Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001 after free and fair elections.
In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements which put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In December 1999, PresidentAlberto Fujimori made the first visit ever to Chile by a Peruvian head of state.
Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a law which increased the stated sea limit with Chile. This law superseded the Peruvian supreme decree 781 for same purpose from 1947, which had autolimited its maritime border to geographical parallels only. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, Chile's Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García have established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute. Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries' private sectors.
In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord which definitively resolved border differences which had, over the years, resulted in armed conflict. Peru and Ecuador are now jointly coordinating an internationally sponsored border integration project. The United States Government, as one of four guarantor states, was actively involved in facilitating the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States has pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border.
In November 2009, Peru made an agreement with Ecuador in which Peru would export between 40 and 50 megawatts of electricity until April 2010 in order to help Ecuador with its energy crisis.Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, expressed his gratitude to Peru for its generous aid during Ecuador's energy crisis.
Peru and Mexico have historically had a unique relationship solidly based on that they share two of the most significant ancient cultures in the Americas. Both countries have expressed solidarity over the need to defend the recovery of cultural and archaeological heritage in the form of artifacts that have been illegally stolen from Peru and Mexico and which are to this date, illegally or legitimately kept in foreign locations. Peru's President Alan García and Mexico's Felipe Calderón signed a joint declaration in April 2011 aimed at deepening the two countries' friendship, cooperation, integration, trade, investments and the permanent fight against poverty and organized crime. The two countries aim to achieve a new model of integration within Latin America, and to represent a positive, realistic, and active example of integration amongst two "brotherly" nations. Both nations are members of APEC and the Pacific Alliance. Peru is represented through its embassy in Mexico City, and Mexico has an embassy in Lima.
Australia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Lima. Peru has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney. Both countries have an expanding relationship in all areas. Australia is Peru's APEC ally. Relations are growing in not only trade but friendly relations between the people's of Australia and Peru. In 2004 Peruvian congress signed a Peru Australia friendship league. There are few memorandums of understanding signed between the two countries. Many Australian tourists visit Peru averaging 25,000 tourists a year from Australia. There are about 47,000 Peruvians in Australia.
The Canadian government announced in February 2009 that it was adding Peru to its list of preferred countries to receive foreign aid. This list includes 18 countries and the West Bank and Caribbean.
Until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 387 km² at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe.