the highest certification granted to artificial pitches, but the synthetic turf was blamed for players' injuries, such as burns and bruises. Natural grass was reinstalled as part of the redevelopments completed in 2011.
Peru sometimes play home matches at other venues. Outside the desert-like coast region of Lima, the thin atmosphere at the high-altitude Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega in Cusco and the balmy Amazonic climate of the Estadio Max Augustín in Iquitos have been described as providing strategic advantages for Peru against certain visiting teams. Other common alternate venues for the national team include two other grounds in the Peruvian capital—Alianza's Estadio Alejandro Villanueva and Universitario's Estadio Monumental. The last time the Peruvian team played at an alternate venue was in 2012, when it faced Chile at the Estadio Jorge Basadre in Tacna.
Football has been the most popular sport in Peru since the early 20th century. Originally largely exclusive to Lima's Anglophile elite and expatriates, and secluded from the rest of the city, football became an integral part of wider popular culture during the 1900s and 1910s. Over the following decades, Augusto Leguía's government institutionalised the sport into a national pastime by promoting and organising its development. Consequently, the national football team became an important element of Peru's national identity.
Peruvian football fans are known for their distinctive chant ¡Arriba Perú! ("Come on Peru!"), as well as for their use of traditional Peruvian música criolla to express support, both at national team games and at club matches. Música criolla attained national and international recognition with the advent of mass media during the 1930s, becoming a recognised symbol of Peru and its culture. The national team's most popular anthems are Peru Campeón, a polca criolla (Peruvian polka) glorifying Peru's qualification for the Mexico 1970 World Cup, and Contigo Perú, a vals criollo (Peruvian waltz) that newspaper El Comercio calls "the hymn of Peruvian national football teams".
The Estadio Nacional disaster of 24 May 1964, involving Peruvian supporters, is cited as one of the worst tragedies in football history. During a qualifying match for the 1964 Olympics between Peru's under-20 team and its counterpart from Argentina, the Uruguayan referee Angel Payos disallowed a would-be Peruvian equaliser, alleging rough play. Spectators threw missiles from the stands while two fans invaded the pitch and attacked the referee. Police threw tear gas into the crowd, causing a stampede; trying to escape, fans were crushed against the stadium's locked gates. A total of 315 people were killed in the chaos, with more than 500 others injured.
The Peru national football team maintains prominent rivalries with its counterparts from neighbouring Chile and Ecuador. The Peruvians have a favourable record against Ecuador and a negative record against Chile. Peru faced both rivals in the 1939 South American Championship in Lima, which was also the first time Peru faced Ecuador in an official tournament; Peru won both games. Peru also defeated its rivals during qualifying for the Argentina 1978 World Cup, directly eliminating both teams.
The Chile–Peru football rivalry is known in Spanish as the Clásico del Pacífico ("Pacific Derby"). CNN World Sport editor Greg Duke ranks it among the top ten football rivalries in the world. Peru first faced Chile in the 1935 South American Championship, defeating it 1–0. The two countries traditionally compete with each other over the rank of fourth-best national team in South America (after Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay). They also both claim to have invented the bicycle kick; Peruvians call it the chalaca, while it is the chilena in Chile.
The rivalry between the Ecuador and Peru football teams is rooted in the historical border conflict between the countries dating back to the 19th century. In 1995, after the brief Cenepa War, CONMEBOL contemplated altering that year's Copa América group stage to prevent a match between the two sides, but ultimately did not. According to Michael Handelsman, Ecuadorian fans consider losses to Colombia or Peru "an excuse to lament Ecuador's inability to establish itself as an international soccer power". During the Brazil 2014 World Cup qualifiers, Ecuador's captain Walter Ayoví declared that "these matches have always had something additional, a thorough rivalry. We are going to play for the pride of representing the country, its colours, because these games have always been a kind of derby".
FIFA World Cup
The Peruvian team competed at the first World Cup in 1930 by invitation, and has entered each tournament at the qualifying stage since 1958. Having qualified three times (in 1970, 1978 and 1982), it has taken part in the World Cup finals four times. Peru's all-time record in World Cup qualifying matches as of 2014 stands at 35 wins, 30 draws and 59 losses. In the finals, the team has won four matches, drawn three and lost eight, with 19 goals in favour and 31 against. During the 1930 competition, a Peruvian became the first player sent off in a World Cup—his identity is disputed between sources.[G] Luis de Souza Ferreira scored Peru's first World Cup goal on 14 July 1930, in a match against Romania. Teófilo Cubillas is the team's top scorer in the World Cup finals, with 10 goals in 13 games.
|Peru's FIFA World Cup record|
|FIFA World Cup||FIFA World Cup qualification||Top scorer(s) (goals)||Manager|
|1930||Round 1||10th||2||0||0||2||1||4||Qualified as invitees||Souza Ferreira (1)||Bru|
|1938||Did not enter||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|1958||Did not qualify||2||0||1||1||1||2||Terry (1)||Orth|
|1970||Round 2||6th||4||2||0||2||9||9||4||2||1||1||7||4||Cubillas (6)||Didi|
|1974||Did not qualify||3||1||0||2||3||4||Sotil (2)||Scarone|
|1978||Round 2||8th||6||2||1||3||7||12||6||3||2||1||13||3||Cubillas (5)||Calderón|
|1982||Round 1||20th||3||0||2||1||2||6||4||2||2||0||5||2||La Rosa (3)||Tim|
|1986||Did not qualify||8||3||2||3||10||9||Navarro (3)||Challe|
|1990||4||0||0||4||2||8||del Solar, González (1)||Pepe|
Palacios, del Solar (1)
Pizarro, Solano (2)
|2006||18||4||6||8||20||28||Farfán (7)|| Autuori,
|2010||18||3||4||11||11||34||Fano (3)||del Solar|
|2018||To be determined||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
Peru's national team has taken part in 31 editions of the Copa América since 1927, and has won the competition twice (in 1939 and 1975). The country has hosted the tournament six times (in 1927, 1935, 1939, 1953, 1957 and 2004). Peru's overall record in the competition is 49 victories, 32 draws, and 55 losses. Demetrio Neyra scored Peru's first goal in the competition on 13 November 1927, in a match against Bolivia. Three Copa América tournaments have featured a Peruvian top scorer—Teodoro Fernández in 1939, Eduardo Malásquez in 1983 and Paolo Guerrero in 2011. Fernández, the 1939 top scorer, was also named player of the tournament; Teófilo Cubillas, voted the best player in the 1975 competition, is the only other Peruvian to win this award.
Peru won its first continental title in 1939, when it won the South American Championship with successive victories over Ecuador, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. It was the first time the competition had been won by a team other than Uruguay, Brazil or Argentina. Peru became South American champions for the second time in 1975, when it won that year's Copa América, the first to feature all ten CONMEBOL members. Peru came top of their group in the first round, eliminating Chile and Bolivia, and in the semifinals drew with Brazil over two legs, winning 3–1 in Brazil but losing 2–0 at home. Peru was declared the winner by drawing of lots. In the two-legged final between Colombia and Peru, both teams won their respective home games (1–0 in Bogota and 2–0 in Lima), forcing a play-off in Caracas which Peru won 1–0.
|Peru's South American Championship/Copa América record|
|South American Championship (1916–1967)||Copa América (since 1975)|
|Year||Pos||Pld||W||D||L||GF||GA||Top scorer(s) (goals)||Manager||Year||Round||Pos||Pld||W||D||L||GF||GA||Top scorer(s) (goals)||Manager|
|1916–1926||Did not enter||1975||Finals||1st||9||6||1||2||14||7||Oblitas, Ramírez (3)||Calderón|
Neyra, Montellanos (1)
|1929||4th||3||0||0||3||1||12||Lizarbe (1)||Borrelli||1983||Semifinals||3rd||6||2||3||1||7||6||Malásquez (3)||Tan|
|1935||3rd||3||1||0||2||2||5||Montellanos, Fernández (1)||Carbajo||1987||Round 1||6th||2||0||2||0||2||2||La Rosa, Reyna (1)||Cuéllar|
|1937||6th||5||1||1||3||7||10||Villanueva, Fernández (2)||Denegri||1989||Round 1||8th||4||0||3||1||4||7||Hirano (2)||Pepe|
|1939||1st||4||4||0||0||13||4||Fernández (7)||Greenwell||1991||Round 1||8th||4||1||0||3||9||9||Hirano, del Solar (2)||Company|
|1941||4th||4||1||0||3||5||5||Fernández (3)||Arrillaga||1993||Quarterfinals||7th||4||1||2||1||4||5||del Solar (3)||Popović|
|1942||5th||6||1||2||3||5||10||Fernández (2)||Fernández||1995||Round 1||10th||3||0||1||2||2||2||Hurtado, Palacios (1)||Company|
|1945–1946||Withdrew||1997||Semifinals||4th||6||3||0||3||5||11||Hidalgo, Cominges (2)||Ternero|
|1947||5th||7||2||2||3||12||9||Gómez, Guzmán (3)||Arana||1999||Quarterfinals||6th||4||2||1||1||7||6||Holsen (2)||Oblitas|
|1949||3rd||7||5||0||2||20||13||Castillo (4)||Fernández||2001||Quarterfinals||8th||4||1||1||2||4||8||Pajuelo, del Solar,
Holsen, Lobatón (1)
|1955||3rd||5||2||2||1||13||11||Gómez Sánchez (6)||Valdivieso||2004||Quarterfinals||7th||4||1||2||1||7||6||Solano (2)||Autuori|
|1953||5th||6||3||1||2||4||6||Gómez Sánchez (2)||Fernández||2007||Quarterfinals||7th||4||1||1||2||5||8||Pizarro (2)||Uribe|
|1956||6th||5||0||1||4||6||11||Drago (2)||Fernández||2011||Semifinals||3rd||6||3||1||2||8||5||Guerrero (5)||Markarián|
|1957||4th||6||4||0||2||12||9||Terry (5)||Orth||2015||To be determined|
|1959||Did not enter||2019|
Peru's senior side has competed in the Olympic football tournament once, at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. The multiracial 1936 team has been latterly described by historian David Goldblatt as "the jewel of the country's first Olympic delegation". It had a record of two victories, scoring 11 goals and conceding five. Teodoro Fernández scored Peru's first goal in the tournament in the match against Finland on 6 August, and finished as the team's top scorer with six goals in two games, including Peru's only hat-trick at the Olympics.
The 1935 South American Championship in Lima acted as the qualifying stage for the 1936 Olympic tournament. Uruguay won undefeated and Argentina came second, but neither took up their Olympic spot because of economic issues. Peru, who had come third, duly represented South America. The Peruvian team began the competition with a 7–3 win over Finland, after which it faced Austria, managed by Jimmy Hogan and popularly known as the Wunderteam, in the quarterfinals.[H] After the game ended 2–2, Peru scored twice in extra time to win 4–2. Peru was expected to then face Poland in the semifinals, but events off the pitch led to the withdrawal of Peru's Olympic delegation before the match was played.[I]
The players listed below were not included in the most recent squad, but have been called up by Peru in the last 12 months.
- INJ Withdrew because of injury
- PRE Preliminary squad
- WD Withdrew for personal reasons
A report published by CONMEBOL in 2008 described Peru as traditionally exhibiting an "elegant, technical and fine football style", and praised it as "one of the most loyal exponents of South American football talent". Peruvian players noted in the CONMEBOL article as "true artists of the ball" include forwards Teófilo Cubillas, Pedro Pablo León and Hugo Sotil, defender Héctor Chumpitaz and midfielders Roberto Challe, César Cueto, José del Solar, and Roberto Palacios.
Cubillas, an attacking midfielder and forward popularly known as El Nene ("The Kid"), is widely regarded as Peru's greatest ever player. Chumpitaz is often cited as the team's best defender; Witzig lists him among his "Best Players of the Modern Era", and praises him as "a strong reader of the game with excellent ball skills and distribution, [who] marshalled a capable defence to support Peru's attack". Cueto, Cubillas, and José Velásquez were together described as "the best [midfield] in the world" by El Gráfico, an Argentine sports journal, in 1978.
Teodoro Fernández, Alejandro Villanueva, and Juan Valdivieso are often regarded as the key members of the Rodillo Negro team of the 1930s. Fernández was the team's forward and primary goalscorer; his partner in attack, Villanueva, was a gifted playmaker. Valdivieso was a goalkeeper with a reputation for exceptional athleticism who often saved penalties.
A commemorative match between teams representing Europe and South America was organised in Basel, Switzerland for the benefit of homeless children in 1972. Cubillas, Chumpitaz, Sotil, and Julio Baylón played in the South American team, which won the game 2–0; Cubillas scored the first goal. A similar match was held the next year at Barcelona's Camp Nou with the declared intent of fighting global poverty; Cubillas, Chumpitaz and Sotil once again played, with Chumpitaz named South America's captain. Each of the Peruvians scored in a 4–4 draw, which South America won 7–6 on penalties.
Peru's first two managers were from Uruguay. The first, Pedro Olivieri, was hired before the 1927 South American Championship because of his prior experience managing Uruguay. The second, Julio Borelli, spent a few years as a referee in Peru before managing the national team in the 1929 South American Championship. Francisco Bru, a former Barcelona player who had been the first manager of the Spain national team, managed Peru at the inaugural World Cup in 1930. Peru's managers at the 1970, 1978 and 1982 World Cup finals were, respectively, Valdir Pereira (from Brazil), Peruvian Marcos Calderón and Brazilian Elba de Pádua Lima.
Sports analysts and historians commonly consider the Peru team's most successful managers to be Calderón, Peru's 1975 Copa América-winning manager, and Englishman Jack Greenwell, under whom the team won the 1938 Bolivarian Games and the 1939 South American Championship. Three other Peru managers have led the team to tournament victories—Juan Carlos Oblitas, Freddy Ternero, and Uruguayan Sergio Markarián each oversaw a Peruvian victory in the Kirin Cup in Japan, in 1999, 2005 and 2011, respectively.
Managers that brought innovation to the Peru national team's style of play, according to historian Andreas Campomar, include Valdir Pereira and Hungarian György Orth, who coached Peru from 1957 to 1959. Campomar cites Peru's "4—1 thrashing of England in Lima" as evidence of Orth's influence over the national team, and attributes Pereira's tactics as the reason for Peru's development of "free-flowing football".
Records and statistics
The Peru national team has played 545 matches since 1927, including friendlies. The largest margin of victory achieved by a Peru side is 9–1 against Ecuador, on 11 August 1938 at the Bolivarian Games in Colombia. The team's record deficit, 7–0, occurred against Brazil at the 1997 Copa América in Bolivia. Peru won the inaugural FIFA Fair Play Trophy, awarded at the 1970 World Cup, having been the only team not to receive any yellow or red cards during the competition.
The Peruvian player with the most international caps is Roberto Palacios, who represented the country 122 times between 1992 and 2007. Second is Héctor Chumpitaz, with 105 appearances; Jorge Soto is third with 101. The most capped goalkeeper is Óscar Ibáñez, who played for Peru 50 times between 1998 and 2005. Second is Miguel Miranda with 47 appearances; Ramón Quiroga is third with 40.
The team's all-time top goalscorer is Teófilo Cubillas, who scored 26 goals in 81 appearances. Teodoro Fernández is second with 24 goals in 32 games. Third is Nolberto Solano, who played for Peru 89 times and scored 20 goals. Peru's fastest goal—that is, that scored soonest after kick-off—was scored by Claudio Pizarro less than a minute into the match against Mexico on 20 August 2003.
- Peru national football team indiscipline scandals
- Peru women's national football team
- Peru national under-17 football team
- Peru national under-20 football team
- Peru national beach soccer team
- Peru national futsal team
- Peruvian Primera División
- Sport in Peru
- The acronym FPF comes from the organisation's Spanish name, Federación Peruana de Futbol.
- The Lima Cricket and Football Club might also be the oldest club in the Americas that today plays association football.
- During these games in Callao, the Peruvians possibly invented the bicycle kick, which is known in Peru as the chalaca (meaning "from Callao").
- The team was also known by the European press as the "Peru-Chile XI", the "South American Team", and the "All-Pacific". Most players were from Peru's Universitario de Deportes, and the rest were reinforcements from Alianza Lima, Atlético Chalaco, and Chile's Colo-Colo.
- According to sociologists Aldo Panfichi and Victor Vich, Los Potrillos "became the hope of the entire country"—Peru fans expected them to lead the country to qualification for the 1990 World Cup in Italy.
- Historian Charles F. Walker writes that "Peruvian soccer has seen better days. Peru ended up in last place in the South American qualifying group for the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, and its club teams have floundered in the major cups in recent years. While a few players star in Europe, more make headlines in Lima for their late-night antics before games. Peruvians look back to the 1970s, when Peru had a remarkable showing in the 1970 Mexico City World Cup and its club teams did well in international tournaments, and wonder what happened."
- According to FIFA, the player was defender Plácido Galindo, but forward Souza Ferreira and other sources contend that it was midfielder Mario de las Casas.
- Although an amateur side in 1936 with no players from their 1934 World Cup team, Austria's 1936 Olympic side is also considered part of the Wunderteam by sports historians and FIFA. This favours the idea that the Wunderteam was primarily a strategic creation of coaches Jimmy Hogan and Hugo Meisl.
- Austria disputed the 4–2 result, asserting that Peruvian fans had invaded the pitch. While some spectators did encroach on the field of play, their nationality was never confirmed and crowd control was not the Peruvians' responsibility. A FIFA committee headed by Jules Rimet ordered a replay behind closed doors, a suggestion that prompted Peru's President Óscar R. Benavides to withdraw his entire Olympic delegation in protest.
- "Ricardo Gareca: "Es el desafío más importante de mi carrera"". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "¿Por qué Claudio se retractó sobre lo que dijo de Bielsa?". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- José Luis Pierrend (29 February 2012). "Peru – Record International Players". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Witzig 2006, p. 349.
- "A derby and a debut in South America". FIFA. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "La Blanquiroja" (in Spanish). ArkivPeru. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Peru". FIFA. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Gerardo Tomas Álvarez Escalona. "La difusión del fútbol en Lima" (in Spanish). National University of San Marcos. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Higgins 2005, p. 130.
- Eli Schmerler and Carlos Manuel Nieto Tarazona (14 March 2013). "Peru – Foundation Dates of Clubs". RSSSF. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Juan Luis Orrego Penagos (18 October 2008). "La historia del fútbol en el Perú" (in Spanish). Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP). Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Jacobsen 2008, p. 378.
- Henshaw 1979, p. 571.
- Campomar 2014, p. 153.
- Goldblatt 2008, p. 135.
- Murray 1994, p. 127.
- "Historia" (in Spanish). FPF. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Jaime Pulgar-Vidal Otálora (23 October 2007). "La Selección Peruana de 1924" (in Spanish). Jaime Pulgar-Vidal. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- José Luis Pierrend (6 March 2012). "Peru International Results". RSSSF. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Basadre 1964, pp. 4672–4673.
- Basadre 1964, pp. 4671–4673.
- Iván Carpio (26 January 2012). "Rayas históricas" (in Spanish). DeChalaca. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Thorndike 1978, p. 158.
- Waldemar Iglesias (31 July 2012). "Cuando Perú Humilló a Hitler". Clarín (in Spanish). Grupo Clarín. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Goldblatt 2008, p. 642.
- Henshaw 1979, p. 572.
- "The Silence of the Bombonera". FIFA. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Radnedge 2001, p. 195.
- "FIFA World Cup: Milestones, facts & figures. Statistical Kit 7" (PDF). FIFA. 18 March 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013.
- Fiore 2012, p. "El Nene" de Perú.
- DK Publishing 2010, p. 75.
- Panfichi & Vich 2005, pp. 161–162, 173.
- David Hidalgo Jiménez (11 June 2009). "Chemo podría empeorar su récord negativo como técnico de la selección". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- José Luis Pierrend (11 June 2000). "Kirin Cup 1999". RSSSF. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Gold Cup 2000". CONCACAF. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Charles F. Walker (2010). "Review of Ese Gol Existe, ed. Aldo Panfichi". Hispanic American Historical Review (Duke University Press) 90 (3): 569–571. doi:10.1215/00182168-2010-033.
- "Manuel Burga es desaprobado por el 81% de los peruanos". Perú.com (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Cifras de las últimas tres Eliminatorias dejan a Perú fuera del Mundial". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 27 March 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Suspension of the Peruvian FA". FIFA. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Peru announce breakthrough over FIFA ban". ESPN Soccernet. 13 December 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Blatter: Solidarity needed". FIFA. 20 December 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Perú y Bolivia se despiden con empate (1–1)" (in Spanish). FIFA. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Perú acabará el 2009 como el peor equipo de Sudamérica". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Venezuela no olvida que Perú le quitó el tercer puesto en la Copa América". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "Edwin Oviedo juró hoy como nuevo presidente de la FPF". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Witzig 2006, p. 338.
- Christopher Turpin (15 June 2010). "The Lost Elegance Of Football Jerseys". NPR. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Roger Bennett (10 March 2010). "Best World Cup jerseys of all time". ESPN Soccernet. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- Jaime Pulgar-Vidal Otálora (24 February 2007). "Hace 80 Años Debutó Peru" (in Spanish). Jaime Pulgar-Vidal. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Jaime Pulgar-Vidal Otálora (6 September 2012). "La Blanquiroja: La Camiseta de Todos los Colores" (in Spanish). Jaime Pulgar-Vidal. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Mario Fernández (3 December 2010). "Modelo 2011: Conozca la Nueva Camiseta de la Selección peruana". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Estadio Nacional se inauguró con la selección y fuegos artificiales". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Colonia británica donó primer estadio nacional" (in Spanish). Británico. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Juan Luis Orrego Penagos (20 October 2008). "Estadios de fútbol en Lima (1)" (in Spanish). PUCP. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Leigh Raffo 2005, p. 266.
- Víctor R. Nomberto (23 July 2011). "Historia del Estadio Nacional" (in Spanish). PUCP. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "De otro mundo: Mira en 360 grados el estadio Nacional" (in Spanish). Libero. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "No más sintético: el Estadio Nacional ya luce césped natural". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Evaluará FIFA Cuestionadas Canchas Artificiales en Perú". El Universal (in Spanish). El Universal Compañía Periodística Nacional. 9 March 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Witzig 2006, pp. 323–325.
- "Sporting Cristal inicia el torneo en el horno de Iquitos". Perú.com (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 13 February 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "La selección también jugará en Matute". Perú 21 (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 18 February 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Selección Nacional podría jugar ante Ecuador en el Estadio Monumental". Depor.pe (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "No hubo ideas: Perú perdió 3–0 con Chile en Tacna". Depor.pe (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Bravo 2012, p. 42.
- Wood 2007, p. 128.
- Wood 2007, pp. 128–129.
- Campomar 2014, pp. 303–304.
- Foley Gambetta 1983, p. 12.
- Wood 2007, p. 130.
- "Cuando Óscar Avilés "clasificó" con Perú al Mundial de 1978". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 5 April 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Ecuador-Peru, 1938–2011". RSSSF. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Chile – Peru matches, 1935–2011". RSSSF. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Henshaw 1979, p. 652.
- Greg Duke (6 November 2008). "Top 10 international rivalries". CNN. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Henshaw 1979, p. 126.
- Witzig 2006, p. 22.
- Llopis 2009, p. 171.
- Handelsman 2000, p. 49.
- "Eliminatorias 2014: Ecuador 'calienta' el partido con Peru". La Prensa.pe (Empresa Editora El Comercio). 3 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Henshaw 1979, p. 789.
- Witzig 2006, p. 156.
- Roberto Mamrud and Karel Stokkermans (14 March 2013). "Copa América 1916–2011". RSSSF. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Martín Tabeira (19 July 2007). "The Copa América Archive – Trivia". RSSSF. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Henshaw 1979, pp. 648, 652.
- Henshaw 1979, p. 648.
- Henshaw 1979, pp. 656–657.
- Goldblatt 2008, p. 641.
- Witzig 2006, p. 351.
- Martín Tabeira (23 November 2007). "Southamerican Championship 1935". RSSSF. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Murray 1994, p. 66.
- "Selección peruana: mira la lista de los 23 para la Copa América". Diario El Comercio (in Spanish). 25 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
- "Peruvian Football Federation". CONMEBOL. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Witzig 2006, p. 149.
- Panfichi & Vich 2005, p. 161.
- Witzig 2006, pp. 131, 350, 486.
- Witzig 2006, p. 350.
- Henshaw 1979, p. 143.
- Henshaw 1979, pp. 144–145.
- Raúl Behr (6 June 2012). "El entrenador del silbato" (in Spanish). DeChalaca. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Roberto Castro (16 May 2008). "Once Ideal: La cumbre de los técnicos" (in Spanish). DeChalaca. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Panfichi & Vich 2005, p. 162.
- "Perú comparte la Copa Kirin con Japón y República Checa". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- Campomar 2014, p. 304.
- "'Cachito' anotó el tercer gol más rápido de Perú en los últimos años". Depor.pe (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "¿Sabías que Perú tiene el club de fútbol más antiguo de América?". Perú.com (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- DK Publishing 2011, p. 100.
- Panfichi & Vich 2005, pp. 161, 173.
- "101 Facts" (PDF). FIFA Magazine. June–July 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Pedro Canelo (11 May 2010). "El primer expulsado en la historia de los mundiales fue peruano". El Comercio (in Spanish). Empresa Editora El Comercio. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Roberto Castro and Alfredo Tirado (3 August 2010). "Perú en los Juegos Olímpicos de 1936: Berlín sin muros" (in Spanish). DeChalaca. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Classic Coach: Hugo Meisl – The banker's son who masterminded a Wunderteam". FIFA. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Mandell 1987, p. 194.
- Witzig 2006, pp. 352, 358.
- Agostino, Gilberto (2002). Vencer Ou Morrer: Futebol, Geopolítica e Identidade Nacional (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: FAPERJ & MAUAD Editora Ltda. ISBN 85-7478-068-5.
- Basadre, Jorge (1964). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish) 10. Lima: Talleres Graficos P.L. Villanueva S.A.
- Bravo, Gonzalo (2012). "Association Football, Pacific Coast of South America". In Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles. Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice 3. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-59884-301-9.
- Campomar, Andreas (2014). Golazo! The Beautiful Game from the Aztecs to the World Cup. New York City: Riverhead Books. ISBN 978-0-698-15253-3.
- Dunmore, Tom (2011). Historical Dictionary of Soccer. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8108-7188-5.
- Fiore, Fernando (2012). ¡Vamos al Mundial! (in Spanish). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-222664-9.
- Foley Gambetta, Enrique (1983). Léxico del Peru (in Spanish) 3. Lima: Talleres Jahnos.
- Goldblatt, David (2008). The Ball is Round. New York: Riverhead Trade. ISBN 1-59448-296-9.
- Handelsman, Michael (2000). Culture and Customs of Ecuador. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30244-8.
- Henshaw, Richard (1979). The Encyclopedia of World Soccer. Washington, D.C.: New Republic Books. ISBN 0-915220-34-2.
- Higgins, James (2005). Lima: A Cultural and Literary History. Oxford: Signal Books Limited. ISBN 1-902669-98-3.
- Jacobsen, Nils (2008). Herb, Guntram; Kaplan, David, eds. Peru. Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview 1 (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio). ISBN 978-1-85109-907-8.
- Leigh Raffo, Denise (2005). Rosas Lauro, Claudia, ed. El miedo a la multitud. Dos provincianos en el Estadio Nacional, 1950–1970. El Miedo en el Perú: Siglos XVI al XX (in Spanish) (Lima: PUCP Fondo Editorial). ISBN 9972-42-690-4.
- Llopis, Ramón (2009). Fútbol Postnacional: Transformaciones Sociales y Culturales del "Deporte Global" en Europa y América Latina (in Spanish). Barcelona: Anthropos Editorial. ISBN 978-84-7658-937-3.
- Mandell, Richard (1987). The Nazi Olympics. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-01325-5.
- Miró, César (1958). Los Intimos de La Victoria (in Spanish). Lima: Editorial El Deporte.
- Murray, William (1994). Football: A History of the World Game. Aldershot: Scolar Press. ISBN 1-85928-091-9.
- Panfichi, Aldo; Vich, Victor (2005). "Political and Social Fantasies in Peruvian Football: The Tragedy of Alianza Lima in 1987". In Darby, Paul; Johnes, Martin; Mellor, Gavin. Soccer and Disaster: International Perspectives. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5352-7.
- Radnedge, Keir (2001). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Soccer. New York: Universe Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7893-0670-8.
- Snyder, John (2001). Soccer's Most Wanted. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 978-1-57488-365-7.
- Stein, Steve (2011). "The Case of Soccer in Early Twentieth-Century Lima". In Stavans, Ilan. Fútbol. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC. ISBN 978-0-313-37515-6.
- Thorndike, Guillermo (1978). El Revés de Morir (in Spanish). Lima: Mosca Azul Editores.
- Witzig, Richard (2006). The Global Art of Soccer. Harahan: CusiBoy Publishing. ISBN 0-9776688-0-0.
- Wood, David (2007). Miller, Rory; Crolley, Liz, eds. ¡Arriba Perú! The Role of Football in the Formation of a Peruvian National Culture. Football in the Americas (London: Institute for the Study of the Americas). ISBN 978-1-900039-80-2.
- Soccer: The Ultimate Guide. New York: DK Publishing. 2010. ISBN 0-7566-7321-6.
- Essential Soccer Skills. New York: DK Publishing. 2011. ISBN 978-0-7566-5902-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peru national football team.|
1938 (First title)
|South American Champions
1939 (First title)
|South American Champions
1975 (Second title)
|Kirin Cup Champions
1999 (First title, shared)
|Kirin Cup Champions
2005 (Second title, shared)
|Kirin Cup Champions
2011 (Third title, shared)