Peter II of Portugal
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Portuguese Wikipedia. (January 2012)|
|Reign||November 6, 1683 – December 9, 1706|
|Acclamation||November 15, 1657 in Lisbon|
|Consort||Maria Francisca of Nemours
Maria Sofia of the Palatinate
|House||House of Braganza|
|Mother||Luisa of Medina-Sidonia|
|Born||April 26, 1648
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
|Died||December 9, 1706 (aged 58)
Royal Palace of Sintra, Sintra, Kingdom of Portugal
|Burial||Royal Pantheon of the Braganza Dynasty|
Peter II (Portuguese: Pedro II Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpedɾu] (April 26, 1648 – December 9, 1706) was Regent (1668–1683) and King of Portugal and the Algarves (1683–1706). He was sometimes known as o Pacífico, "the Pacific".
He was the youngest son of John IV and was created Duke of Beja. Following his father's death his mother became regent for the new king Afonso VI, Peter's elder, patially paralysed and mentally unstable brother. In 1662 Afonso put away his mother and assumed control of the state. In January 1668, shortly before Spanish recognition of Portugal's restoration of independence, Peter gained political ascendancy over his brother and was appointed regent. Peter exiled his brother to the Azores, and later Sintra where he died in 1683, whereupon Peter inherited the throne. Around this time, the discovery of gold mines in the Portuguese colony of Brazil enlarged Peter's treasury to the extent that he was able to dismiss the Cortes in 1697 and rule without its revenue grants for the rest of his reign.
He was tall, well proportioned, with dark eyes and dark hair.
Peter initially supported France and Spain in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), but on May 16, 1703, Portugal and Great Britain signed the famous Methuen Treaty. This trade accord granted mutual commercial privileges for Portuguese wine and English textile traders and would later give Britain huge clout in the Portuguese economy. This was followed in December 1703 by a military alliance between Portugal, Austria and Great Britain for an invasion of Spain. Portuguese and Allied forces, under the command of the Marquês das Minas, captured Madrid in 1706, during the campaign which ended in the Allied defeat at Almansa.
Peter not only inherited his brother's throne but also married his wife, Queen Marie-Françoise of Savoy (1646–1683). They had one daughter, Princess Isabella Louise (1669–90), Princess of Beira and heiress-presumptive, a.k.a. "a Sempre-Noiva" (the ever-engaged), because of the many marriage projects intended for her that were never completed. The Queen, apparently incapable of birthing more offspring, died at the end of 1683, 14 years after Isabella's birth. Because the Princess was a fragile and sick child, the King decided to marry again.
The chosen bride was Maria Sophia (1666–1699), daughter of Phillip William of Neuburg. Among Sophia's sisters were Eleonor Madeleine, third wife of Leopold I of Austria and Maria Anna, second wife of Charles II of Spain.
This marriage was concluded, and the couple had eight children, including the new viable heir to the throne, the younger John, who eventually succeeded his father, after his death in 1706, as King John V of Portugal.
Marriages and descendants
Peter married first to his sister-in-law Marie-Françoise of Savoy in 1666 who gave him a daughter. He married again in 1687, this time to Maria Sophia of Neuburg and she gave him several children. Outside his marriages Peter had 3 illegitimate children.
|By Marie-Françoise of Savoy, Mademoiselle de Nemours (1646–1683; married April 2, 1668)|
|Infanta Isabel Luísa of Portugal||January 6, 1669||October 21, 1690||2nd Princess of Beira|
|By Maria Sophia of the Palatinate-Neuburg (August 6, 1666 – August 4, 1699; married in 1687)|
|João, Prince of Brazil||August 30, 1688||September 17, 1688||Prince of Brazil and 12th Duke of Braganza|
|John V of Portugal||October 22, 1689||July 31, 1750||Prince of Brazil from 1697; succeeded Peter as King of Portugal|
|Infante Francisco of Portugal||May 25, 1691||July 21, 1742||Duke of Beja|
|Infante António of Portugal||March 15, 1695||October 20, 1757|
|Infanta Francisca Xaviera of Portugal||1694||1694|
|Infanta Teresa Maria of Portugal||February 24, 1696||February 16, 1704|
|Infante Manuel of Portugal||August 3, 1697||August 3, 1736||Count of Ourém.|
|Infanta Francisca Josefa of Portugal||January 30, 1699||July 15, 1736|
|By Maria da Cruz Mascarenhas (c. 1655-?)|
|Luísa of Braganza||January 9, 1679||December 23, 1732||Natural daughter; Duchess of Cadaval through marriage first to Luís Ambrósio de Melo, 2nd Duke of Cadaval, and then to Jaime Álvares Pereira de Melo, 3rd Duke of Cadaval|
|By Anne Armande du Verger (c. 1660-?)|
|Miguel of Braganza||October 15, 1699||January 13, 1724||Natural son|
|By Francisca Clara da Silva (c. 1650-?)|
|José of Braganza||May 6, 1703||June 3, 1756||Natural son; Archbishop of Braga|
- Linda Frey Marsha The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession Page 335 1995 "Pedro III of Portugal (1648 1706 r. 1683-1706), the third son of João IV, who founded the Braganza ruling dynasty and secured the independence of Portugal from Spain. Pedro was a ruler who loved hunting — both women and animals — and excelled as a horseback rider.
- Sousa 1741, Vol VII, p. 664.
- Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa (in Portuguese) VII. Lisbon: Silviana.
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Peter II of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of AvizBorn: 26 April 1648 Died: 9 December 1706
|King of Portugal and the Algarves