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Pescetarianism // (also spelled pescatarianism) is the practice of following a diet that includes fish or other seafood, but not the flesh of other animals. A pescetarian diet typically shares many of its components with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet and may include vegetables, fruit, nuts, grains, beans, eggs, dairy, and insect byproducts (such as honey, carmine, or shellac), but a vegetarian diet excludes meat. The Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the origin of the term pescetarian to 1993 and defines it as: "one whose diet includes fish but no other meat."
Pescetarian is probably a neologism formed as a blend of the Italian word pesce ("fish") and the English word "vegetarian". The Italian word is pronounced [ˈpeʃe], while the English neologism is commonly //, with a /sk/ sound, thus differing from pronunciations of similar terms in English and Italian.
Pesce in turn derives from the Latin piscis, which has the form pisci- when it serves as a prefix, as it often does in scholarly terms (e.g. "pisciculture" /ˈpɪsɨkʌltʃər/ or "piscivore" /ˈpɪsɨvɔr/). Note that a piscivore, as a type of carnivore, eats a diet primarily of fish, whereas the neologism pescetarian refers to persons who consume plant derivatives as well as fish. A similar term is vegequarian.
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Similarly to vegetarianism, some pescetarians adopt the diet on the basis of ethics, either as a transition to vegetarianism, not treating fish on the same moral level as other animals, or as a compromise to obtain nutrients not found in plants as easily.
One commonly cited reason is that of health, based on findings that red meat is detrimental to health in many cases due to non-lean red meats containing high amounts of saturated fats, choline and carnitine. Eating certain kinds of fish raises HDL levels, and some fish are a convenient source of omega-3 fatty acids, and have numerous health benefits in one food variety. A 1999 meta-analysis of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in Western countries found that in comparison with regular meat-eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 34% lower in pescetarians, 34% lower in ovo-lacto vegetarians, 26% lower in vegans and 20% lower in occasional meat-eaters.
Concerns have been raised about consuming some fish varieties containing toxins such as mercury and PCBs, though it is possible to select fish that contain little or no mercury and moderate the consumption of mercury-containing fish.
Abstinence in religion
Adhering to a diet closely resembling pescetarianism is a form of penance among Roman Catholics. Such an approach is mandatory of Catholics on all Fridays of the year, except in places such as the United States of America, where the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops made the practice optional but recommended. It is still mandatory on Ash Wednesday and every Friday during Lent, and some Traditionalist Catholics choose to abstain from meat during the entire 40-day Lenten season, as was common practice in earlier times.
Orthodox Christian and Byzantine Catholic Usages
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Eastern Orthodox Christians consume a variation of a pescetarian diet (allowing shellfish and mollusks without fish directly) on Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year, as well as during Great Lent and the Nativity Fast (which in fact allows fish many days of the fast) and certain other fasting periods. Western Rite Orthodox are slightly more lax, requiring a stricter fasting period (single meal per day) but allowing a typical pescetarian diet as cited above. During fasting periods, dairy (whether eggs or milk-based product) is prohibited. In general, an Orthodox Christian diet uses a variation on pescetarianism approximately half the liturgical year. These usages are described in the Typikon, or Ustav, of each local Orthodox Church.
By contrast, Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches such as the Ruthenian Catholic Church have a set minimum of requirements for fasting, which includes eating fish, and an ideal fast described in Eastern Canon Law as permitting only shellfish, but not fish or other meat. Fasting periods vary widely; some churches, such as the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, have abbreviated the fast to start on December 10, following the Feast of the Conception by Saint Anne, reducing the fast to 15 days.[unreliable source?] The Melkite Greek Catholic Church permits meat on Saturdays, Sundays, and certain feasts, all of which are not treated as fast days. The Melkite Church describes three levels of fasting: The Law – "That which is required", The Tradition – "That which the devout follow", and Customary Compromises.
In general, Eastern Christian (whether Orthodox or Catholic) monks eat no meat, but outside the aforementioned fasting periods, will consume dairy (except Wednesdays and Fridays, and in some cases Mondays).
By tradition, most Hindu Brahmin communities follow a strict lacto-vegetarian diet. However, there are a number of Brahmin sub-groups that allow fish eating. These include the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community from Coastal South-Western India. This community regards seafood in general as vegetables from the sea. They refrain from eating any land based animals. Other Hindu communities who consume seafood in great quantity are the Maithili Brahmin and the Bengali Brahmin. The latter also eat meat on special occasions.
Comparisons to other diets
Pescetarianism is similar to many traditional diets emphasizing fish as well as fruits, vegetables and grains. Many coastal populations tend to eat this way and these features characterize the traditional Mediterranean diet and the diets of many parts of Asia, Northern Europe, and the Caribbean. These traditional diets tend to also include meat although it is peripheral. In common with some vegetarians, pescetarians often eat eggs and/or dairy products, in addition to fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains.
Pescetarians are sometimes described as vegetarian or pesco-vegetarian, but vegetarians commonly do not consider the pescetarian diet to be vegetarian. For example, the Vegetarian Society, which initiated popular use of the term vegetarian as early as 1847, does not consider pescetarianism to be a vegetarian diet. The definitions of vegetarian in mainstream dictionaries sometimes include fish in the diet.
List of pescetarians
A list of people, with Wikipedia articles, who are or were pescetarians.
- Nicole Anderson
- Mira Aroyo
- Brigitte Bardot
- Kari Byron
- Tracy Chapman
- Parvesh Cheena
- Billy Corgan
- Fearne Cotton
- Chuck D
- Ted Danson
- Alan Davies
- Sierra Deaton
- Nick Diaz
- Wendy van Dijk
- David Duchovny
- Susie Essman
- Johnny Galecki
- Ben Gibbard
- Ariana Grande
- Lee Hyori
- Steve Jobs
- Mark Kermode
- Alex Kinsey
- Kristin Kreuk
- Lousewies van der Laan
- Harvey Levin
- Wendie Malick
- Alyssa Milano
- Dannii Minogue
- Mary Tyler Moore
- Cam Newton
- Conor Oberst
- Amanda Palmer
- CM Punk
- Grigory Rasputin
- A$AP Rocky
- Henry Rollins
- Andy Serkis
- Queen Sofía of Spain
- Tom Scharpling
- Hal Sparks
- Howard Stern
- Ben Stiller
- Sonny Strait
- Hayley Westenra
- Semi-vegetarianism – other forms of semi-vegetarianism that include occasional meat consumption
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- Rohrer, Finlo (5 November 2009). "The rise of the non-veggie vegetarian". BBC News. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- E Giovannucci, EB Rimm, MJ Stampfer, GA Colditz, A Ascherio and WC Willett, "Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men". Cancer Research 54, 2390–2397. 1994-05-01.
- Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD, JoAnn E. Manson, MD, PhD, and Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPh, "Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review". Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 1, 5–19. 2001.
- "New Culprit in Red Meat Linked with Heart Disease". DNews. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Paul J Nestel, "Fish oil and cardiovascular disease: lipids and arterial function". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 1, 228S-231S. January 2000.
- Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, Borhani NO, Applegate WB, Cohen JD, Cutler JA, Kirchner KA, Kuller LH, Roth KJ, et al., "Short report: the effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention". Journal of Hypertension, 209-13. 1994-02-12.
- Frank B. Hu, MD; Leslie Bronner, MD; Walter C. Willett, MD; Meir J. Stampfer, MD; Kathryn M. Rexrode, MD; Christine M. Albert, MD; David Hunter, MD; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, "Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women". JAMA. 287:1815–1821. 2002.
- Health. "TODAY Health". TODAY. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70:516S-524S. 1999.
- Committee on the Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council, "Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury". 2000. ISBN 0-309-07140-2.
- "Experts Say Consumers Can Eat Around Toxins In Fish". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Mercury: Are Fish safe to eat?". Healthcastle.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Scott P. Richert. "When and Why Do Catholics Abstain From Meat?". About. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Fasting rules provided in Chapter 33 of the Typicon". Orthodox.net. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Fasting from Iniquities and Foods". Goarch.org\accessdate=7 January 2015.
- "Fasting & Abstinence :: Holy Incarnation Antiochian Orthodox Church". Holyincarnation.org. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Liturgics – Fasting & Fast-Free Seasons of the Church". Oca.org. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Byzantine Catholic Church. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
- "Fasting According to the Ancient Discipline of the Byzantine Churches" (PDF). Stjohnofthedesert.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Holy Week Traditions". Melkite Greek Catholic Eparchy of Newton. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
- Axelrod,, P; Fuerch, MA (1998). "Portuguese orientalism and the making of the village communities of Goa". Ethnohistory 45 (3).
- CHAKRAVARTI, A. K. (December 1974). "REGIONAL PREFERENCE FOR FOOD: SOME ASPECTS OF FOOD HABIT PATTERNS IN INDIA". The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien 18 (4): 395–410,. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0064.1974.tb00212.x. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Vegetarian Society Home". Vegsoc.org. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Shorter Oxford English Dictionary" 2 (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 3506. defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will consume dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)." "Shorter Oxford English Dictionary" 2 (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. p. 3511. has the same definition.
- "Twitter / Nicole Anderson: @xdemidragon I'm a pesceta". Twitter.com. 2010-05-23. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Morley, Cat (2008-09-13). "Ladytron | Issue 11 – Speak Your Mind Issue | Snippets Zine". Cutoutandkeep.net. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Brigitte Bardot – Le carré de Pluton, 1999, ISBN 978-2-246-59501-4[page needed]
- Suicide Girls (March 30, 2011). "Interviews > Kari Byron". Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- Vivinetto, G. (2000). "Chapman giggles; reporter hatches heckling plan". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Fame Bites – Parvesh Cheena". CNN. 2011-02-10.
- Pechin, Pauline (October 15, 2008). "Common Predicts Movie Stardom for Himself". BlackBook. BlackBook Media. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
- "Musicians on Craft with Billy Corgan". www.joomag.com. 2014.
- "Ten things about Fearne Cotton". Digital Spy. 2010-09-08. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
- "PETA2 // Out There // Fight the Power With Chuck D". Peta2.com. Retrieved 2012-05-08.
- Late Night with Conan O'Brien, 2007. [TV programme] Broadway Video, Conaco, Universal Media Studios, NBC, 27 September 2007.
- "Dave – The Home of Witty Comedy Banter : Dave". Dave.uktv.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Ready Steady Cook, 2008. [TV programme] BBC2 27 May 2008.
- [dead link]
- "Nick Diaz Diet.". Men's Health. July 6, 2011.
- "Nick Diaz Diet.(2)". Yahoo! Sports. July 6, 2011.
- "Afl. 5: Breda beste getest door Mystery Guest" (in Dutch). RTL. 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- David Hochman. "The X-Man Cometh". Men's Health. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
- "HBO: Curb Your Enthusiasm: Homepage". Hbo.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "24/7 Chicago interviews Galecki". YouTube. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Dr. Mark Liponis (2010-01-03). "Start Getting Healthier Right Now". Parade.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "Death Cab For Cutie". IGN. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Twitter / Ariana Grande: I'm very excited to announ". Twitter.com. 2010-07-12. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Kingpolo (2011-02-24). "Lee Hyori has officially become a vegetarian". Allkpop.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Altucher, James (October 6, 2011). "10 Unusual Things I Didn't Know About Steve Jobs". Forbes. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "Interview: Mark Kermode, film critic". Scotsman.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Kelly & Michael: Kristin Kreuk New Series "Beauty and the Beast"". recapo.com. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
- Nieuwenhuis, Marcia (2006-02-16). "Fractievoorzitter van D66 Lousewies van der Laan interviewt stand-up comedian Jan Jaap van der Wal" (in Dutch). lousewiesvanderlaan.nl. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
V: "Ben je vegetarisch?" A: "Nee, ik ben eigenlijk pescatarisch, een vegetariër die vis eet." (Q: "Are you a vegetarian?" A: "No, actually I am a pescetarian, a vegetarian who eats fish.")
- Harvey Levin (20 October 2009). TMZ Live, "Balloon, Mel and Manson Madness". Los Angeles, California: TMZ Productions, Inc. Event occurs at 21:14. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
Yeah…I'm not a vegetarian; I'm a pescetarian, and I'm trying.
- "Wendie Malick's Diet Tips". December 7, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- "Alyssa Milano Diet And Beauty Tips". Primped.com.au. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Nissim, Mayer (2009-11-25). "Ten Things You Never Knew About Dannii Minogue". Digital Spy. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Mary Tyler Moore (2001-05-07). Interview (Transcript). Interview with Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- "Newton scales back for Thanksgiving meal". ESPN.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Conor Oberst and pescetarian". Vegetarianstar.com. 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "blog « amanda palmer". Blog.amandapalmer.net. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "CM Punk personal tweet". Twitter. 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Edvard Radzinsky, 2000. "Распутин. Жизнь и смерть". In English: The Rasputin File
- "Kathy Griffin X A$AP Rocky – Back & Forth – Ep. 22 Part 1/2". Youtube.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "News – Henry Rollins". HenryRollins.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- MARGO C. POPESenior Writer (2001-04-02). "A majestic day". StAugustine.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- [dead link]
- "FAQ". Hal Sparks. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "Mother Nature Network". Mnn.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Conan, 2012. [TV program] TBS, 26 July 2012.
- "Sonny Strait.biz: FAQ". Sonnystrait.biz. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Hayley Westenra – 'I'm a tough chick'". New Zealand Herald. 2007-04-28. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
|Look up pescetarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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