Peter II of Portugal

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Peter II
D. Pedro II, Rei de Portugal.JPG
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Reign 12 September 1683 –
9 December 1706
Predecessor Afonso VI
Successor John V
Consort Maria Francisca of Nemours
Maria Sofia of the Palatinate
Issue Legitimate:
Infanta Isabel Luísa
João, Prince of Brazil
John V of Portugal
Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja
Infante António
Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém
Infanta Francisca
Luísa, Duchess of Cadaval
Miguel, Duke of Lafões
José, Archbishop of Braga
House House of Braganza
Father John IV
Mother Luisa of Medina-Sidonia
Born 26 April 1648
Ribeira Palace, Portugal
Died 9 December 1706 (aged 58)
Sintra Palace, Portugal
Burial Pantheon of the Braganzas
Religion Roman Catholicism

Peter II (Portuguese: Pedro II Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpedɾu] (26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706) was Regent (1668–1683) and King of Portugal and the Algarves (1683–1706).[1] He was sometimes known as o Pacífico, "the Pacific".

Early life[edit]

He was the youngest son of John IV and was created Duke of Beja. Following his father's death his mother became regent for the new king Afonso VI, Peter's elder, patially paralysed and mentally unstable brother. In 1662 Afonso put away his mother and assumed control of the state. In January 1668, shortly before Spanish recognition of Portugal's restoration of independence, Peter gained political ascendancy over his brother and was appointed regent. Peter exiled his brother to the Azores, and later Sintra where he died in 1683, whereupon Peter inherited the throne. Around this time, the discovery of gold mines in the Portuguese colony of Brazil enlarged Peter's treasury to the extent that he was able to dismiss the Cortes in 1697 and rule without its revenue grants for the rest of his reign.

He was tall, well proportioned, with dark eyes and dark hair.[2]


Peter initially supported France and Spain in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), but on 16 May 1703, Portugal and Great Britain signed the famous Methuen Treaty. This trade accord granted mutual commercial privileges for Portuguese wine and English textile traders and would later give Britain huge clout in the Portuguese economy. This was followed in December 1703 by a military alliance between Portugal, Austria and Great Britain for an invasion of Spain. Portuguese and Allied forces, under the command of the Marquês das Minas, captured Madrid in 1706, during the campaign which ended in the Allied defeat at Almansa.


Peter not only inherited his brother's throne but also married his wife, Queen Marie-Françoise of Savoy (1646–1683). They had one daughter, Princess Isabella Louise (1669–90), Princess of Beira and heiress-presumptive, a.k.a. "a Sempre-Noiva" (the ever-engaged), because of the many marriage projects intended for her that were never completed. The Queen, apparently incapable of birthing more offspring, died at the end of 1683, 14 years after Isabella's birth. Because the Princess was a fragile and sick child, the King decided to marry again.

The chosen bride was Maria Sophia (1666–1699), daughter of Phillip William of Neuburg. Among Sophia's sisters were Eleonor Madeleine, third wife of Leopold I of Austria and Maria Anna, second wife of Charles II of Spain.

This marriage was concluded, and the couple had eight children, including the new viable heir to the throne, the younger John, who eventually succeeded his father, after his death in 1706, as King John V of Portugal.


Marriages and descendants[edit]

Peter married first to his sister-in-law Marie-Françoise of Savoy in 1666 who gave him a daughter. He married again in 1687, this time to Maria Sophia of Neuburg and she gave him several children. Outside his marriages Peter had 3 illegitimate children.

Name Birth Death Notes
By Marie-Françoise of Savoy, Mademoiselle de Nemours (1646–1683; married 2 April 1668)
Infanta Isabel Luísa of Portugal 6 January 1669 21 October 1690 2nd Princess of Beira
By Maria Sophia of the Palatinate-Neuburg (6 August 1666 – 4 August 1699; married in 1687)
João, Prince of Brazil 30 August 1688 17 September 1688 Prince of Brazil and 12th Duke of Braganza
John V of Portugal 22 October 1689 31 July 1750 Prince of Brazil from 1697; succeeded Peter as King of Portugal
Infante Francisco of Portugal 25 May 1691 21 July 1742 Duke of Beja
Infante António of Portugal 15 March 1695 20 October 1757  
Infanta Francisca Xaviera of Portugal 1694 1694  
Infanta Teresa Maria of Portugal 24 February 1696 16 February 1704  
Infante Manuel of Portugal 3 August 1697 3 August 1736 Count of Ourém.
Infanta Francisca Josefa of Portugal 30 January 1699 15 July 1736  
By Maria da Cruz Mascarenhas (c. 1655-?)
Luísa of Braganza 9 January 1679 23 December 1732 Natural daughter; Duchess of Cadaval through marriage first to Luís Ambrósio de Melo, 2nd Duke of Cadaval, and then to Jaime Álvares Pereira de Melo, 3rd Duke of Cadaval
By Anne Armande du Verger (c. 1660-?)
Miguel of Braganza 15 October 1699 13 January 1724 Natural son
By Francisca Clara da Silva (c. 1650-?)
José of Braganza 6 May 1703 3 June 1756 Natural son; Archbishop of Braga


  1. ^ Linda Frey Marsha The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession Page 335 1995 "Pedro III of Portugal (1648 1706 r. 1683–1706), the third son of João IV, who founded the Braganza ruling dynasty and secured the independence of Portugal from Spain. Pedro was a ruler who loved hunting — both women and animals — and excelled as a horseback rider.
  2. ^ Sousa 1741, Vol VII, p. 664.


  • Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa (in Portuguese) VII. Lisbon: Silviana. 

External links[edit]

Peter II of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 26 April 1648 Died: 9 December 1706
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Luísa de Gusmão
Regent of Portugal and the Algarves
Succeeded by
Catherine of Braganza
Preceded by
Afonso VI
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Succeeded by
John V