Peter II of Portugal
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Portuguese Wikipedia. (January 2012)|
|King of Portugal and the Algarves|
|Reign||12 September 1683 –
9 December 1706
|Regency||23 November 1667 –
12 September 1683
|Consort||Maria Francisca of Nemours
Maria Sofia of the Palatinate
Infanta Isabel Luísa
João, Prince of Brazil
John V of Portugal
Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja
Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém
Luísa, Duchess of Cadaval
Miguel, Duke of Lafões
José, Archbishop of Braga
|House||House of Braganza|
|Mother||Luisa of Medina-Sidonia|
|Born||26 April 1648
Ribeira Palace, Portugal
|Died||9 December 1706 (aged 58)
Sintra Palace, Portugal
|Burial||Pantheon of the Braganzas|
Peter II (Portuguese: Pedro II Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpedɾu] (26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706) was Regent (1668–1683) and King of Portugal and the Algarves (1683–1706). He was sometimes known as o Pacífico, "the Pacific".
He was the youngest son of John IV and was created Duke of Beja. Following his father's death his mother became regent for the new king Afonso VI, Peter's elder, patially paralysed and mentally unstable brother. In 1662 Afonso put away his mother and assumed control of the state. In January 1668, shortly before Spanish recognition of Portugal's restoration of independence, Peter gained political ascendancy over his brother and was appointed regent. Peter exiled his brother to the Azores, and later Sintra where he died in 1683, whereupon Peter inherited the throne. Around this time, the discovery of gold mines in the Portuguese colony of Brazil enlarged Peter's treasury to the extent that he was able to dismiss the Cortes in 1697 and rule without its revenue grants for the rest of his reign.
He was tall, well proportioned, with dark eyes and dark hair.
Peter initially supported France and Spain in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), but on 16 May 1703, Portugal and Great Britain signed the famous Methuen Treaty. This trade accord granted mutual commercial privileges for Portuguese wine and English textile traders and would later give Britain huge clout in the Portuguese economy. This was followed in December 1703 by a military alliance between Portugal, Austria and Great Britain for an invasion of Spain. Portuguese and Allied forces, under the command of the Marquês das Minas, captured Madrid in 1706, during the campaign which ended in the Allied defeat at Almansa.
Peter not only inherited his brother's throne but also married his wife, Queen Marie-Françoise of Savoy (1646–1683). They had one daughter, Princess Isabella Louise (1669–90), Princess of Beira and heiress-presumptive, a.k.a. "a Sempre-Noiva" (the ever-engaged), because of the many marriage projects intended for her that were never completed. The Queen, apparently incapable of birthing more offspring, died at the end of 1683, 14 years after Isabella's birth. Because the Princess was a fragile and sick child, the King decided to marry again.
The chosen bride was Maria Sophia (1666–1699), daughter of Phillip William of Neuburg. Among Sophia's sisters were Eleonor Madeleine, third wife of Leopold I of Austria and Maria Anna, second wife of Charles II of Spain.
This marriage was concluded, and the couple had eight children, including the new viable heir to the throne, the younger John, who eventually succeeded his father, after his death in 1706, as King John V of Portugal.
Marriages and descendants
Peter married first to his sister-in-law Marie-Françoise of Savoy in 1666 who gave him a daughter. He married again in 1687, this time to Maria Sophia of Neuburg and she gave him several children. Outside his marriages Peter had 3 illegitimate children.
|By Marie-Françoise of Savoy, Mademoiselle de Nemours (1646–1683; married 2 April 1668)|
|Infanta Isabel Luísa of Portugal||6 January 1669||21 October 1690||2nd Princess of Beira|
|By Maria Sophia of the Palatinate-Neuburg (6 August 1666 – 4 August 1699; married in 1687)|
|João, Prince of Brazil||30 August 1688||17 September 1688||Prince of Brazil and 12th Duke of Braganza|
|John V of Portugal||22 October 1689||31 July 1750||Prince of Brazil from 1697; succeeded Peter as King of Portugal|
|Infante Francisco of Portugal||25 May 1691||21 July 1742||Duke of Beja|
|Infante António of Portugal||15 March 1695||20 October 1757|
|Infanta Francisca Xaviera of Portugal||1694||1694|
|Infanta Teresa Maria of Portugal||24 February 1696||16 February 1704|
|Infante Manuel of Portugal||3 August 1697||3 August 1736||Count of Ourém.|
|Infanta Francisca Josefa of Portugal||30 January 1699||15 July 1736|
|By Maria da Cruz Mascarenhas (c. 1655-?)|
|Luísa of Braganza||9 January 1679||23 December 1732||Natural daughter; Duchess of Cadaval through marriage first to Luís Ambrósio de Melo, 2nd Duke of Cadaval, and then to Jaime Álvares Pereira de Melo, 3rd Duke of Cadaval|
|By Anne Armande du Verger (c. 1660-?)|
|Miguel of Braganza||15 October 1699||13 January 1724||Natural son|
|By Francisca Clara da Silva (c. 1650-?)|
|José of Braganza||6 May 1703||3 June 1756||Natural son; Archbishop of Braga|
- Linda Frey Marsha The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession Page 335 1995 "Pedro III of Portugal (1648 1706 r. 1683–1706), the third son of João IV, who founded the Braganza ruling dynasty and secured the independence of Portugal from Spain. Pedro was a ruler who loved hunting — both women and animals — and excelled as a horseback rider.
- Sousa 1741, Vol VII, p. 664.
- Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa (in Portuguese) VII. Lisbon: Silviana.
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Peter II of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of AvizBorn: 26 April 1648 Died: 9 December 1706
|King of Portugal and the Algarves