Peshwa

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Peshwa of the Maratha Empire
Former Monarchy
Imperial
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg
Flag of the Maratha Empire
Peshwa Baji Rao I riding horse.jpg
Peshwa Baji Rao I riding horse
First monarch {{{first_monarch}}}
Last monarch {{{last_monarch}}}
Monarchy began {{{began}}}
Monarchy ended {{{ended}}}
Maratha Emperors
(1674–1818)
Shivaji (1674–1680)
Sambhaji (1680–1689)
Rajaram Chhatrapati (1689–1700)
Queen Tarabai (1700–1707)
Chattrapati Shahu (1707–1749)
Rajaram II of Satara (1749–1777)
Peshwas (Prime Ministers)
(1674–1818)
Moropant Pingle (1674–1689)
Ramchandra Pant Amatya (1689–1708)
Bahiroji Pingale (1708–1711)
Parshuram Tribak Kulkarni (1711–1713)
Balaji Vishwanath (1712–1719)
Bajirao (1719–1740)
Balaji Bajirao (1740–1761)
Madhavrao Ballal (1761–1772)
Narayanrao (1772–1773)
Raghunathrao (1773–1774)
Sawai Madhavrao (1774–1795)
Bajirao II (1795–1818)


A Peshwa (Marathi: पेशवे) is the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Maratha ruler Shivaji created the Peshwa designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire. The Peshwas were all ministers who initially started as the chief executives to the king. Prior to 1749, Peshwas held office and controlled the Maratha army. They later became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Maratha Empire from 1749 till its end in 1818.

Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune, it was the seat of the Peshwa rulers of the Maratha Empire till 1818.

Under Peshwa administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats (listed below), the Maratha Empire reached its zenith, ruling most of the Indian subcontinent landmass. It was also under the Peshwas that the Maratha Empire came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire by the British East India Company in 1818.

The Title of Peshwa[edit]

After the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj in 1674, he appointed Moropant Trimbak Pingle[1] as the first Peshwa. Shivaji Maharaj renamed this designation as Pantpradhan in 1674 but this term is less commonly used. Today, the surname "Peshwe" (alternatively "Peshave") or "Peshwa" is found both among Chitpavans (tracing descent to the (Bhat) Deshmukh clan, notably Bajirao I), Deshasthas (tracing descent to Moropant Pingle, Sonopant Dabir and a certain clan from Jejuri, Pune), as well as some Maratha (Kshatriya) families of Vidarbha (by titulary heritage).

The word Peshwa is from Persian پیشوا pēshwā, meaning "foremost, leader". They were also known as kings

Moropant Pingle[edit]

The first Peshwa was Moropant Trimbak Pingle. His son, Nilopant Pingle, also served as Peshwa after his father's death in 1683.

Ramchandra Pant Amatya (Bawadekar)[edit]

The second Peshwa, Ramchandra Amatya (né Ramachandra Nilkanth Pant), received royal status from Chhatrapati Rajaram as "Hukumatpanha" from 1689 to 1699. He was a sound administrator who rose from the level of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan due to guidance and support from Shivaji. Amatya is a Sanskrit term denoting counselor, guide, supervisor or overseer of both personal and governmental affairs.

He recaptured many forts from the Mughals between 1690 and 1694, some in person, as well as personally conducting guerilla war techniques. When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689, before leaving from Maharastra, he gave "Hukumat panha" (King Status) to Pant. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges such as the Mughal influx, the betrayal of Vatandars, and scarcity of food. With his help, Sachiv kept the Maratha State on a sound economic footing. Pant got tremendous military help from Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav, the great Maratha warriors. Many times he directly participated in war, especially during 1689–1695; he personally re-captured many forts in south Maharastra from the Mughuls and played a role of shadow king in the absence of Chatrapati Rajaram.

In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumatpanha" and Rajaram offered this post to his wife Tarabai. Tarabai gave an important position to Pant in the senior administration of Maratha State. He wrote a book called Adnyapatra मराठी: आज्ञापत्र which explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc.

The concepts in Adnyapatra and the wisdom and leadership of Tararani (Tarabai) greatly helped the Maratha empire in building the foundation of state. As he was more loyal to Tararani than Shahu, he was sidelined after the arrival of Shahu. Later, the Peshwa post was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.

Parshuram Trimbak Kulkarni[edit]

Parshuram Trimbak Kulkarni, who later became the Jagirdar of Aundh state. He was instrumental in holding the fort Panhala against Aurangzeb (1689). Though he lost the fort then, he recaptured it in 1692. He also captured territories between Miraj and fort Rangana and also Bhudargad, Chandangad, Pavangad, Satara and Vasantgad. He continued his loyalty towards Tarabai much to the chagrin of Shahu. Shahu imprisoned him twice between 1710-14. 14 (second time when his son Krishnaji joined the forces of Sammbhaji II).But his life was spared by Shahu because of the intervention of Khando Ballal (Shahus personal assistant ) who reminded his king of Parshuram Trimbaks contribution to the maratha cause. Parshuram Trimbak continued holding the position of Pant Pratinidhi in the time of Tarabai until his death in 1718. He was succeeded by his son Shrinivasrao aka Shripatrao, who continued albeit as the feudatory jagirdar(Aundh) of Shahus .

Bhat Family[edit]

H.H. Balaji Vishwanath (Bhat) Peshwa
H.H. Shrimant Bajirao Balaji (Ballal) Peshwa (aka Bajirao the First)

The position moved to the (Bhat) family of Shrivardhan in the Konkan region, upon appointment of Balaji Vishwanath (Bhat) as Peshwa by the fourth Chattrapati Shahu in 1713. The appointment of his son, Baji Rao I, as Peshwa in 1719 by Shahu made the position hereditary in the Bhat family. Baji Rao proved his loyalty and patriotism by controlling the feudal chieftains who wanted independence from the Maratha Empire. The rebellion of General Trimbak Rao Dabhade, the senapati (commander in chief), over Chauthai (revenue collection) of Gujarat is one example of such internal Maratha feuds. The followers of Baji and Trimbak clashed at the Battle of Bilhapur on April 1, 1731, and Trimbak was killed. In gratitude, Shahu gave the peshwas and the Bhat family unchallenged control over Maratha.[2] The victory in war of succession with Tara Bai led to Shahu becoming Chhatrapati.. Shahu, who also appointed Baji Rao's son as Peshwa in 1740, gave considerable authority to the Peshwas to command the Maratha armies, and they responded well during his reigns.

At the time of his death in 1749, Shahu made the Peshwas his successors under these conditions: Shivaji's descendants, who remained as the titular Raja of Satara, were called Swami (Marathi for the 'real owner') by the Peshwas who reported to them, and officially they were to seek guidance from the Raja. However, the Peshwa also became a ceremonial head of state after the battle of Panipat and the death of Madhavrao.

Legacy[edit]

The first Peshwa to receive the status of a pantpradhan was Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar in 1689 by Chatrapati Rajaram. The first (Bhat) Deshmukh family Peshwa was Balaji Vishwanath (Bhat) Deshmukh. He was succeeded as Peshwa by his son Baji Rao I, who never lost a battle. Baji Rao and his son, Balaji Baji Rao, oversaw the period of greatest Maratha expansion (see map at right), brought to an end by the Maratha's defeat by an Afghan army at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. The last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British East India Company in the Battle of Khadki which was a part of Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818). The Peshwa's land (Peshwai) was annexed to the British East India Company's Bombay province, and the Bajirao II, the Peshwa was pensioned off.

Appointed and Hereditary Peshwas[edit]

Sr. Name Particulars Reign Began C.E. Reign Ended C.E. Portrait
1 Balaji Vishwanath Assisted the Syed Brothers in deposing the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar in 1719 17 November 1713 12 April 1720 Balaji Vishvanath.jpg
2 Baji Rao I Helped conquer Central India(Malwa) and Rajputana and extended his dominions into Gujarat in the northwest and Deccan in the south. Raided Mughal Delhi in 1738. 12 April 1720 28 April 1740 Peshwa Baji Rao I riding horse.jpg
3 Balaji Bajirao Managed to extend the Maratha territories into most of North-West, East and Central India. Lost the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 28 April 1740 23 June 1761 Painting at Prince of Wales museum.jpg
4 Madhav-Rao I Fraught with internal dissensions and successful Wars with the Nizam 23 June 1761 18 November 1772 Madhavrao Peshwa.JPG
5 Narayan-Rao Assassinated by Gardi guards 18 November 1772 30 August 1773  
6 Raghunath-Rao Responsible for extending empire till Peshawar in North-West and also saw the decline of Maratha power in North India. Deposed by Nana Phadnis & 11 other administrators in what is now called "The Baarbhai Conspiracy" 1773 1774 Ragonath Row Ballajee.jpg
7 Madhav-Rao II Dominated by the political intrigues of Nana Phadnis. Saw the resurgence of Maratha power in North India. 1774 27 October 1795 Madhu Rao Narayan the Maratha Peshwa with Nana Fadnavis and attendants Poona 1792 by James Wales.jpg
8 Baji Rao II 1st Reign - Was defeated by Yashwantrao Holkar, ruler of Indore, at the Battle of Poona. Fled to British protection, and in December 1802, concluded the Treaty of Bassein with the British East India Company, ceding territory for the maintenance of a subsidiary force and agreeing to treaty with no other power. This provoked the Second Anglo-Maratha War that began the breakup of the Maratha confederacy. 1796 1802  
9 2nd Reign - During his second reign began the Third Anglo-Maratha War. After the defeat at the Battle of Koregaon in January 1818, he was on the run from the British. Eventually, the British took over his dominion and made the Maratha King Pratap Singh of Satara declare in favour of the British and this ended the Peshwa's legal position as head of the Maratha confederacy. On 3 June 1818, Baji Rao surrendered to the British; he was banished to Bithur near Kanpur. 1803 1818
10 Nana Sahib Was a leader during the Indian Uprising of 1857. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, he sought to restore the Maratha confederacy and the Peshwa tradition. 1851 1857  

Notable Generals and Diplomats of Peshwas[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Loch, W. W. (1877 (original) 1989 (reprint)). Dakhan History Musalman and Maratha. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 594. ISBN 81-206-0467-9. 
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Micropædia Vol. II, p17