Petabyte

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Not to be confused with Pebibyte.
Multiples of bytes
Decimal
Value Metric
1000 kB kilobyte
10002 MB megabyte
10003 GB gigabyte
10004 TB terabyte
10005 PB petabyte
10006 EB exabyte
10007 ZB zettabyte
10008 YB yottabyte
Binary
Value JEDEC IEC
1024 KB kilobyte KiB kibibyte
10242 MB megabyte MiB mebibyte
10243 GB gigabyte GiB gibibyte
10244 - - TiB tebibyte
10245 - - PiB pebibyte
10246 - - EiB exbibyte
10247 - - ZiB zebibyte
10248 - - YiB yobibyte
Orders of magnitude of data

The petabyte (symbol PB) is 1015 bytes of digital information. A related unit, the pebibyte (PiB), using a binary prefix, is 10245 = 250 = 1125899906842624bytes, more than 12% larger.

1 PB = 1000000000000000B = 1015bytes = 1000terabytes.

The prefix peta indicates the fifth power of 1000 and means 1015 in the International System of Units (SI), and therefore 1 petabyte is one quadrillion (short scale) bytes, or 1 billiard (long scale) bytes.

Usage examples[edit]

Examples of the use of the petabyte to describe data sizes in different fields are:

  • Telecommunications (capacity): The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of information in 1986, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2,200 petabytes in 2000, and 65,000 petabytes in 2007 (this is the informational equivalent to every person exchanging 6 newspapers per day).[1]
  • Telecommunications (usage): AT&T transfers about 30 petabytes of data through its networks each day.[2]
  • Internet: Google processed about 24 petabytes of data per day in 2009.[3] The BBC's iPlayer is reported to use 7 petabytes of bandwidth each month.[4] Imgur transfers about 4 petabytes of data per month.[5]
  • Supercomputers: In January 2012, Cray began construction of the Blue Waters Supercomputer, which will have a capacity of 500 petabytes making it the largest storage array ever if realized.[6]
  • Data storage system: In August 2011, IBM was reported to have built the largest storage array ever, with a capacity of 120 petabytes.[7]
  • Databases: Teradata Database 12 has a capacity of 50 petabytes of compressed data.[8][9]
  • Data mining: In August 2012, Facebook's Hadoop clusters include the largest single HDFS cluster known, with more than 100 PB physical disk space in a single HDFS filesystem.[10] Yahoo stores 2 petabytes of data on behavior.[11]
  • Digital archives: The Internet Archive surpassed 15 petabytes as of May 2014[12]
  • Email: In May 2013, Microsoft announces that as part of their migration of Hotmail accounts to the new Outlook.com email system, they migrated over 150 petabytes of user data in six weeks.[13]
  • File sharing (centralized): At its 2012 closure of file storage services, Megaupload held ~28 petabytes of user uploaded data.[14]
  • File sharing (peer-to-peer): 2013 - BitTorrent Sync has transferred over 30 petabytes of data since its pre-alpha release in January 2013.[15]
  • Film: The 2009 movie Avatar is reported to have taken over 1 petabyte of local storage at Weta Digital for the rendering of the 3D CGI effects.[16][17]
  • Video streaming: As of May 2013, Netflix had 3.14 petabytes of video "master copies," which it compresses and converts into 100 different formats for streaming.[18]
  • Photos: As of January 2013, Facebook users had uploaded over 240 billion photos,[19] with 350 million new photos every day. For each uploaded photo, Facebook generates and stores four images of different sizes, which translated to a total of 960 billion images and an estimated 357 petabytes of storage.[20]
  • Music: One petabyte of average MP3-encoded songs (for mobile, roughly one megabyte per minute), would require 2000 years to play.[21]
  • Games: World of Warcraft uses 1.3 petabytes of storage to maintain its game.[22] Steam, a digital gaming service developed by Valve, delivers over 50 petabytes of content weekly.[23]
  • Cloud backup: Multiple backup vendors, including Code42, Backblaze, and Mozy claim to store 90 or more petabytes of user backup data.[24]
  • Physics: The experiments in the Large Hadron Collider produce about 15 petabytes of data per year, which are distributed over the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.[25] In July 2012 it was revealed that CERN amassed about 200 petabytes of data from the more than 800 trillion collisions looking for the Higgs boson.[26]
  • Neurology: It is estimated that the human brain's ability to store memories is equivalent to about 2.5 petabytes of binary data.[27]
  • Climate science: The German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ) has a storage capacity of 60 petabytes of climate data.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science (journal), 332(6025), 60-65; see also "free access to the study" and "video animation".
  2. ^ "AT&T- News Room". Att.com. 2008-10-23. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  3. ^ "MapReduce". Portal.acm.org. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  4. ^ "Article". CNET UK. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  5. ^ "I created Imgur. AMA.". Alan Schaaf. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  6. ^ "Blue Waters petaflop supercomputer installation begins". 
  7. ^ Simonite, Tom (25 August 2011). "IBM Builds Biggest Data Drive Ever". Technology Review. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  8. ^ "Teradata Database 12.0 - Database Management - SQL Database". Teradata.com. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  9. ^ Paul Rubens (20 September 2004). "Thanks for memory (but I need more)". BBC News. "Of course there's no such thing as a petabyte iPod, but the good news is that we may not have too long to wait for one. Hitachi Data Systems already sells a product called the TagmaStore Universal Storage Platform which can manage up to 32 petabytes of storage for the very largest corporations, so you'd have to conclude that a pocket-sized consumer version isn't out of the question in a decade or so." 
  10. ^ "Under the Hood: Hadoop Distributed Filesystem reliability with Namenode and Avatarnode". Facebook. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  11. ^ Lai, Eric. "Size matters: Yahoo claims 2-petabyte database is world's biggest, busiest". Computerworld. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  12. ^ Brownell, Brett (May 22, 2014). "Meet the People Behind the Wayback Machine, One of Our Favorite Things About the Internet". Mother Jones. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "Outlook.com: 400 million active accounts, Hotmail upgrade complete and more features on the way". 
  14. ^ "Być może odzyskasz swoje pliki z Megaupload - Tech - WP.PL". Tech. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  15. ^ http://nofilmschool.com/2013/11/bittorrent-sync-1-million-users-version-1-2-free-file-syncing/
  16. ^ Kane, Zee (January 1, 2010). "Believe it or not: Avatar takes 1 petabyte of storage space". Thenextweb.com. Retrieved 2010-01-14. 
  17. ^ Ericson, Jim (December 21, 2009). "Processing AVATAR". Information-management.com. Retrieved 2010-01-14. 
  18. ^ Vance, Ashlee (May 9, 2013). "Netflix, Reed Hastings Survive Missteps to Join Silicon Valley's Elite". Businessweek. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  19. ^ Miller, Rich. "Facebook Builds Exabyte Data Centers for Cold Storage". Datacenterknowledge.com. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  20. ^ Leung, Leo. "How much data does x store?". Techexpectations.org. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  21. ^ http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/What-does-a-petabyte-look-like
  22. ^ Radd, David (September 18, 2009). "Blizzard Drops World of Warcraft Stat Bomb". Industrygamers.com. Archived from the original on 2009-09-22. Retrieved 2009-09-18. 
  23. ^ "Steam Download Stats". SteamPowered.com. 
  24. ^ Leung, Leo. "How much data does x store?". Techexpectations.org. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  25. ^ "3 October 2008 - CERN: Let the number-crunching begin: the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid celebrates first data". Interactions.org. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  26. ^ "Big Data Software Problem Behind CERN's Higgs Boson Hunt". 
  27. ^ Reber, Paul (2013-04-02). "What Is the Memory Capacity of the Human Brain?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 
  28. ^ Treehugger, 11 Dec 2009: Meet the world's most powerful weather supercomputer

External links[edit]