Peter Muhlenberg

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Peter Muhlenberg
Peter Muhlenberg2.jpg
United States Senator
from Pennsylvania
In office
March 4, 1801 – June 30, 1801
Preceded by William Bingham
Succeeded by George Logan
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 4th district
In office
March 4, 1799 – March 4, 1801
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's at-large district
In office
March 4, 1793 – March 4, 1795
In office
March 4, 1789 – March 4, 1791
8th Vice-President of Pennsylvania
In office
October 31, 1787 – October 14, 1788
Preceded by Charles Biddle
Succeeded by David Redick
Personal details
Born Johnathan Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg
(1746-10-01)October 1, 1746
Trappe, Pennsylvania
Died October 1, 1807(1807-10-01) (aged 61)
Gray's Ferry, Pennsylvania
Profession minister, politician, soldier
Religion Lutheran
Signature
Peter Muhlenberg Statue by Blanche Nevin at the United States Capitol building.

John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg (October 1, 1746 – October 1, 1807) was an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, and political figure in the newly independent United States. A Lutheran minister, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania.

Early life and education[edit]

Muhlenberg was born to Pennsylvania German parents Anna and Henry Muhlenberg in Trappe, Pennsylvania. He was sent, together with his brothers, Frederick Augustus and Gotthilf Henry Ernst in 1763 to Halle. They were educated in Latin at the Francke Foundations.[1] He left school in 1767 to start as a sales assistant in Lübeck and returned in the same year to Pennsylvania. There he received a classical education from the Academy of Philadelphia, which is today the University of Pennsylvania.

He also served briefly in the German dragoons, earning the nickname "Teufel Piet" (Devil Pete) before returning to Philadelphia. He was ordained in 1768 and headed a Lutheran congregation in Bedminster, New Jersey, before moving to Woodstock, Virginia. In 1770 he married Anna Barbara "Hannah" Meyer, the daughter of a successful potter. Together they had six children.

Muhlenberg visited England in 1772 and was ordained into the priesthood of the Anglican Church although he served a Lutheran congregation. Since the Anglican Church was the state church of Virginia, he was required to be ordained in an Anglican church in order to serve a congregation in Virginia. Besides his new congregation, he led the Committee of Safety and Correspondence for Dunmore County, Virginia. He was elected to the House of Burgesses in 1774, and was a delegate to the First Virginia Convention.

Military career[edit]

Toward the end of 1775, Muhlenberg was authorized to raise and command as its colonel the 8th Virginia Regiment of the Continental Army. After George Washington personally asked him to accept this task, he agreed. However, his brother Fredrick Augustus Muhlenberg, who was also a minister, did not approve of him going into the army until the British burned down his own church in front of him. Then he joined the military himself.

According to a biography written by his great nephew in the mid-19th century,.[2] on January 21, 1776 in the Lutheran church in Woodstock, Virginia, Reverend Muhlenberg took his sermon text from the third chapter Ecclesiastes, which starts with "To every thing there is a season..."; after reading the eighth verse, "a time of war, and a time of peace," he declared, "And this is the time of war," removing his clerical robe to reveal his Colonel's uniform. Outside the church door the drums began to roll as men turned to kiss their wives and then walked down the aisle to enlist, and within half an hour, 162 men were enrolled.[3] The next day he led out 300 men from the county to form the nucleus of the 8th Virginia Regiment. Though it is accepted that Muhlenberg helped form and lead the 8th, historians doubt the account of the sermon, as there are no reports prior to Muhlenberg's great-nephew's biography.[2][4]

Muhlenberg's unit was first posted to the South, to defend the coast of South Carolina and Georgia. In early 1777, the Eighth Regiment was sent north to join Washington's main army. Muhlenberg was made a brigadier general of the Virginia Line and commanded that Brigade in Nathanael Greene's division at Valley Forge. Muhlenberg saw service in the Battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. After Monmouth, most of the Virginia Line was sent to the far south, while General Muhlenberg was assigned to head up the defense of Virginia using mainly militia units.

At the Battle of Yorktown, he commanded the first brigade in Lafayette's Light Division.[5] His brigade was part of the Corps of Light Infantry, consisting of the light infantry companies of the line regiments of Massachusetts (ten companies), Connecticut (five companies), New Hampshire (five companies), and Rhode Island and New Jersey (one each). They held the right flank and manned the two trenches built to move American cannons closer to Cornwallis' defenses. The battalion commanded by French Lieutenant Colonel Jean-Joseph Sourbader de Gimat led the night bayonet attack that stormed Redoubt No. 10 on October 14, 1781.

At the end of the war (1783), he was brevetted to major general and settled in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.

Muhlenberg was also an original member of the Pennsylvania Society of the Society of the Cincinnati.

Political career[edit]

After the war, Muhlenberg was elected to the Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1784. He was elected Vice-President of the Council, a position comparable to that of Lieutenant Governor, on October 31, 1787. His term as Vice-President ended on a mysterious note. On October 14, 1788 the minutes of the Executive Council report that Muhlenberg had left Philadelphia without tendering his resignation—why his resignation was needed or expected is not noted—so a messenger was sent after him. That night, after the messenger returned with the resignation, the Council met at President Benjamin Franklin's home to choose Muhlenberg's successor, electing David Redick to the position.

Muhlenberg was elected to the 1st Congress (1789–1791) as one of the at-large representatives from Pennsylvania. His brother Frederick was the Speaker of the House for that same Congress. He was the first founder of the Democratic-Republican Societies in 1793. Muhlenberg served in Congress as a Republican during the 3rd Congress 1793-1795 and 5th Congress 1799-1801 for the 1st district. Muhlenberg was elected by the legislature to the U.S. Senate on a second ballot in February 1801 over George Logan, but resigned on June 30 of that same year.

President Thomas Jefferson appointed him the supervisor of revenue for Pennsylvania in 1801 and customs collector for Philadelphia in 1802. He served in the latter post until his death.

Muhlenberg died in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania on October 1, 1807 and is buried at the Augustus Lutheran Church in Trappe, Pennsylvania.

Legacy[edit]

Peter Muhlenberg Memorial in Washington, DC on Connecticut Avenue. The inscription reads John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg 1746 – 1807 Serving His Church, His Country, His State.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Archiv der Franckeschen Stiftungen, AF St/S B I 94 I, 575-577
  2. ^ a b "History Detectives Season 5, Episode 5 - Transcript" (PDF). Oregon Public Broadcasting. 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  3. ^ http://www.horseshoe.cc/pennadutch/history/american/revwar.htm
  4. ^ "Muhlenberg a recruiter for the Revolutionary War?". The Lutheran. 2007. 
  5. ^ Hamner, Christopher. Black-Robed Regiment. Teachinghistory.org. Accessed 2 June 2011.
  6. ^ The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, Volume 1. Kentucky State Historical Society. 1903. p. 36. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Daniel Hiester
Member, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania,
representing Montgomery County

October 24, 1785 – October 16, 1788
Succeeded by
Zebulon Potts
Preceded by
Charles Biddle
Vice-President of Pennsylvania
October 31, 1787 – October 14, 1788
Succeeded by
David Redick
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
District Created
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's at-large congressional district

1789–1791
alongside:
George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Thomas Hartley, Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg, Henry Wynkoop, Daniel Hiester and Thomas Scott
Succeeded by
Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg, Thomas Fitzsimons, Thomas Hartley, Israel Jacobs, John W. Kittera, Daniel Hiester, William Findley, and Andrew Gregg
Preceded by
Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg, Thomas Fitzsimons, Thomas Hartley, Israel Jacobs, John W. Kittera, Daniel Hiester, William Findley, and Andrew Gregg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's at-large congressional district

1793–1795
alongside:
Thomas Fitzsimons, John W. Kittera, Thomas Hartley, Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg, James Armstrong, Thomas Scott, Andrew Gregg, Daniel Hiester, William Irvine, William Findley, John Smilie, and William Montgomery
Succeeded by

1st: John Swanwick
2nd: Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg
3rd: Richard Thomas
4th: Samuel Sitgreaves and John Richards
5th: Daniel Hiester
6th: John Andre Hanna
7th: John W. Kittera
8th: Thomas Hartley
9th: Andrew Gregg
10th: David Bard and Samuel Maclay
11th: William Findley
12th: Albert Gallatin

Preceded by
Robert Brown
John Chapman
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Pennsylvania's 4th congressional district

1799–1801
alongside: Robert Brown
Succeeded by
Robert Brown
Isaac Van Horne
United States Senate
Preceded by
William Bingham
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Pennsylvania
1801
Served alongside: James Ross
Succeeded by
George Logan