Peter Carey (novelist)
|Peter Philip Carey AO|
7 May 1943 |
Bacchus Marsh, Victoria, Australia
|Occupation||Novelist, creative writing teacher|
|Notable works||Oscar and Lucinda,
True History of the Kelly Gang
|Notable awards||Booker Prize
Peter Philip Carey AO (born 7 May 1943) is an Australian novelist, known primarily for being one of only three writers to have won the Booker Prize twice—the others being J. M. Coetzee and Hilary Mantel. Carey won his first Booker Prize in 1988 for Oscar and Lucinda, and won for the second time in 2001 with True History of the Kelly Gang. In May 2008 he was nominated for the Best of the Booker Prize.
In addition to writing fiction, he collaborated on the screenplay of the film Until the End of the World with Wim Wenders and is executive director of the Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing program at Hunter College, part of the City University of New York.
Early life and career: 1943–1970
Peter Carey was born in Bacchus Marsh, Victoria, in 1943. His parents ran a General Motors dealership, Carey Motors. He attended Bacchus Marsh State School from 1948 to 1953, then boarded at Geelong Grammar School between 1954 and 1960. In 1961, Carey enrolled in a science degree at the new Monash University in Melbourne, majoring in chemistry and zoology, but cut his studies short due to a car accident and a lack of interest. It was at university that he met his first wife, Leigh Weetman, who was studying German and philosophy, and who also dropped out.
In 1962, he began to work in advertising. He was employed by various Melbourne agencies between 1962 and 1967, including on campaigns for Volkswagen and Lindeman's Wine. His advertising work brought him into contact with older writers who introduced him to recent European and American fiction: "I didn't really start getting an education until I worked in advertising with people like Barry Oakley and Morris Lurie—and Bruce Petty had an office next door."
During this time, he read widely, particularly the works of Samuel Beckett, William Faulkner, James Joyce, Franz Kafka, and Gabriel García Márquez, and began writing on his own, receiving his first rejection slip in 1964, the same year he married Weetman. Over the next few years he wrote five novels—Contacts (1964–1965), Starts Here, Ends Here (1965–1967), The Futility Machine (1966–1967), Wog (1969), and Adventures on Board the Marie Celeste (1971). None of them were published. Sun Books accepted The Futility Machine but did not proceed with publication, and Adventures on Board the Marie Celeste was accepted by Outback Press before being withdrawn by Carey himself. These and other unpublished manuscripts from the period—including twenty-one short stories—are now held by the Fryer Library at the University of Queensland.
Carey's only publications during the 1960s were "Contacts" (a short extract from the unpublished novel of the same name, in Under Twenty-Five: An Anthology, 1966) and "She Wakes" (a short story, in Australian Letters, 1967). Towards the end of the decade, Carey and Weetman abandoned Australia with "a certain degree of self-hatred", travelling through Europe and Iran before setting in London in 1968, where Carey continued to write highly regarded advertising copy and unpublished fiction.
Middle career: 1970–1990
Returning to Australia in 1970, Carey once again did advertising work in Melbourne and Sydney. He also kept writing, and gradually broke through with editors, publishing short stories in magazines and newspapers such as Meanjin and Nation Review. Most of these were collected in his first book, The Fat Man In History, which appeared in 1974. In the same year Carey moved to Balmain in Sydney to work for Grey Advertising. Carey also taught for a while during this period as a lecteur in English at Université de Paris IV (Paris-Sorbonne).
In 1976, Carey moved to Queensland and joined an alternative community named Starlight in Yandina, north of Brisbane, with his new partner, the painter Margot Hutcheson, with whom he lived in the 1970s and 1980s. He remained with Grey, writing in Yandina for three weeks, then spending the fourth week at the agency in Sydney. It was during this time that he produced most of the stories collected in War Crimes (1979), as well as Bliss (1981), his first published novel.
Carey started his own advertising agency in 1980, the Sydney-based McSpedden Carey Advertising Consultants, in partnership with Bani McSpedden. After many years of separation, Leigh Weetman asked for a divorce in 1980 so that she could remarry and Peter agreed. In 1981, he moved to Bellingen in northern New South Wales. There he wrote Illywhacker, published in 1985. In the same year he married theatre director Alison Summers.
The decade—and the Australian phase of Carey's career—culminated with the publication of Oscar and Lucinda (1988), which won the Booker McConnell Prize (as it was then known) and brought the author international recognition. Carey explained that the novel was inspired, in part, by his time in Bellingen:
- I was living in Bellingen in the country. And the little church was down the road, and they wanted to take it away, zip: and I looked at that landscape and I thought – only 200 years ago this was a landscape that was full of Aboriginal stories. So I thought about a moment when that church that I knew, which was being removed from my landscape, might have arrived. I wanted it to arrive intact, whole. And I thought it would come on a barge. And, this is a totally irrational thought, it’s like a dream. I wanted this church, a wooden church, just what I saw, a church in that valley, to come along the Bellingen River on a barge gliding like a dream into the landscape.
Move to New York: 1990–present
Carey sold his share of McSpedden Carey and in 1990 moved with Alison Summers and their son to New York, where he took a job teaching creative writing at New York University. He later said that New York would not have been his first choice of place to live, and that moving there was his wife's idea. Carey and Summers divorced in 2005 after a four-year separation. Carey now lives with the British-born publisher Frances Coady.
The Tax Inspector (1991), begun in Australia, was the first book he completed in the United States. It was followed by The Unusual Life of Tristan Smith (1994), a fable in which he explored the relationship between Australia and America, disguised in the novel as "Efica" and "Voorstand". This is a relationship that has preoccupied him throughout his career, going back to Bliss (1981), Illywhacker (1985), and the early short stories. Nevertheless, Carey continued to set his fiction primarily in Australia and remained diffident about writing explicitly on American themes. In a piece on True History of the Kelly Gang (2001), Mel Gussow reported that:
- Periodically he has thought about writing an American-based novel, and he had started one dealing with litigation. But he put it aside for Ned Kelly. Explaining why he continues to set most of his books in Australia, he recalled that one of his students said, "When you change countries you lose your peripheral vision." In that sense, his view of America is still limited. Writing about Australia—its history and its heroes—his perspective is wide and deep.
It was only after nearly two decades in the United States that he embarked on Parrot and Olivier in America (2010), loosely based on events in the life of Alexis de Tocqueville. Carey says “Tocqueville opened a door I could enter. I saw the present in the past. It was accessible, imaginable." Carey continues to extend his canvas; in his most recent novel, The Chemistry of Tears (2012), "contemporary London is brought intimately in touch with ... a 19th-century Germany redolent of the Brothers Grimm".
In 1998, Carey was accused of snubbing Queen Elizabeth II by declining an invitation to meet her after winning the Commonwealth Writers Prize for Jack Maggs (1997). While Carey is a republican, he insists that no offence was intended:
- What happened, he explains, was that he had already been in England recently for a literary festival; he is booked for another trip soon, and had been travelling so much that he asked the prize organisers, "Would it be possible to see Her Majesty when I was actually in London?" "They thought it would be better just to cancel than for me to ask Her Majesty to do that. Then all this stuff started going out in English tabloids."
The meeting did eventually take place, with the Queen remarking, according to Carey, "I believe you had a little trouble getting here."
The unhappy circumstances of Carey's break-up with Alison Summers received wide publicity in 2006 when Theft: A Love Story appeared, depicting the toxic relationship between its protagonist, Butcher Bones, and his ex-wife, known only as "the Plaintiff".
In April 2015 he, alongside Michael Ondaatje, Francine Prose, Teju Cole, Rachel Kushner and Taiye Selasi, withdrew from the PEN American Center gala honoring the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo with its "Freedom of Expression Courage" award. He stated that one of his reasons for doing so was "PEN’s seeming blindness to the cultural arrogance of the French nation, which does not recognize its moral obligation to a large and disempowered segment of their population."
Awards and distinctions
Carey has been awarded three honorary degrees. He has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature (1989), an Honorary Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities (2001), and a Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2003). In 2010, he appeared on two Australian postage stamps in a series dedicated to "Australian Legends". On 11 June 2012, Carey was named an Officer of the Order of Australia for "distinguished service to literature as a novelist, through international promotion of the Australian identity, as a mentor to emerging writers."
Carey has won numerous literary awards, including:
- Bliss (1981)
- Illywhacker (1985)
- Oscar and Lucinda (1988)
- The Tax Inspector (1991)
- The Unusual Life of Tristan Smith (1994)
- Jack Maggs (1997)
- True History of the Kelly Gang (2000)
- My Life as a Fake (2003)
- Theft: A Love Story (2006)
- His Illegal Self (2008)
- Parrot and Olivier in America (2010)
- The Chemistry of Tears (2012)
- Amnesia (2014)
Short story collections
- The Fat Man in History (1974)
- "She Wakes"
- "Life and Death in the Southside Pavilion"
- "Room No. 5 (Escribo)"
- "Happy Story"
- "A Windmill in the West"
- "Report on the Shadow Industry"
- "Conversations with Unicorns"
- "American Dreams"
- "The Fat Man in History"
- "War Crimes" (1979)
- "The Journey of a Lifetime"
- "Do You Love Me?"
- "The Uses of Williamson Wood"
- "The Last Days of a Famous Mime"
- "A Schoolboy Prank"
- "The Chance"
- "Fragrance of Roses"
- "The Puzzling Nature of Blue"
- "Ultra-Violet Light"
- "He Found Her in Late Summer"
- "Exotic Pleasures"
- "War Crimes"
Stories from Carey's first two collections have been repackaged in The Fat Man in History and Other Stories (1980), Exotic Pleasures (1990), and Collected Stories (1994); the last also includes three previously uncollected stories: "Joe" (Australian New Writing, 1973), "A Million Dollars Worth of Amphetamines" (Nation Review, 1975), and "Concerning the Greek Tyrant" (The Tabloid Story Pocket Book, 1978).
Uncollected short stories
- "Contacts" (Under Twenty-Five: An Anthology, 1966)
- "Eight Parts of a Whole" (Manic Magazine, 1970)
- "Interview with Yourself" (Manic Magazine, 1970)
- "Structure" (Manic Magazine, 1970)
- "I Know You Can Talk" (Stand Magazine, 1975)
- "The Mad Puzzle King" (Living Daylights, 1975)
- "The Rose" (Nation Review, 1976)
- "The Cosmic Pragmatist" (Nation Review, 1977)
- "The Pleasure Bird" (Australian Playboy, 1979)
- "An Abandoned Chapter" (Overland, 1997)
- The Big Bazoohley: A Story for Children (1995)
- A Letter to Our Son (1994)
- 30 Days in Sydney: A Wildly Distorted Account (2001)
- Letter from New York (2001)
- Wrong about Japan (2005)
- John Ezard, "Carey wins Booker for Second Time". The Guardian, 18 October 2001. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- "The Best of the Booker Shortlist Announced", Man Booker Prize Media Release, 12 May 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Alison Flood, "Peter Carey: Parrot and Olivier in America Could Be My Best Book". The Guardian, 17 August 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- MFA Creative Writing, Hunter College, City University of New York. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Mary Ellen Snodgrass, Peter Carey: A Literary Companion (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2010), pp. 6-8.
- Snodgrass, p. 9.
- Candida Baker, Yacker: Australian Writers Talk about Their Work (Sydney: Picador, 1986), pp. 54-77.
- Snodgrass, pp. 9-10. See also Carey Papers, Fryer Library, University of Queensland, Series B: Short Stories, B.1: Unpublished Short Stories, B.1 (a) Early short stories 1965-1967, Related correspondence 1964-1966. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Carey Papers, Fryer Library, University of Queensland, Series A: Novels, A.1: Unpublished Novels. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- See also the bibliography in Andreas Gaile (ed.) Fabulating Beauty: Perspectives on the Fiction of Peter Carey (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2005). Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Sonia Harford, Leaving Paradise: My Expat Adventure and Other Stories (Melbourne: Melbourne University Publishing, 2006), p. 111.
- "Peter Carey", Encyclopedia.com, Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series, January 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Nicholas Wroe, "Fiction's Great Outlaw", The Guardian, 5 January 2001. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Rebecca Vaughan "Biography", Peter Carey Website, 11th November 1997. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Quoted in Sue Gillett, "Oscar and Lucinda: Shattering History’s Self-reflection", in Patrick Fuery (ed.), Representation, Discourse and Desire: Contemporary Australian Culture and Critical Theory (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1994), p. 195.
- Judith Moore, "Wrong About Japan: A Father's Journey with His Son", San Diego Reader, 17 March 2005. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Susan Wyndham, "Ex-wife Comes Out Swinging", Sydney Morning Herald, 13 May 2006. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Suzanne Goldenberg, "Two Scribes Go to War", The Guardian, 8 May 2006. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Mel Gussow, "Championing a Fabled Bandit; For Novelist, a Rogue Australian Sums Up His Underdog Culture", New York Times, 15 February 2001. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Charles McGrath, "Peter Carey: At Home in Australia, New York and Writing", New York Times, 26 April 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Rebecca K. Morrison, "The Chemistry of Tears, by Peter Carey", The Independent, 30 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Alan Attwood, "Carey on Dickens, the Queen and Ned Kelly", Sydney Morning Herald, 5 June 1998.
- "The Great Australian Story is of Loss, Death", Indian Express, 17 February 2003. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Susan Wyndham, "A Love–Hate Story", The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 April 2006. Retrieved 30 March 2012. Liam Houlihan, "Ex-wife Dumps on Scary Carey", Herald Sun, 13 November 2006. Retrieved 30 March 2012. See also Wyndham, "Ex-wife Comes Out Swinging", and Goldenberg, "Two Scribes Go to War".
- Jules Smith, "Peter Carey", British Council Writers Directory. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Find Fellows, Australian Academy of Humanities. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Academy Membership, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Australia Post, Stamp Bulletin, No. 303, March 2010.
- "Officer (AO) in the General Division of the Order of Australia - The Queen's Birthday 2012 Honours Lists" (PDF). Official Secretary to the Governor-General of Australia. 11 June 2012. p. 8.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Peter Carey (novelist)|
- Official Website
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- Peter Carey at Random House Australia
- Guide to the Papers of Peter Carey at the National Library of Australia
- Peter Carey Website maintained by Rebecca J. Vaughan and hosted by Flinders University
- The Literary Encyclopedia: Peter Carey
- Peter Carey at British Council: Literature
- Internet book List: Peter Carey
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- The Art of Fiction No. 188: Peter Carey, an interview in the Paris Review (Summer 2006).
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