|Born||Peter George Popoff
July 2, 1946
West Berlin, Germany
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Popoff (1970–present)|
|Children||Amy Cardiff, Nickolas Popoff, Alex Popoff|
Peter Popoff (born July 2, 1946) is a German American televangelist, and self-proclaimed prophet and faith healer. He conducts revival meetings and has a national television program. He initially rose to prominence in the 1980s. In 1986, skeptics James Randi and Alexander (Alec) Jason exposed his method of receiving information about revival attendees from his wife via an in-ear receiver. Popoff declared bankruptcy in 1987. At the time, Popoff’s attorney, William Simon, “attributed the collapse of his ministry to financial mismanagement more than to disclosures about Popoff.” According to Fred M. Frohock, "the case of Peter Popoff is one of many egregious instances of fake healing".
Early life and career
Popoff was born in West Berlin, Germany on July 2, 1946, to George and Gerda Popoff. As a child, Popoff and his family emigrated to the United States, where he attended Chaffey College and University of California, Santa Barbara.
Popoff married his wife Elizabeth in 1970 and the couple settled in Upland, California. He then began his television ministry. By the early 1980s, Popoff had a weekly television program broadcast nationally. He also wrote several paperback books in the early 1980s that were published by Faith Messenger Publications.
In 1985, Popoff came to national attention when he began campaigning for money to help smuggle Bibles into the Soviet Union. He claimed the Bibles would be tied to helium-filled balloons and sent wafting above the Iron Curtain. When he had to account for the money being spent, Popoff staged a burglary at his own headquarters. On subsequent broadcasts of his show, he would tearfully beg for more money to help repair the damage.
Exposed as a fraud by James Randi
During his appearances at church conventions in the 1980s, Popoff routinely and accurately stated the home addresses and specific illnesses of his audience members, a feat many believed was due to divine revelation and "God-given ability". In 1986 when members of CSICOP reported that Popoff was using a radio to receive messages, Popoff denied it and said the messages came from God. At the time of his popularity, skeptic groups across the United States printed and handed out pamphlets explaining how Popoff's feats could be done. Popoff would tell his audience that the pamphlets were "tools of the devil".
Popoff's earlier claims were debunked in 1986 when noted skeptic James Randi and his assistant Steve Shaw researched Popoff by attending revival meetings across the country for months. Randi asked investigator and crime scene analyst Alexander Jason for technical assistance and he was able to use a high-tech (at the time) computerized scanner during a Popoff appearance in San Francisco. Jason intercepted and identified the radio transmissions that were being sent by Popoff's wife Elizabeth Popoff who was backstage reading information which she and her aides (Reeford Lee Sherrell and Pamela Sherrell) had gathered from earlier conversations with members of the audience. Popoff would listen to these promptings with an in-ear receiver and repeat what he heard to the crowd.
Randi then went on to plant impostors in the audience, including a man dressed as a woman pretending to have uterine cancer, of which "she" was "cured". Jason produced video segments showing several Popoff "healings" which included the previously secret audio. After these were shown on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, Popoff's popularity and viewing audiences declined sharply. In September 1987, sixteen months after the Carson airing, Popoff declared bankruptcy, with more than 790 creditors having claims against him.
As Randi explained in The Faith Healers, he originally took his research to the United States Attorney's office, but never heard back from them. This led Johnny Carson to invite Randi on the show to explain how Popoff operated. Popoff at first denied that he used the tactics Randi claimed, even asserting "NBC hired an actress to impersonate Mrs. Popoff on a 'doctored' videotape." However, as the media pressed with more questions, "on day three Reverend Popoff admitted the existence of the radio device, claiming, that 'almost everybody' knew about the 'communicator.' And, he added, 'My wife occasionally gives me the name of a person who needs special prayers'."
During a 2008 interview, Randi explained that he and Shaw had recorded Liz Popoff using a racial slur to describe an African-American audience member to her husband and laughingly telling him to "...keep your hands off [her] tits ... I'm watching you." Randi further revealed that when a man dying from testicular cancer came before Popoff during a crusade, Liz Popoff and her aides were hysterically laughing at his visible tumor.
On several occasions, Popoff would tell his revival attendees to "break free of the Devil" by throwing their medications onto the stage. Dozens of his followers would obey and throw away prescriptions for digitalis, nitroglycerine tablets, oral diabetes medication, and other unidentified pills which might have been vital for the continued survival of those followers. Popoff's shows also featured audience members who were brought on stage in wheelchairs and then rose dramatically to walk without support. These were some of Popoff's most incredible "healings", but what believing audience members and television viewers did not know was that wheelchairs were used by Popoff to seat people who were already able to walk.
In 1991, the NOVA episode "Secrets of the Psychics" aired footage of Popoff with his wife's radio transmission dubbed in. Since then, that episode was released on video to teach critical thinking.
In 1998 The Washington Post reported that Popoff was making a recovery, and that "Popoff is seeking to jump-start his ministry by repackaging himself for an African American audience, buying time on the Black Entertainment Television network". Consequently, Popoff, along with Don Stewart and Robert Tilton, received "criticism from those who say that preachers with a long trail of disillusioned followers have no place on a network that holds itself out as a model of entrepreneurship for the black community." Popoff's infomercials can be seen late nights and early mornings in the US and Canada on BET, Discovery Networks, The Travel Channel, The Learning Channel (TLC), Global Television, TV One, The Word Network and Vision TV. This includes television in Australia on Nine, in the United Kingdom, and New Zealand.
In February 2007, Inside Edition broadcast a feature on Popoff's continued faith healing and Miracle Spring Water. The show claimed that Popoff's new television programs feature him "healing the sick" in a manner identical to his method prior to James Randi's exposé. The investigation, led by Matt Meagher, featured clips from The Tonight Show episode, an interview with Randi, and Inside Edition seeking comment from Popoff. Meagher confronted Popoff as he got into his car, but his microphone was accidentally damaged as Popoff attempted to shut the door of the car. Asking Popoff why he took thousands of dollars from a desperate married couple, Popoff refused to answer questions and declined to be interviewed. The interview ended with Randi saying "flim flam is his profession; that's what he does best. He's very good at it, and naturally he's going to go back to it."
In May 2007, ABC's 20/20 focused on Popoff's comeback and explored the lives of a few people who felt cheated. Various media outlets have run stories critical of Popoff's comeback. In July 2008, a Nanaimo, British Columbia resident was reimbursed by Popoff after the woman took her concerns over his fundraising public.
In 2008, the UK broadcasting regulator Ofcom gave serious warnings to broadcasters for transmitting Popoff's material, which the regulator felt promoted his products "in such a way as to target potential susceptible and vulnerable viewers". These programs included offers of free Miracle Manna that allegedly provide health and financial miracles. If viewers asked for the so-called manna, they were subsequently sent letters asking for money.
In 2009, advertisements appeared in the UK press offering a free cross which contained "blessed water" and "holy sand". The blessed water was supposedly from a source near Chernobyl (the site of a nuclear accident). Animals drinking from this source were purportedly free from any radiation sickness. The cross also bore the inscription 'Jerusalem'. Requests for donations accompanied the cross and follow-up requests for money from Popoff were also sent out. However, when Senator Grassley from Iowa singled out 6 US televangelists for investigation regarding mishandling of finances in the same year, Popoff's ministry was not included.
Popoff was designated by the James Randi Educational Foundation, (JREF) to be one of the recipients of the 2011 Pigasus Award, which exposes fraud, along with Mehmet Oz (from The Dr. Oz Show) and CVS Pharmacy. “Debt cancellation is part of God’s plan,” according to Popoff. Popoff teaches that God will respond to prayer and seed-faith by providing financial blessing. Credit.com wrote a blog post concerning Popoff's claims.
Popoff's longtime assistant Reeford Sherrell, now calling himself Pastor Lee Sherrell, has also begun a televised Texas-based ministry. Like Popoff, he uses an offer of a religious trinket (in this case, a free prayer cloth) to compile an address list. Once a follower requests the prayer cloth and inputs his or her address, letters asking for money are dispatched.
Currently, Popoff's "People United For Christ" has a "Did Not Disclose" rating with the Better Business Bureau. The BBB concluded their review of the organization with the following warning: "Since making his comeback to television, Popoff appears to have resumed his faith healing sessions in a manner identical to his method prior to his exposure as a fraud. If you feel you have been victimized by this organization, please report your experience to the California Attorney General's office or the US Postal Service."
According to Ole Anthony of the Trinity Foundation, which has investigated Popoff and other televangelists since 1987, "Most of these guys are fooled by their own theology [...] He’s fundamentally evil. Because he knows he’s a con man."
In 2003, Popoff's ministry received over $9.6 million and by 2005 the amount had risen to over $23 million. In that year he and his wife were paid a combined total of nearly $1 million, while two of his children were receiving over $180,000 each. Financial data is not available for Popoff's ministry following 2005 because Peter Popoff Ministries changed from a for-profit business to a religious organization in 2006, making it tax-exempt. Popoff purchased a home in Bradbury, California, for $4.5 million in 2007. He reportedly drives a Porsche and a Mercedes-Benz.
In popular culture
The 1992 Steve Martin dramedy film Leap of Faith was inspired by Popoff and his wife's fraudulent ministry. The film's main character is a faith healer who claims to read people's minds but actually receives intimate details about his victims via a small radio. In a small town, the skeptical local sheriff is loosely based on James Randi. The film went on to be adapted into a 2012 Broadway musical of the same name, and was subsequently nominated for the Tony Award for Best Musical.
Popoff was also the inspiration for a character in the 2012 thriller film Red Lights, a psychic who uses information fed to him via a hidden earpiece to persuade the audience at his shows that he is receiving personal details psychically. The film even includes Liz Popoff's infamous line, "Hello Petey, can you hear me? If you can't, you're in trouble", nearly verbatim.
Heavy metal band Death's 1990 album Spiritual Healing was written in response to Popoff being outed as a fraud on The Tonight Show. The album cover features a man with an uncanny resemblance to Popoff 'healing' a woman dying of cancer, while a group of his followers cheer wildly in the background. The lyrics of the title track are addressed directly to Popoff: "Using faith as an excuse to kill/A sick way of life is now revealed/All the prayers in the world can't help you now/A killer, a taker of life is what you are/Speak no more lies/It's your turn to die."
South Park mocks Popoff in the 2000 episode entitled "Probably". Recurring character Cartman begins preaching to the other children on the playground. Soon after, he claims to supernaturally receive messages from God about their ailments and starts holding revival meetings, where he "heals" them by smacking them on the forehead. One of his most miraculous healings occurs when he gets a wheelchair-using boy to walk (though the boy falls over after a few steps). Cartman then tells everyone that God is requesting obedience money donations, and they all obey. Later, Cartman's friends find him backstage at his church, literally swimming in all the cash he received. He confesses to them that he only began preaching because he was desperate to become a millionaire.
- 3 Steps to Answered Prayer. Faith Messenger Publications (1981) ISBN 0-938544-10-1 (91 pages)
- Calamities, Catastrophes, and Chaos. Faith Messenger Publications (1980) ISBN 0-938544-01-2
- Dreams: God's Language for Life More Abundantly. Publisher: People United For Christ (1989)ASIN: B000NSMW2S (88 pages)
- Forecasts for 1987. (1984) ASIN: B000B8K0MY (33 page booklet)
- God Has Promised You Divine Wealth
- God's Abundant Blessings
- Prosperity Thinking
- Releasing the Power of the Holy Spirit in Your Life
- Guaranteed Answered Prayer
- Demons At Your Doorstep. Faith Messenger Publications (May 1982) ISBN 0-938544-13-6 (50 pages)
- Six Things Satan Uses to Rob You of Gods Abundant Blessings. Faith Messenger Publications (April 1982) ISBN 0-938544-11-X (93 pages)
- Randi, James (2008-02-22). "James Randi Educational Foundation daily blog for February 22, 2008". Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- Randi, James (1989). The Faith Healers. Prometheus Books. pp. 2, 147. ISBN 978-0-87975-535-5.
- Blackmore, Susan J. (2000). The Meme Machine. Oxford University Press. p. 193.
- Dart, John (September 26, 1987). "Evangelist Popoff Off Air, Files Bankruptcy Petitions". Los Angeles Times.
- Frohock, Fred M. (2000). Lives of the Psychics: The Shared Worlds of Science and Mysticism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 76–77.
- "UC Santa Barbara Partners in Innovation \ publisher = University of California, Santa Barbara". Retrieved 8 Oct 2013.
- Johnston, David; Leonard, Jennifer (1985-01-20). "Tv Charities: Let The Giver Beware". Los Angeles Times.
- [full citation needed]Friedman, Jason (2006-05-08). "Reverend Rip-Off". WDAF Fox 4 News.
- "TV EVANGELIST DENIES USE OF RADIO IN HEALING SERVICE". Philadelphia Inquirer. July 15, 1986. Retrieved 2009-02-19.
- Amazing Signs (2008-09-20). "False Prophet And Faith Healer – Peter Popoff". Retrieved 2011-06-08.
- Seckel, Al (1987). "God's Frequency is 39.17 MHz: The Investigation of Peter Popoff". Science and the Paranormal. Retrieved 2006-05-06.
- NOVA Teachers (19 October 1993). "Secrets of the Psychics. Program Overview". PBS.
- "White Preachers Born Again on Black Network; TV Evangelists Seek to Resurrect Ministries". The Washington Post. September 3, 1998. Retrieved September 4, 2011.
- "Peter Popoff Worldwide TV Schedule". Peter Popoff Ministries. Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
- "A Profitable Prophet". Inside Edition. February 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Avila, Jim (11 May 2007). "Selling Salvation?". 20/20. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- "Miracle Water: Ripoff or For Real Part II". KIDK. November 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- "Prophet or profit?". KOMO-TV. October 9, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- "Prophet or profit? Televangelist makes comeback". KATU. October 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Sedensky, Matt (21 July 2007). "Abracadabra! The fraud is exposed". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Bellaart, Darrell (July 21, 2007). "Televangelist gives back woman's cash: Nanaimo resident was concerned about Peter Popoff's fundraising methods". Nanaimo Daily News. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- http://www.ofcom.org.uk/tv/obb/prog_cb/obb117/ Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin
- "Senate Panel Probes 6 Top Televangelists". CBS News.
- "Sen. Grassley probes televangelists' finances". USA Today. 2007-11-07.
- Maag, Christopher (21 September 2011). "Scam Everlasting: After 25 Years, Debunked Faith Healer Still Preaching Debt Relief Scam". Retrieved 2011-09-23.
- "People United for Christ". BBB Wise Giving Alliance. Better Business Bureau. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Maag, Christopher (22 September 2011). "Scam Everlasting: After 25 Years, Debunked Faith Healer Still Preaching Debt Relief Scam". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Secrets of the Psychics". NOVA. October 19, 1993. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "Selling Salvation?". ABC News. May 11, 2007. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- French, Chris (2012-06-15). "How true to life are the psychics and psychologists in Red Lights?". The Guardian.
- Smith, Jonathan C. (2010). Pseudoscience and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal: A Critical Thinker's Toolkit. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 289–.
- Nickell, Joe (2007). Adventures in Paranormal Investigation. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 95–102.
|Find more about Peter Popoff at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
Official and critical
- Peter Popoff Ministries – Official website (Warning: sound)
- More of Popoff's Secrets by James Randi (James Randi Educational Foundation,
- Inside Edition from James Randi Educational Foundation, 2007
- Video with fm interception