Peter II of Portugal

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Peter II
D. Pedro II, Rei de Portugal.JPG
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Reign November 6, 1683 – December 9, 1706
Acclamation November 15, 1657 in Lisbon
Predecessor Afonso VI
Successor John V
Consort Maria Francisca of Nemours
Maria Sofia of the Palatinate
Issue Infanta Isabel Luísa
João, Prince of Brazil
John V of Portugal
Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja
Infante António
Infanta Francisca Xaviera
Infanta Teresa Maria
Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém
Infanta Francisca
Luísa, Duchess of Cadaval
Miguel of Braganza
José, Archbishop of Braga
House House of Braganza
Father John IV
Mother Luisa of Medina-Sidonia
Born April 26, 1648
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died December 9, 1706 (aged 58)
Royal Palace of Sintra, Sintra, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Royal Pantheon of the Braganza Dynasty
Religion Roman Catholicism

Peter II (Portuguese: Pedro II Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpedɾu] (April 26, 1648 – December 9, 1706) was Regent (1668–1683) and King of Portugal and the Algarves (1683–1706).[1] He was sometimes known as o Pacífico, "the Pacific".

Early life[edit]

He was the youngest son of John IV and was created Duke of Beja. Following his father's death his mother became regent for the new king Afonso VI, Peter's elder, patially paralysed and mentally unstable brother. In 1662 Afonso put away his mother and assumed control of the state. In January 1668, shortly before Spanish recognition of Portugal's restoration of independence, Peter gained political ascendancy over his brother and was appointed regent. Peter exiled his brother to the Azores, and later Sintra where he died in 1683, whereupon Peter inherited the throne. Around this time, the discovery of gold mines in the Portuguese colony of Brazil enlarged Peter's treasury to the extent that he was able to dismiss the Cortes in 1697 and rule without its revenue grants for the rest of his reign.

He was tall, well proportioned, with dark eyes and dark hair.[2]


Peter initially supported France and Spain in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), but on May 16, 1703, Portugal and Great Britain signed the famous Methuen Treaty. This trade accord granted mutual commercial privileges for Portuguese wine and English textile traders and would later give Britain huge clout in the Portuguese economy. This was followed in December 1703 by a military alliance between Portugal, Austria and Great Britain for an invasion of Spain. Portuguese and Allied forces, under the command of the Marquês das Minas, captured Madrid in 1706, during the campaign which ended in the Allied defeat at Almansa.


Peter not only inherited his brother's throne but also married his wife, Queen Marie-Françoise of Savoy (1646–1683). They had one daughter, Princess Isabella Louise (1669–90), Princess of Beira and heiress-presumptive, a.k.a. "a Sempre-Noiva" (the ever-engaged), because of the many marriage projects intended for her that were never completed. The Queen, apparently incapable of birthing more offspring, died at the end of 1683, 14 years after Isabella's birth. Because the Princess was a fragile and sick child, the King decided to marry again.

The chosen bride was Maria Sophia (1666–1699), daughter of Phillip William of Neuburg. Among Sophia's sisters were Eleonor Madeleine, third wife of Leopold I of Austria and Maria Anna, second wife of Charles II of Spain.

This marriage was concluded, and the couple had eight children, including the new viable heir to the throne, the younger John, who eventually succeeded his father, after his death in 1706, as King John V of Portugal.


Marriages and descendants[edit]

Peter married first to his sister-in-law Marie-Françoise of Savoy in 1666 who gave him a daughter. He married again in 1687, this time to Maria Sophia of Neuburg and she gave him several children. Outside his marriages Peter had 3 illegitimate children.

Name Birth Death Notes
By Marie-Françoise of Savoy, Mademoiselle de Nemours (1646–1683; married April 2, 1668)
Infanta Isabel Luísa of Portugal January 6, 1669 October 21, 1690 2nd Princess of Beira
By Maria Sophia of the Palatinate-Neuburg (August 6, 1666 – August 4, 1699; married in 1687)
João, Prince of Brazil August 30, 1688 September 17, 1688 Prince of Brazil and 12th Duke of Braganza
John V of Portugal October 22, 1689 July 31, 1750 Prince of Brazil from 1697; succeeded Peter as King of Portugal
Infante Francisco of Portugal May 25, 1691 July 21, 1742 Duke of Beja
Infante António of Portugal March 15, 1695 October 20, 1757  
Infanta Francisca Xaviera of Portugal 1694 1694  
Infanta Teresa Maria of Portugal February 24, 1696 February 16, 1704  
Infante Manuel of Portugal August 3, 1697 August 3, 1736 Count of Ourém.
Infanta Francisca Josefa of Portugal January 30, 1699 July 15, 1736  
By Maria da Cruz Mascarenhas (c. 1655-?)
Luísa of Braganza January 9, 1679 December 23, 1732 Natural daughter; Duchess of Cadaval through marriage first to Luís Ambrósio de Melo, 2nd Duke of Cadaval, and then to Jaime Álvares Pereira de Melo, 3rd Duke of Cadaval
By Anne Armande du Verger (c. 1660-?)
Miguel of Braganza October 15, 1699 January 13, 1724 Natural son
By Francisca Clara da Silva (c. 1650-?)
José of Braganza May 6, 1703 June 3, 1756 Natural son; Archbishop of Braga


  1. ^ Linda Frey Marsha The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession Page 335 1995 "Pedro III of Portugal (1648 1706 r. 1683-1706), the third son of João IV, who founded the Braganza ruling dynasty and secured the independence of Portugal from Spain. Pedro was a ruler who loved hunting — both women and animals — and excelled as a horseback rider.
  2. ^ Sousa 1741, Vol VII, p. 664.


  • Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa (in Portuguese) VII. Lisbon: Silviana. 

External links[edit]

Peter II of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 26 April 1648 Died: 9 December 1706
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Afonso VI
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Succeeded by
John V