Peruvian Spanish has been spoken in Peru since 1532. There are four varieties spoken in the country, by about 80% of the population.
The Spanish language first arrived in what is today Peru in 1532 in the dialects of Extremaduran, Andalusian and Canarian. A little later there was a strong influence from Castilian.
At first, the language was only spoken by the Spanish and mestizos in the cities. The rural Andean regions continued speaking Quechua and other indigenous languages for four centuries, being the majority until the first half of the 20th century. After that, discrimination against the indigenous populations, the forced imposition of Spanish language by the Peruvian government, the growth of mass media and migration to the cities after 1940 reconfigured the dialectical map of Peru.
The phonology of Andean Peruvian Spanish is distinguished by its slow time and unique rhythm (grave accent), assibilation of /rr/ and /r/, and an apparent confusion of the vowels /e/ and /o/ with /i/ and /u/. (In reality, they are producing a sound between /e/ and /i/, and between /o/ and /u/.) Furthermore, the "s" (originally apical and without aspiration) is produced with more force than that of the coast; this is also generally true of the other consonants, at the loss of the vowels. Other distinctive features are the preservation of the sound of the "ll", sometimes over-corrected, and the change of the implosive "c" and "g" for "j" /x/.
The morphosyntactic characteristics are typical:
- Confusion or unification of gender and number
- A ellas lo recibí bien.. La revista es caro.
- Confusion or unification of gender and number
- esa es su trenza del carlos.
- Overuse of the diminutives –ito e –ita
- Vente aquicito.. Sí, señorita, ahí están sus hijos.
- Lo echan la agua. Lo pintan la casa
- Duplication of the possessives and objects
- Su casa de Pepe.. Lo conozco a ella.
- The absence or redundant use of articles
- Plaza de Armas es acá. La María está loca.
- Uncommon use of the preposition "en" in front of locative adverbs
- Todo caerá en su encima
- The use of "no más" and "pues" after the verb
- Dile nomás pues.
- The use of the verb at the end of the phrase
- Está enojada dice.
- The use of the simple tense to express the preterite and of the indicative in place of the subjunctive in subordinates.
Peruvian coast Spanish
Coastal Spanish is spoken by the upper classes in Lima, or those who have been in the capital or the coast (having little contact with social migrants) for a long time. It has the reputation (in pronunciation) of being one of the "purest" dialects in all of coastal Latin America. Despite being spoken by a minority, it has the reputation of being the base of "normal" or standard Peruvian Spanish.
- The vowels are pronounced clearly and with the same length of time.
- /rr/ and /r/ are pronounced clearly, without any fricativization.
- The "s" is pre-dorsal and aspirated (at times transformed into a silent velar fricative) in front of a consonant (but not syllable final as in Chile or Andalucia)
- The "j" and "g" (before e-i) has a pronunciation more palatal than velar and aspirated.
- The "n" is velar when syllable final (not alveolar like in Mexico or Argentina).
- The final /d/ is converted to /t/ or is elided.
- Yeísmo exists.
- The tendency to eliminate hiatus in word with an -ear suffix.
General Spanish phrases from the Americas are common but there are also phrases that originate in the Lima coastal area, such as frequent traditional terms and expressions; the most ingrained "quechuaism" in common speech is the familiar calato, meaning "naked".
Andean-Costal Spanish or neolimeño
Born in the most recent 30–50 years with a mixture of the speech of Andean migrants and the speech of Lima. This dialect is the speech that is most typical of Peru.
|Characteristics||Example||Coastal/Lima Spanish||Neolimeño Spanish|
|No assibilation of "rr" and "r" except in the older generations, but the articulation of these two sounds is weakened, and the final syllable is silent in internal contexts.|
|Closed and lax emission of vowels in general.|
|Vocalic confusion between e-i and o-u in casual conversation.|
|Weakening, sometimes to the point of elimination, of the consonant sounds /b/, /d/, /g/ and /y/ when in intervocalic contexts.||aguanta||[a'gwaŋ.ta]||[a'waŋ.ta]|
|Strong pronunciation of "s", or with a weak whistling; less aspiration before consonants (articulated more like Spanish /x/ in front of /k/)||asco||[ah'ko]||[ax'ko]|
|Voicing of silent consonants.||pasajes||[pa'sa.xes]||[pa'sa.ɣes]|
|Accelerated speech and with varied intonation based on Andean Spanish.|
This dialect has the usual Andean syntactics, like lack of agreement in gender and number, the frequent use of diminutives or augmentatives, loísmo, double possessives and ending phrases with "pues", "pe" or "pue".
As far as the lexicon is concerned, there are numerous neologisms, influences from Quechua, and slang among the youth often heard in the streets.
This dialect has developed uniquely, with contact from Andean Spanish and the Spanish of Lima with the Amazonian languages. It has a distinctive tonal structure.
Phonetically it is characterized by:
- The sibilant /s/ resisting aspiration
- A confusion of "j" (aspirated in interior positions) with "f" (always bilabial)
- For example, San Juan becomes San Fan
- There is occlusion of the intervals /b/ /d/ /g/ in tonal ascension with aspiration and lengthening of the vowels.
- The phonemes /p/ /t/ and /k/ are pronounced with aspiration
- The /y/ tends to become an affricate (as opposed to Coastal Peruvian Spanish)
- Also, there is assibilation and weak trills.
On the other hand, the syntactic order most recognized is the prefixation of the genitive:
- De Antonio sus amigas
There are also disorders of agreement, gender, etc.
This dialect is spoken in the region of Tumbes.
- Garatea Grau, Carlos (2010). Tras una lengua de Papel. El español del Perú. Lima: Fondo Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. p. 281. ISBN 978-9972-42-923-1.
- Miranda Esquerre, Luis (1998). La entrada del español en el Perú. Lima: Juan Brito/ Editor. pp. 101, 111. ISBN 9972-702-00-6.
- Jorge Pérez et al., Contra el prejuico lingüístico de la motosidad: un estudio de las vocales del castellano andino desde la fonética acústica, Lima: Instituto Riva Agüero. PUCP, 2006
- Cerrón Palomino, Rodolfo (2003). Castellano Andino Aspectos sociolingüísticos, pedagógicos y gramaticales. Lima: Fondo Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y GTZ Cooperación Técnica Alemana. p. 118. ISBN 9972-42-528-2.
- Tadeo Hanke, Carácter, genio y costumbres de los limeños, 1801, Concejo Provincial de Lima, 1959, p.50
- Rafael Lapesa, Historia de la lengua española, Editorial Gredos, 1981
- Hildebrandt, Martha (2003). El habla culta (o lo que debiera serlo). Lima. p. 8. ISBN 9972-9454-1-3.