List of works based on Peter Pan

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Main article: Peter Pan

Peter Pan, his fellow characters, and the setting of Neverland have appeared in many works since the original books and play by J. M. Barrie. The earliest were the stage productions of the play, and an adaptation to silent film, done with Barrie's involvement and personal approval. Later works were authorised by Great Ormond Street Hospital, to which Barrie gave the rights to the Peter Pan works; these include adaptations of the main story in both animated and live-action films, musical stage productions, and a sequel novel. In addition, there have been numerous uses of Barrie's characters, settings, and storylines which challenged or took advantage of the changing copyright status of these elements, including reinterpretations, sequels, prequels, and spin-offs in a variety of media, including film, television series, and books.

When dramatized, the character of Peter has usually—but not always—been played by an adult woman. For boys' roles to be played by women is a convention of the pantomime tradition that was popular when the play was first produced, and was necessitated by laws restricting the use of child actors for evening performances. Later adaptations have often followed this example, for reasons that include tradition, the performance demands of the role, and the marketing advantages of "star" actresses. The roles of Captain Hook and George Darling happened to be played by the same actor in the original production, a tradition which has sometimes been continued in later dramatic adaptations.

Books and publications[edit]

For the original works, see Peter and Wendy.

Books – fiction[edit]

  • The Peter Pan Picture Book (sometimes entitled The Story of Peter Pan), retold by Daniel O'Connor, illustrated by Alice B. Woodward (1907),[1] based on the original stage production of 1904. The text was also published as Peter Pan Keepsake but illustrated with photographs from the first productions.[2] This story differs from Barrie's own 1911 novelisation because he had made several changes to his play and story since it was first staged in 1904.
  • Peter Pan and the Only Children by Gilbert Adair (1987), an unauthorised sequel/prequel novel. This book is written and presented in a format similar to Peter and Wendy, with bound-in color illustrations by Jenny Thorne. It has Peter living with a different gang of Lost Boys under the ocean, recruiting "only children" who jump from passing ships as new members, including the newest: 10-year-old Miranda Porter. They have adventures under the sea, including a duel with Captain Hook which ends indecisively. The narrator suggests at the end that perhaps this is a prequel to the adventure with Wendy Darling, or they take place without sequence. Adair's previous novel was Alice through the Needle's Eye, a sequel to the Alice in Wonderland stories.
  • Neverland by Toby Forward (1989), where Peter Pan, Captain Hook etc. are brought back to life through a computer game. Published by Simon & Schuster when Peter Pan first entered the public domain in the UK, before the copyright was revived in 1995.
  • After the Rain: A New Adventure for Peter Pan by J. E. Somma (1999), an unauthorised sequel novel. Set in modern times, telling of Peter's reaction to a world that has grown to neglect him, and his rescue by three children who teach him that it's OK to grow up. It was published without incident in Canada, where the copyright to Peter Pan was generally agreed to have expired, but Somma and GOSH were in legal dispute when it was published in the U.S. in 2002, where GOSH claimed their copyrights were still valid. They eventually settled out of court.[3]
  • Wendy by Karen Wallace (December 2003), an unauthorised prequel novel for young adults. An attempt to explain the Darling children's willingness to fly away with Peter on the grounds that their home life, up until shortly before Peter appeared, had been filled with abuse and tragedy: a cruel nanny, a criminally irresponsible father, and a suggestion of insanity in the family.
  • The Lost Girls: A Novel by Laurie Fox (January 2004), an unauthorised sequel novel. Follows the interaction of Peter Pan with each generation of Wendy Darling's female descendants, up to a distinctly 21st-century great-great-granddaughter. Published by Simon and Schuster.
  • Capt. Hook: The Adventures of a Notorious Youth by James V. Hart (co-writer of the movie Hook), Brett Helquist (ill.) (2005), an authorised (non-canon) prequel illustrated novel, published by HarperCollins in the US. Details the history of 15-year old James Matthew, young Oppidan Scholar and future Captain Hook. The book portrays the villainous youth in a sympathetic light.
  • The Disney Fairies books by Gail Carson Levine, David Christiana (ill.), a series of spin-off illustrated novels for children. Part of the Disney Fairies franchise, published by Disney Press in the US and HarperCollins in the UK. Introduces a new cast of "Never Fairies", in addition to Tinker Bell. Peter Pan and Captain Hook are mentioned but play very minor roles. Additional chapter books in the series are intended for younger readers, and were written by various authors, focusing on the different characters invented by Levine.[16]
    • Fairy Dust and the Quest for the Egg (2005).
    • Fairy Haven and the Quest for the Wand (July 2007).
  • Peter Pan in Scarlet by Geraldine McCaughrean (October 2006), the official sequel novel. Commissioned by Great Ormond Street Hospital following a competition launched in 2004. It has been sold in 40 different editions in 37 languages. The book is published by Oxford University Press in the UK and Margaret K McElderry (Simon & Schuster) in the US.[17]
  • Tigerheart by Peter David (2008), a novel retelling the Peter Pan stories from another character's perspective, referring to him as "the boy" throughout the novel, and referencing both Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy, with changes to many of the original characters.
  • The Child Thief by artist Gerald Brom (2009), an illustrated novel reinterpreting Peter Pan based on the darker themes in the story as a ruthless figure recruiting children to serve toward his own ends.
  • Another Pan by Daniel Nayeri and Dina Nayeri (2010) a darker version featuring an 18 year old Peter Pan searching for the magic bone dust so he will never grow old. Characters also include Wendy, John and their father George Darling.
  • Tiger Lily by Jodi Lynn Anderson (2012) A reinterpretation focusing on Tiger Lily, narrated by Tinker Bell.

Books - non-fiction[edit]

  • Fifty Years of Peter Pan by Roger Lancelyn Green is an account of the first 50 years in Peter Pan's stage history.[18]
  • J.M. Barrie and The Lost Boys by Andrew Birkin is an account of the meeting and relationship between Barrie and the Llewelyn Davies family, and how Peter Pan came to be created, based on his docudrama The Lost Boys broadcast in 1978.[19]
  • Dr. Dan Kiley popularised the Peter Pan syndrome in his 1983 book, The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up,[20] about individuals (usually male) with underdeveloped maturity; his next book, The Wendy Dilemma (1984), advises women romantically involved with "Peter Pans" how to improve their relationships.[21]
  • Peter Pan on Stage and Screen, 1904-2010 by Bruce Hanson covers the genesis of Peter Pan and its productions in the UK and US. Originally published in 1993 under the title The Peter Pan Chronicles.[22]

Comics[edit]

  • Peter Pank by Spanish cartoonist "Max" (Francesc Capdevila) (1985–1990), an unauthorised comic reinterpretation for "adults only". Peter is a violent, spiked-hair anarchist living in Punkland with a gang of punk Lost Boys. The pirates are a gang of rockers, the Indians are hippies, and the female characters all spend a lot of time bare-breasted, with numerous sexual scenes. It was published in three European-format albums: Peter Pank, El Licantropunk, and Pankdinista.
  • Peter Pan: Return to Never-Never Land by Ron Fortier and Gary Kato (1991), an unauthorised sequel. Peter brings two modern African-American boys to Never-Never Land, published by Malibu Comics under the Adventure Comics imprint, two issues later reprinted in a single volume.[25][26]
  • The Lost by Marc Andreyko, Galen Showman, and Jay Geldhof (1997), an unauthorised sequel comic book. This urban horror-themed mini-series published by Caliber Comics and Chaos! Comics continues the story in present-day New York City, with Peter revealed as a vampire boy hustler who leads a small group of vampire boys including Michael, and lures another girl named Wendy to join them.[27]
  • Lost Boys (ロストボーイズ) by Kaname Itsuki (2004), an unauthorized manga reinterpretation, in which a character based on Peter Pan brings a young man to Neverland to be his father, with romantic themes.[28]

Film[edit]

  • Peter Pan by Paramount Pictures (1924), an authorised silent movie adaptation. Starred Betty Bronson as Peter and Ernest Torrence as Hook. Barrie was involved in this production and wrote a screenplay for it, but Paramount instead used the original stage script, taking dialog from it for the intertitles.[30]
  • Walt Disney's Peter Pan (released on February 5, 1953), an authorised animated adaptation. Disney licensed the film rights to the story in 1939 from Great Ormond St Hospital for Children. It featured music by Sammy Cahn, Frank Churchill, Sammy Fain, and Ted Sears. 15-year-old film actor Bobby Driscoll supplied the voice of Peter. This version contained little of the original dialogue from the play or its novelization.[31]
  • Peter Pan (Питер Пэн) (1987), an unauthorised live-action musical adaptation by Belarusfilm for Soviet television.[32]
  • Peter Pan (1988), an unauthorised Australian direct-to-video animated adaptation.
  • Hook by Steven Spielberg (1991), an authorised live-action sequel. A family action/adventure film starring Robin Williams, Dustin Hoffman, Julia Roberts, Bob Hoskins and Maggie Smith. The film has a grown-up "Peter Banning" who has forgotten his childhood, lured back to Neverland by Captain Hook, who has kidnapped Peter's two young children in an attempt to once again find meaning in his life. Despite mixed reviews by critics, the film was popular with audiences and grossed nearly $120 million in the U.S., making it the 4th highest grossing movie of 1991.[33]
Return to Never Land

With the lapsing copyrights on Peter Pan in various jurisdictions, a number of short unauthorised, low-budget, animated adaptations of the film have been produced.

Radio[edit]

Stage[edit]

Zena Dare as Peter, 1907
Mary Martin as Peter
  • Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (1904). Although Barrie did not intend the play as a pantomime, it has many features in common with this traditional genre of British children's theatre: a boy – played by a woman – as the lead role (known as the "principal boy"), actors in animal costumes, a flamboyant villain, and fantasy themes. (It does not, however, feature the panto staple of a "Dame": a man dressed as a usually grotesque female character.) Its original presentation during the 1904 Christmas/New Year season also fit with the "panto" genre, and beginning the very next season, panto productions based on the play – often featuring popular entertainers (in later years, often TV stars) – have been a regular feature of British theatre, particularly at Christmas. In keeping with the genre, they are staged as full professional productions, but may feature largely original storylines, music, slapstick, improvisation, and audience participation, all intended to amuse children and their parents.
  • Peter Pan (1950), music and lyrics by Leonard Bernstein, an authorised Broadway adaptation. Intended as a musical, it was eventually staged as a "straight" dramatic version with only five songs. This version starred Jean Arthur as Peter Pan, and Boris Karloff in the dual roles of Mr. Darling and Captain Hook. The full score has recently been staged.
  • Neverland (1975), book, music, and lyrics by Jim Steinman, a futuristic musical stage adaptation. Although it only existed as a brief workshop at the Kennedy Center in 1977, three of the songs would be re-worked for the album Bat out of Hell, one of the best-selling recordings in history.[41]
  • Peter Pan (1982), a new version by John Caird and Trevor Nunn, first staged on 10 December 1982 at the Barbican Theatre, London.
  • Peter Pan: The British Musical (1985), book, music and lyrics by Piers Chater Robinson, an authorised musical stage adaptation.[42]
  • Peter Pan (1996), book, music, and lyrics by Philip Glassborow, an authorised musical stage adaptation based on Glassborow's radio musical. The Watermill Theatre in Newbury, Berkshire commissioned a new musical adaptation, following Glassborow's successful BBC radio dramatization.
  • Peter and Wendy (1997) adaptation and lyrics by Liza Lorwin and music by Scottish fiddler, Johnny Cunningham (of Silly Wizard fame). This is a stage production using Bunraku-style puppets performed by avant-garde theatre troupe, Mabou Mines, and actress Karen Kandel, who won an OBIE for her performance. There is a cast recording of the Celtic style music.[44] Mabou Mimes recently revived the original production at the Edinburgh Festival (2009)[45] and in New York at the New Victory Theater (2011).[46]
  • The Terrible Tragedy of Peter Pan (2002) by Phillip C. Klapperich, an ensemble member of The House Theatre of Chicago. This production brings to the fore the darker subtexts of the story, such as the dysfunction of Peter's relationships with Wendy, Tinker Bell, and Tiger Lily, his fear of growing up, and his self-absorption, as he fails to notice those around him being hurt or killed.[47]
  • 'Peter Pan' (2004) by the Chickenshed Theatre Company was a musical stage version of Peter Pan, and was performed to mark the 100th Anniversary of the play. This is also the only performance to date with sign language fully integrated.
  • Peter Pan (2009), originally titled "Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens" a large scale production for which a specially built theatre pavilion with 360 degree surround video was created, script by Tanya Ronder, music by Benjamin Wallfisch, first staged at Kensington Gardens in Summer 2009 within view of the Peter Pan statue. The production opened in the US in May 2010 and has since toured in San Francisco, Orange County, Atlanta, Chicago and Boston.
  • Peter Pan (2009), music by Dan Chambers and lyrics by Dan Chambers and Polly Gibson, book by Polly Gibson, an authorised musical stage adaptation, first staged by the Sinodun Players at the Corn Exchange, Wallingford in July 2009.
  • Peter Pan (2010), stage adaptation by David Greig, first staged by the National Theatre of Scotland at the King's Theatre, Glasgow in April 2010.[48] The action is transposed from Edwardian London to Victorian Edinburgh, and set against a background of construction of the Forth Rail Bridge.
  • Peter Pan, the Boy who Hated Mothers (2010), adapted by Andrew Birkin from J.M. Barrie's original various drafts of the play, novel and screenplay, first staged at the Theatre du Gymnase in Marseille in February 2010 (translated into French by Céline-Albin Faivre), broadcast on Arte TV Channel Christmas 2010.[49]

TV[edit]

  • Producers' Showcase: Peter Pan (March 7, 1955). The 1954 stage version was re-staged for television by NBC as part of its monthly high-quality anthology series Producers' Showcase and broadcast as a historic, live color television event. The production was so well received that Producers' Showcase produced a second live presentation on January 9, 1956, with the same cast. Mary Martin played TV's Peter Pan for the third time on December 8, 1960 with many of the same cast members, and this version of the 1954 musical was recorded on color videotape, and repeated in 1963, 1966, and 1973. It was presented by NBC as a stand-alone special program rather than as part of Producer's Showcase. After 1973, it was presumed lost and not broadcast again until March 1989, after which it eventually appeared a few times on the Disney Channel. It was also released on videocassette and briefly on DVD. In 2000, the Cathy Rigby stage production, featuring almost all of the songs used in the 1954 version, was telecast by the A&E Network and issued on DVD.[51] Peter Pan Live! is a new production of the 1954 version broadcast live on NBC on December 4, 2014 starring Allison Williams as Peter, Christopher Walken as Captain Hook, Kelli O'Hara as Mrs. Darling, Christian Borle as Mr. Darling/Mr. Smee and Minnie Driver as the adult Wendy. Critical reaction was mixed, with many critics expressing relief that the broadcast was not a disaster.[40]
  • Hallmark Hall of Fame: Peter Pan (December 12, 1976). A new TV musical production was broadcast on NBC. It starred Mia Farrow as Peter and Danny Kaye as Captain Hook. It had a new score, with music and lyrics by Anthony Newley and Leslie Bricusse, but did not achieve the success or the popularity that the Mary Martin version had. The screenplay was by Andrew Birkin, who went on to write and direct The Lost Boys, a docudrama for the BBC about Barrie and the Llewelyn Davies boys.[52]
  • Peter Pan no Bōken ("Adventures of Peter Pan", also romanized as "Pîtâ Pan no Bôken") by Nippon Animation (1989), an unauthorized anime television series. Produced as part of Nippon's World Masterpiece Theater series, the first 23 episodes are a loose adaptation of Barrie's story, while the latter half introduces a completely original arc with new supporting characters.[53]
  • Peter Pan and the Pirates on Fox Kids (1990), an animated TV series based on Barrie's novel, presenting the Darling children's other adventures in the Neverland during their stay. The series also focuses on significant development of the pirates as less one-dimensional characters. Voice talents in the cast included Jason Marsden as Peter and Tim Curry as "Captain James T. Hook"; Curry won an Emmy for it.[54]
  • Jake and the Never Land Pirates (February 2011), an Annie Award-winning musical interactive animated Disney Junior show based on the successful Disney franchise, Peter Pan. The series focuses on a band of young pirates consisting of Jake, Izzy, Cubby, and their parrot Skully, who continuously spend their days competing against Captain Hook and Mr. Smee for treasure.
  • Neverland on Syfy Channel and Sky Movies (December 2011), a two-part miniseries that re-imagines the origins of Peter Pan prior to his adventures with Wendy. Here, he (and his friends who would become the Lost Boys) is depicted as being an orphaned pickpocket who was taken in by expert thief and former arms dealer James "Jimmy" Hook as an infant. Directed by Nick Willing, the cast includes Charlie Rowe as Peter Pan, Rhys Ifans as James Hook, Anna Friel as Captain Elizabeth Bonny, Bob Hoskins as Smee, and Keira Knightley as the voice of Tinker Bell.[55]
  • Characters from the Peter Pan story are among the traditional characters featured in Once Upon a Time (2011–present). It is revealed that Pan (Robbie Kay) is the father of Rumpelstiltskin (Robert Carlyle) who became young again after giving up a then young Rumpelstiltskin when they were in Neverland.
  • The New Adventures of Peter Pan (2012–present) is a series of CGI animation French-Indian produced by the DQ Entertainment and Method Animation.

Video games[edit]

Like Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan is particularly well suited to adaptation into video games. In their article “Playing in Neverland: Peter Pan Video Game Revisions,” literary critics Cathlena Martin and Laurie Taylor note that the fluid and playful nature of the story’s original oral format is very similar to the structure of narratives in video games, leading to an ease of translation across media. They also argue that “having [Wendy’s tales] as the driving desire for Peter makes the story easily translated to video games, which often reward players for successful game-play with additional narrative segments.”[56]

  • Kingdom Hearts, a franchise between Square-Enix and Disney on various game systems that features Neverland as a playable world inhabited with various characters from the Peter Pan books and films including Peter Pan, Tinker Bell, Hook and Smee.
  • Disney has released two video games as part of the Disney Fairies franchise, for the Nintendo DS, each a tie-in with a direct-to-DVD feature film of the same name:
    • Tinker Bell (2008)
    • Tinker Bell and the Lost Treasure (2009)

Biographical dramas[edit]

References in other works[edit]

  • In 1980, Petula Clark starred in Never, Never Land as a woman whose niece, captivated by Barrie's tale, runs away and takes refuge with a group of "lost boys" squatting in a deserted London townhouse.
  • In the 1986 Spanish film El río de oro (The Golden River) by Jaime Chávarri, the central character is a man named Peter whose wife Dubarry played the role of Tinker Bell in a theater play some years ago. They had a son, but Peter killed the baby when he was only 3 months old because he thought the boy was growing up too fast.
  • The plot of the 1990 novel An Awfully Big Adventure by Beryl Bainbridge (made into a film in 1995) revolves around a production of the play.
  • Singer/songwriter S. J. Tucker has released three songs called The Wendy Trilogy, chronicling how Wendy joined Captain Hook's crew, dueled him for command, gained great fame in Neverland and beyond, and eventually returned home, passing her legacy on.

References[edit]

  1. ^ O'Connor, Daniel, illustrated by Alice B Woodward. The Peter Pan Picture Book. G. Bell & Sons (1907)
  2. ^ O'Connor, Daniel. Peter Pan Keepsake. Chatto & Windus (1907)
  3. ^ Neverpedia: After the Rain
  4. ^ Book Review: Barry and Pearson: "Peter and the Starcatchers"
  5. ^ ISBN 0-7868-5445-6
  6. ^ "Synopsis". Official Site for PETER AND THE STARCATCHER. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  7. ^ ISBN 0-7868-3787-X
  8. ^ ISBN 978-0-7868-3788-5
  9. ^ ISBN 0-7868-3788-8
  10. ^ Pearson's web site
  11. ^ Barry's web site
  12. ^ NECBA Fall 2006 Reviews
  13. ^ Kidsreads.com, Escape from the Carnivale: A Never Land Book by Dave Barry and Ridley Pearson
  14. ^ Kidsreads.com, Cave of the dark wind : A Never Land Book by Dave Barry and Ridley Pearson
  15. ^ Amazon listing for Blood Tide
  16. ^ Petrecca, Laura (August 26, 2005). "Disney hopes fairies will fly". USA Today. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  17. ^ McCraughrean, Geraldine (2006). Peter Pan In Scarlet. Margaret K. McElderry. ISBN 1-4169-1808-6. 
  18. ^ Lancelyn Green, Roger. Fifty Years of Peter Pan. Peter Davies Publishing (1954)
  19. ^ Birkin, Andrew. J.M. Barrie and The Lost Boys. Constable, 1979; Revised Edition: Yale University Press, 2003
  20. ^ Kiley, Dr. Dan (1983). The Peter Pan Syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up. Avon Books. ISBN 03806888905
  21. ^ Kiley, Dr. Dan (1984). The Wendy Dilemma: When Women Stop Mothering Their Men. Arbor House Publishing. ISBN 9780877956259
  22. ^ Hanson, Bruce. Peter Pan on Stage and Screen, 1904-2010. McFarland (2011)
  23. ^ http://www.lambiek.net/artists/l/loisel.htm
  24. ^ Neverpedia: Peter Pan (BD)
  25. ^ Amazon.com: Peter Pan: Return to Never-Never Land #1 July 1991: Ron Fortier,Gary Kato: Books
  26. ^ Neverpedia: Peter Pan, Return to Never-Never Land
  27. ^ Neverpedia: The Lost
  28. ^ Peterphile: ロストボーイズ
  29. ^ "Peter Pan Syndrome". en.anime-wiki.org. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  30. ^ Peter Pan (1924)
  31. ^ Peter Pan (1953)
  32. ^ Neverpedia: Питер Пэн
  33. ^ Hook (1991)
  34. ^ Return to Never Land (2002)
  35. ^ Peter Pan (2003)
  36. ^ Neverpedia: Neverland (film)
  37. ^ "Levi Miller Tapped to Play Peter Pan in Warner Bros.’ ‘Pan’ (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  38. ^ Peter Pan – a musical by Mark Charlap, Jule Styne, Carolyn Leigh, Betty Comden, Adolph Green and James M. Barrie
  39. ^ Minzesheimer, Bob (September 1, 2004). "Classic story flies in many forms". USA Today. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  40. ^ a b Hetrick, Adam. "The Verdict: Read Reviews of Peter Pan Live! on NBC", Playbill, December 4, 2014
  41. ^ Jimsteinman.com
  42. ^ Peterpanthemusical.com
  43. ^ Peter Pan – Stiles and Drewe Musical
  44. ^ DCtheatrescene.com
  45. ^ Fisher, Mark (September 4, 2009). "Peter and Wendy – Theatre review". The Guardian (London). 
  46. ^ La Rocco, Claudia (May 10, 2011). "‘Peter and Wendy' at New Victory Theater – Review". The New York Times. 
  47. ^ Lucia Mauro's Chicago Theater review of The Terrible Tragedy of Peter Pan
  48. ^ Spencer, Charles (May 14, 2010). "Peter Pan at the Barbican, review". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  49. ^ Lamarseillaise.fr
  50. ^ http://www.rsc.org.uk/whats-on/wendy-and-peter-pan/
  51. ^ Peter Pan (1960) (TV)
  52. ^ Peter Pan (1976) (TV)
  53. ^ "Pîtâ Pan no bôken" (1989)
  54. ^ "Peter Pan and the Pirates" (1990)
  55. ^ Neverland (2011) (TV)
  56. ^ Martin, Cathlena; Laurie Taylor (2006). "9: “Playing in Neverland: Peter Pan Video Game Revisions”". J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan In and Out of Time: A Children’s Classic at 100. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. pp. 177–178.